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THE   SOUTH   POLE 


KdAI.Ii     AMlMiSIA     IN     I'dLAK     KIT, 


Frontis/iicr(,  Vol.  II. 


THE  SOUTH  POLE 

AN    ACCOUNT    OF    THE    NORWEGIAN 
ANTARCTIC  EXPEDITION  IN  THE  "PRAM," 

1910-1912 

BY  ROALD  AMUNDSEN 

TRANSLATED   FROM   THE   NORWEGIAN   BY 

A.  G.  CHATER 


WITH    MAPS    AND    NUMEROUS    ILLUSTRATIONS 

IN  TWO  VOLUMES 
VOL.    II 


LONDON:   JOHN   MURRAY 
NEW^  YORK:   LEE  KEEDICK,  150  NASSAU  STREET 

1913 


Copyright,  1913,  by 
LEE  KEEDICK 


THE  TROW   PRESS 
NEW   YORK 


CONTENTS  OF  VOL.  II 


CHAPTER 

X.  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE  - 

XI.  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

XII.  AT   THE   POLE 

XIII.  THE  RETURN  TO  PRAMHEIM 

XIV.  NORTHWARD 


APPENDIX  I.  :   THE   ' '  FRAM  ' ' 


By  Commodore  Christian  Blom 


PAGE 

1 

41 
107 
135 
176 


XV.    THE   EASTERN   SLEDGE  JOURNEY     -               -                -               -  204 
By  Lieutenant  K.  Prestrud 

XVI.    THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE   ' '  PRAM  "      -                -               -               -  280 
By  First-Lieutenant  Thorvald  Nilsen 

I.    FROM   NORWAY  TO  THE  BARRIER      -                -                -  280 

II.    OFF  THE  BARRIER      -----  290 

III.  FROM  THE  BAY  OP  WHALES  TO  BUENOS  AIRES        -  294 

IV.  THE   OCEANOGRAPHICAL   CRUISE       -                -                -  316 
V.    AT  BUENOS   AIRES     -----  328 

VI.    FROM   BUENOS   AIRES  TO  THE   ROSS  BARRIER             -  331 

VII.    FROM  THE  BARRIER  TO  BUENOS  AIRES,  VIA  HOBART  350 


356 


APPENDIX  II.  :  REMARKS  ON  THE  METEOROLOGICAL  OBSER- 
VATIONS AT  FRAMHEIM  .  -  -  -      372 
By  B.  J.  Birkeland 

V 


vi  CONTENTS  OF  VOL.  II 


PAGE 


APPENDIX  III, :  GEOLOGY  ------      395 

By  J.  Schetelig 

APPENDIX  IV,  :  THE  ASTRONOMICAL  OBSERVATIONS  AT  THE  POLE      399 
By  A,  Alexander,  with  Note  by  Professor  H.  Geelmuyden 

APPENDIX   V,  :    OCEANOGRAPHY     -----      404 
By  Professors  Bjorn  Helland-Hansen  and  Fridtjof  Nansen 

INDEX  -.----.-      439 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  TO  VOL.  II 


TO  FACE  PAGE 

ROALD  AMUNDSEN  IN  POLAR  KIT  -  -  Frontispiece 

A  SNOW  BEACON  ON  THE  BARRIER  SURFACE        -                -  -            4 

Reproduced  by  permission  of  the  Illustrated  London  News 

CREVASSED   SURFACE   ON   THE  BARRIER    -                -                -  -         10 

DEPOT  IN  83°  S.    -               -               -               -               -               -  -        28 

DEPOT  IN  82°  S.     -                -                -                -                -                -  -         28 

AT  THE  DEPOT  IN  LAT.   84°  S.       -                -                -                -  -         32 

ReprodiLced  by  permission  of  the  Illustrated  London  News 

THE  DEPOT   AND  MOUNTAINS  IN  LAT.   85°   S.       -                -  -         34 

ASCENDING    MOUNT   BETTY              -                -                -                -  -         38 

MOUNT  FRIDTJOF  NANSEN,   15,000   FEET   ABOVE   THE  SEA  -         50 

AT  THE  END  OF  A  DAY 's  MARCH  :  THE  POLE  EXPEDITION  -         70 

THE   TENT   AFTER  A  BLIZZARD       -                -                -                -  -         70 

A  LARGE   FILLED   CREVASSE  ON  THE  DEVIL 'S  GLACIER     -  -         84 

hell's   gate   on    THE   DEVIL 's   GLACIER                 -                -  -         86 

Reproduced  by  permission  of  the  Illustrated  London  News 

mount   THORVALD  NILSEN            -              -              -              -  -        90 

Reproduced  by  permission  of  the  Illustrated  London  News 

THE  SLEDGES  PACKED  FOR  THE   FINAL   MARCH                  -  -      106 

TAKING  AN   OBSERVATION    AT    THE   POLE                -                -  -      112 

Reproduced  by  permission  of  the  Illustrated  London  News 
AT   THE  SOUTH  POLE:  OSCAR   W^ISTING   AND  HIS   TEAM   ARRIVE 

AT    THE    GOAL  _-_---      120 

Reprodu<:ed  by  permission  of  the  Illustrated  London  News 

vii 


viii    LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  TO  VOL.  II 

TO  FACE  PAGE 

A  PAGE  PROM  THE  OBSERVATION  BOOK,   DECEMBER  17,   1911    -  130 

AT  THE  SOUTH  POLE,  DECEMBER  16   AND   17,    1911         -                -  134 

MOUNT   DON  PEDRO   CHRISTOPHERSEN      -                -                -                -  156 

Reproduced  by  permission  of  the  Illustrated  London  News 

FRAMHEIM   ON  THE  RETURN   OF  THE  POLAR   PARTY       -                -  174 

LINDSTROM    IN    THE    KITCHEN      -----  174 

FAREWELL   TO   THE   BARRIER          -                -   .            -                -                -  178 

BJAALAND   AS    TINKER        ------  180 

DOGS  LANDED  AT   HOBART   FOR  DR.  MAWSON's  EXPEDITION         -  180 

MEMBERS  OF   THE   JAPANESE   ANTARCTIC  EXPEDITION  -                -  184 

LIEUTENANT   PRESTRUD     ------  204 

AN   ORIGINAL   INHABITANT   OF   THE  ANTARCTIC                  -                -  212 

STUBBERUD   REVIEWS   THE   SITUATION      -                -                -                -  214 

CAMP  ON  THE  BARRIER :   EASTERN   EXPEDITION                  -                -  223 

A    BROKEN-OFF    CAPE          -.-..-  223 

OFF   TO   THE   EAST                 .-----  226 

THE  JUNCTION  OF  THE  GREAT  BARRIER  AND  KING  EDWARD  LAND  232 

Reproduced  by  permission  of  the  Illustrated  London  News 

IMPROVISED   SOUNDING   TACKLE   -----  234 

THE    LEADER    OF    THE    EASTERN    EXPEDITION,    PRESTRUD,     ON 

SCOTT 'S  NUNATAK    ------  248 

FIRST  IN   KING   EDWARD  LAND      -----  254 

IN  KING  EDWARD  LAND  :  AFTER  A  THREE  DAYS '  STORM               -  254 

ON    SCOTT 'S    NUNATAK      ------  258 

SCOTT 'S  NUNATAK    -          -               -               -               -               -               -  258 

THE   "  FRAM   "    AT   THE  ICE-EDGE,    JANUARY,    1912        -                -  268 

THE    "  KAINAN    MARU  "                  -                -                -               -                -  272 

SEALS    ON    SEA-ICE    NEAR   THE   BARRIER                  -                -                -  274 

SEALS:    MOTHER    AND    CALF            -               -               o                .                -  274 

A  GROUP  OF  ADELIE  PENGUINS    -----  278 

A    QUIET    PIPE         -------  278 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  TO  VOL.  II    ix 

TO   PACE   PAGE 

FIRST-LIEUTENANT    THORVALD    NILSEN,    NORWEGIAN   NAVY        -  280 

THE  SECOND  IN   COMMAND   TAKES  A  NAP  -  .  .  284 

THE   "  FRAM  "    SIGHTED  .....  284 

ON    THE   ICE-EDGE,    JANUARY,    1911  .  -  -  .  292 

OUR    LAST    MOORINGS    ON   THE    ICE-FOOT  -  -  -  294 

A  HUNTING  EXPEDITION   AT   THE  FOOT  OF  THE  BARRIER  -  294 

BECK  STEERS  THE  "  FRAM  "   THROUGH  UNKNOWN  WATERS    -  304 

OUR   COOK,    CHEERFUL  AND    CONTENTED  AS   USUAL         -  -  304 


SECTIONAL  DIAGRAMS  OF  THE   *'  FRAM  "  -        At  end  of  Appendix  I 


LIST    OF   MAPS   AND    CHARTS 

FIG.  PAOB 

CHART  OF   THE   IMMEDIATE   SURROUNDINGS  OF   THE   SOUTH 

POLE  ------     To  face     120 

CHART   OF   THE  ROSS   SEA  -  -  -  -  "  344 

CHART   OF    THE   BAY  OF  WHALES         -  -  -  "  350 

1.  HYPOTHETICAL  REPRESENTATION  OF  THE  SURFACE  CURRENTS 

IN   THE   NORTHERN  ATLANTIC   IN   APRIL  -  -      409 

2.  THE  "  FRAM'S  "  ROUTE  FROM  JUNE  20  TO  JULY  7,  1910    -      411 

3.  TEMPERATURE  AND  SALINITY  IN  THE  ' '  FRAM 's  ' '  SOUTHERN 

SECTION,    JUNE,    1910        ....  -      412 

4.  TEMPERATURE  AND  SALINITY  IN  THE  ' '  FRAM 'S  ' '  NORTHERN 

SECTION,    JULY,    1910         ....  -      415 

5.  THE  "  FRAm's  "  STATIONS  IN  THE  SOUTH  ATLANTIC   ( JUNE- 

AUGUST,   1911) 418 

6.  CURRENTS  IN  THE  SOUTH  ATLANTIC   ( JUNE-AUGUST,  1911)       419 

7.  SALINITIES  AND   TEMPERATURES   AT    THE    SURFACE   IN    THE 

SOUTH  ATLANTIC    ( JUNE-AUGUST,    1911)  -  -      420 


X     LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  TO  VOL.  II 

PIG.  PAOZ 

8.  TEMPERATURES   ( CENTIGRADE)  AT  A  DEPTH  OF  400  METRES 

(218   FATHOMS) 423 

9.  TEMPERATURES  AT  STATION  32  (iN  THE  BENGUELA  CURRENT, 

JULY  22,  1911),  AND  AT  STATION  60    (iN  THE  BRAZIL 
CURRENT,  AUGUST   19,   1911)     -  -  -  -      426 

10.  SALINITIES  AT  STATION   32    (iN   THE  BENGUELA  CURRENT, 

JULY  22,  1911),  AND  AT  STATION  60   (iN  THE  BRAZIL 
CURRENT,   AUGUST   19,   1911)     -  -  -  -      427 

11.  SALINITIES  AND  TEMPERATURES  IN  THE  SOUTHERN  SECTION 

(JUNE-JULY,    1911) 429 

12.  SALINITIES  AND  TEMPERATURES  IN  THE  NORTHERN  SECTION 

( JULY-AUGUST,  1911)  .  -  .  .      429 

13.  TEMPERATURES  AT  ONE  OF  THE  "  FRAM 'S  "   AND  ONE  OF 

THE  "  challenger's  "  STATIONS,   TO  THE  SOUTH  OF 

THE   SOUTH    EQUATORIAL  CURRENT  -  -  -      433 

14.  TEMPERATURES  AT  ONE  OF  THE  * '  FRAM  'S  ' '  AND  ONE  OF  THE 

* '  VALDIVIA  'S  ' '  STATIONS,  IN  THE  BENGUELA  CURRENT      435 

15.  TEMPERATURES    AT   THE    *'  PLANET 'S  "    STATION    25,    AND 

THE  ''  FRAM'S  "   STATION  39 — BOTH   IN    THE  NEIGH- 
BOURHOOD OF   ST.    HELENA  _  -  -  -      437 

16.  SALINITIES  AT  THE  "  PLANET 's  "  STATION  25    (MARCH  19, 

1906),   AND  THE  "  FRAM'S  "  STATION   39    (jULY  29, 

1911) 437 

CHART  OF  THE  ANTARCTIC  REGION  -  '  At  end  of  Volume 


THE    SOUTH    POLE 

CHAPTER   X 

THE   START   FOR  THE   POLE 

At  last  we  got  away,  on  October  19.  The  weather  for 
the  past  few  days  had  not  been  altogether  reliable ;  now 
windy,  now  calm — now  snowing,  now  clear:  regular 
spring  weather,  in  other  words.  That  day  it  continued 
unsettled ;  it  was  misty  and  thick  in  the  morning,  and  did 
not  promise  well  for  the  day,  but  by  9.30  there  was  a  light 
breeze  from  the  east,  and  at  the  same  time  it  cleared. 

There  was  no  need  for  a  prolonged  inquiry  into  the 
sentiments  of  the  party.  "  What  do  you  think?  Shall 
we  start?" — "Yes,  of  course.  Let's  be  jogging  on." 
There  was  only  one  opinion  about  it.  Our  coursers 
were  harnessed  in  a  jiffy,  and  with  a  little  nod — as  much 
as  to  say,  "  See  you  to-morrow  " — we  were  off.  I  don't 
believe  Lindstrom  even  came  out  of  doors  to  see  us 
start.  "  Such  an  everyday  affair:  what's  the  use  of 
making  a  fuss  about  it?" 

There  were  five  of  us — Hanssen,  Wisting,  Hassel, 

Bjaaland,   and   myself.     We  had   four   sledges,   with 

VOL.  II.  26 


2  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

thirteen  dogs  to  each.  At  the  start  our  sledges  were 
very  light,  as  we  were  only  taking  supplies  for  the  trip 
to  80°  S.,  where  all  our  cases  were  waiting  for  us;  we 
could  therefore  sit  on  the  sledges  and  flourish  our  whips 
with  a  jaunty  air.  I  sat  astride  on  Wisting's  sledge, 
and  anyone  who  had  seen  us  would  no  doubt  have 
thought  a  Polar  journey  looked  very  inviting. 

Down  on  the  sea-ice  stood  Prestrud  \^dth  the 
cinematograph,  turning  the  crank  as  fast  as  he  could 
go  as  we  went  past.  When  we  came  up  on  to  the 
Barrier  on  the  other  side,  he  was  there  again,  turning 
incessantly.  The  last  thing  I  saw,  as  we  went  over  the 
top  of  the  ridge  and  everything  familiar  disappeared, 
was  a  cinematograph;  it  was  coming  inland  at  full 
speed.  I  had  been  engaged  in  looking  out  ahead,  and 
turned  round  suddenly  to  throw  a  last  glance  in  the 
direction  of  the  spot  that  to  us  stood  for  all  that  was 
beautiful  on  earth,  when  I  caught  sight  of — what  do  you 
think?  A  cinematograph.  "  He  can't  be  taking  any- 
thing but  air  now,  can  he?" — "  Hardly  that."  The 
cinematograph  vanished  below  the  horizon. 

The  going  was  excellent,  but  the  atmosphere  became 
thicker  as  we  went  inland.  For  the  first  twelve  miles 
from  the  edge  of  the  Barrier  I  had  been  sitting  with 
Hassel,  but,  seeing  that  Wisting's  dogs  could  manage  two 
on  the  sledge  better  than  the  others,  I  moved.  Hanssen 
drove  first;  he  had  to  steer  by  compass  alone,  as  the 
weather  had  got  thicker.  After  him  came  Bjaaland,  then 


CAMPING  ARRANGEMENTS  3 

Hassel, and, finally,  Wistingand  I.  Wehad  just  gone  up 
a  little  slope,  when  we  saw  that  it  dropped  rather  steeply 
on  the  other  side;  the  descent  could  not  be  more  than 
20  yards  long.  I  sat  with  my  back  to  the  dogs,  looking 
aft,  and  was  enjoying  the  brisk  drive.  Then  suddenly 
the  surface  by  the  side  of  the  sledge  dropped  perpen- 
dicularly, and  showed  a  yawning  black  abyss,  large 
enough  to  have  swallowed  us  all,  and  a  little  more.  A 
few  inches  more  to  one  side,  and  we  should  have  taken 
no  part  in  the  Polar  journey.  We  guessed  from  this 
broken  surface  that  we  had  come  too  far  to  the  east, 
and  altered  our  course  more  westerly.  When  we  had 
reached  safer  ground,  I  took  the  opportunity  of  putting 
on  my  ski  and  driving  so;  in  this  way  the  weight  was 
more  distributed.  Before  very  long  it  cleared  a  little, 
and  we  saw  one  of  our  mark-flags  straight  ahead.  We 
went  up  to  it;  many  memories  clung  to  the  spot — cold 
and  slaughter  of  dogs.  It  was  there  we  had  killed  the 
three  puppies  on  the  last  trip. 

We  had  then  covered  seventeen  miles,  and  we  camped, 
well  pleased  with  the  first  day  of  our  long  journey.  My 
belief  that,  with  all  in  one  tent,  we  should  manage  our 
camping  and  preparations  much  better  than  before  was 
fully  justified.  The  tent  went  up  as  though  it  arose  out 
of  the  ground,  and  everything  was  done  as  though  we 
had  had  long  practice.  We  found  we  had  ample  room 
in  the  tent,  and  our  arrangements  worked  splendidly  the 
whole  time.      They   were   as   follows:   as   soon   as   we 


4  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

halted,  all  took  a  hand  at  the  tent.  The  pegs  in  the 
valance  of  the  tent  were  driven  in,  and  Wisting  crept 
inside  and  planted  the  pole,  while  the  rest  of  us  stretched 
the  guy-ropes.  When  this  was  done,  I  went  in,  and  all 
the  things  that  were  to  go  inside  were  handed  in  to  me — 
sleeping-bags,  kit-bags,  cookers,  provisions.  Everything 
was  put  in  its  place,  the  Primus  lighted,  and  the  cooker 
filled  with  snow.  Meanwhile  the  others  fed  their  dogs 
and  let  them  loose.  Instead  of  the  "guard,"  we  shovelled 
loose  snow  round  the  tent;  this  proved  to  be  sufficient 
protection — the  dogs  respected  it.  The  bindings  were 
taken  off  all  our  ski,  and  either  stowed  with  other  loose 
articles  in  a  provision-case,  or  hung  up  together  with  the 
harness  on  the  top  of  the  ski,  which  were  lashed  ujiright 
to  the  front  of  the  sledge.  The  tent  proved  excellent 
in  every  way;  the  dark  colour  subdued  the  light,  and 
made  it  agreeable. 

Neptune,  a  fine  dog,  was  let  loose  when  we  had  come 
six  miles  over  the  plain ;  he  was  so  fat  that  he  could  not 
keep  up.  We  felt  certain  that  he  would  follow  us,  but 
he  did  not  appear.  We  then  supposed  that  he  had 
turned  back  and  made  for  the  flesh-pots,  but,  strangely 
enough,  he  did  not  do  that  either.  He  never  arrived  at 
the  station;  it  is  quite  a  mystery  what  became  of  him. 
Rotta,  another  fine  animal,  was  also  set  free;  she  was 
not  fit  for  the  journey,  and  she  afterwards  arrived  at 
home.  Ulrik  began  by  having  a  ride  on  the  sledge;  he 
picked  up  later.    Bjorn  went  limj)ing  after  the  sledge. 


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A  BLIZZARD  5 

Peary  was  incapacitated;  he  was  let  loose  and  followed 
for  a  time,  but  then  disappeared.  When  the  eastern  party 
afterwards  visited  the  depot  in  80°  S.,  they  found  him 
there  in  good  condition.  He  was  shy  at  first,  but  by 
degrees  let  them  come  near  him  and  put  the  harness  on. 
He  did  very  good  service  after  that.  Uranus  and  Fuchs 
were  out  of  condition.  This  was  pretty  bad  for  the  first 
day,  but  the  others  were  all  worth  their  weight  in  gold. 
During  the  night  it  blew  a  gale  from  the  east,  but  it 
moderated  in  the  morning,  so  that  we  got  away  at 
10  a.m.  The  weather  did  not  hold  for  long;  the  wind 
came  again  with  renewed  force  from  the  same  quarter, 
with  thick  driving  snow.  However,  we  went  along 
well,  and  passed  flag  after  flag.  After  going  nineteen 
and  a  quarter  miles,  we  came  to  a  snow  beacon  that  had 
been  erected  at  the  beginning  of  April,  and  had  stood 
for  seven  months;  it  was  still  quite  good  and  solid. 
This  gave  us  a  good  deal  to  think  about:  so  we  could 
depend  upon  these  beacons;  they  would  not  fall  down. 
From  the  experience  thus  gained,  we  afterwards  erected 
the  whole  of  our  extensive  system  of  beacons  on  the  way 
south.  The  wind  went  to  the  south-east  during  the 
day;  it  blew,  but  luckily  it  had  stopped  snowing.  The 
temperature  was  - 11*5°  F.,  and  bitter  enough  against 
the  wind.  When  we  stopped  in  the  evening  and  set  our 
tent,  we  had  just  found  our  tracks  from  the  last  trip; 
they  were  sharp  and  clear,  though  six  weeks  old.  We 
were  glad  to  find  them,  as  we  had  seen  no  flag  for  some 


6  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

time,  and  were  beginning  to  get  near  the  ugly  trap, 
forty-six  and  a  half  miles  from  the  house,  that  had  been 
found  on  the  last  depot  journey,  so  we  had  to  be  careful. 
The  next  day,  the  21st,  brought  very  thick  weather: 
a  strong  breeze  from  the  south-east,  with  thick  driving 
snow.  It  would  not  have  been  a  day  for  crossing  the 
trap  if  we  had  not  found  our  old  tracks.  It  was  true 
that  we  could  not  see  them  far,  but  we  could  still  see  the 
direction  they  took.  So  as  to  be  quite  safe,  I  now  set 
our  course  north-east  by  east — two  points  east  was  the 
original  course.  And  compared  with  our  old  tracks, 
this  looked  right,  as  the  new  course  was  considerably 
more  easterly  than  the  direction  of  the  tracks.  One  last 
glance  over  the  camping-ground  to  see  whether  anything 
was  forgotten,  and  then  into  the  blizzard.  It  was  really 
vile  weather,  snowing  from  above  and  drifting  from 
below,  so  that  one  was  quite  blinded.  We  could  not 
see  far;  very  often  we  on  the  last  sledge  had  difficulty 
in  seeing  the  first.  Bjaaland  was  next  in  front  of  us. 
For  a  long  time  we  had  been  going  markedly  downhill, 
and  this  was  not  in  accordance  with  our  reckoning;  but 
in  that  weather  one  could  not  make  much  of  a  reckon- 
ing. We  had  several  times  passed  over  crevasses,  but 
none  of  any  size.  Suddenly  we  saw  Bjaaland's  sledge 
sink  over.  He  jumped  off  and  seized  the  trace.  The 
sledge  lay  on  its  side  for  a  few  seconds,  then  began  to 
sink  more  and  more,  and  finally  disappeared  altogether. 
Bjaaland  had  got  a  good  purchase  in  the  snow,  and  the 


IN  A  CREVASSE  7 

dogs  lay  down  and  dug  their  claws  in.  The  sledge  sank 
more  and  more — all  this  happened  in  a  few  moments. 
"  Now  I  can't  hold  it  any  longer."  We — Wisting  and 
I — had  just  come  up.  He  was  holding  on  convulsively, 
and  resisting  with  all  his  force,  but  it  was  no  use — 
inch  by  inch  the  sledge  sank  deeper.  The  dogs,  too, 
seemed  to  understand  the  gravity  of  the  situation; 
stretched  out  in  the  snow,  they  dug  their  claws  in,  and 
resisted  with  all  their  strength.  But  still,  inch  by  inch, 
slowly  and  surely,  it  went  down  into  the  abyss.  Bjaaland 
was  right  enough  when  he  said  he  couldn't  hold  on  any 
longer.  A  few  seconds  more,  and  his  sledge  and  thirteen 
dogs  would  never  have  seen  the  light  of  day  again. 
Help  came  at  the  last  moment.  Hanssen  and  Hassel, 
who  were  a  little  in  advance  when  it  happened,  had 
snatched  an  Alpine  rope  from  a  sledge  and  came  to  his 
assistance.  They  made  the  rope  fast  to  the  trace,  and 
two  of  us — Bjaaland  and  I — were  now  able,  by  getting 
a  good  purchase,  to  hold  the  sledge  suspended.  First 
the  dogs  were  taken  out;  then  Hassel's  sledge  was 
drawn  back  and  placed  across  the  narrowest  part  of  the 
crevasse,  where  we  could  see  that  the  edges  were  solid. 
Then  by  our  combined  efforts  the  sledge,  which  was 
dangling  far  below,  was  hoisted  up  as  far  as  we  could 
get  it,  and  made  fast  to  Hassel's  sledge  by  the  dogs' 
traces.  Now  we  could  slack  off  and  let  go:  one  sledge 
hung  securely  enough  by  the  other.  We  could  breathe 
a  little  more  freely. 


8  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

The  next  thing  to  be  done  was  to  get  the  sledge 
right  up,  and  before  we  could  manage  that  it  had  to  be 
unloaded.  A  man  would  have  to  go  down  on  the  rope, 
cast  off  the  lashings  of  the  cases,  and  attach  them  again 
for  drawing  up.  They  all  wanted  this  job,  but  Wisting 
had  it;  he  fastened  the  Alpine  rope  round  his  body 
and  went  dow^n.  Bjaaland  and  I  took  up  our  former 
positions,  and  acted  as  anchors;  meanwhile  Wisting 
reported  what  he  saw  down  below.  The  case  with  the 
cooker  was  hanging  by  its  last  thread;  it  was  secured, 
and  again  saw  the  light  of  day.  Hassel  and  Hanssen 
attended  to  the  hauling  up  of  the  cases,  as  Wisting  had 
them  ready.  These  two  fellows  moved  about  on  the 
brink  of  the  chasm  with  a  coolness  that  I  regarded  at 
first  with  approving  eyes.  I  admire  courage  and  con- 
tempt for  danger.  But  the  length  to  which  they  carried 
it  at  last  was  too  much  of  a  good  thing;  they  were 
simply  playing  hide-and-seek  with  Fate.  Wisting's  in- 
formation from  below — that  the  cornice  thev  were 
standing  on  was  only  a  few  inches  thick — did  not  seem 
to  have  the  slightest  effect  on  them;  on  the  contrary, 
they  seemed  to  stand  all  the  more  securely. 

"  We've  been  luckj^"  said  Wisting;  *'  this  is  the  only 
place  where  the  crevasse  is  narrow  enough  to  put  a 
sledge  across.  If  we  had  gone  a  little  more  to  the 
left " — Hanssen  looked  eagerly  in  that  direction — 
'*  none  of  us  would  have  escaped.  There  is  no  surface 
there;  only  a  crust  as  thin  as  paper.     It  doesn't  look 


IN  THE  TRAP  9 

very  inviting  down  below,  either;  immense  spikes  of  ice 
sticking  up  everywhere,  which  would  spit  you  before 
you  got  very  far  down." 

This  description  was  not  attractive;  it  was  well  we 
had  found  "  such  a  good  place."  Meanwhile  Wisting 
had  finished  his  work,  and  was  hauled  up.  When  asked 
whether  he  was  not  glad  to  be  on  the  surface  again,  he 
answered  with  a  smile  that  "  it  was  nice  and  warm 
down  there."  We  then  hauled  the  sledge  up,  and  for 
the  time  being  all  was  well.  "  But,"  said  Hassel,  "  we 
must  be  careful  going  along  here,  because  I  was  just 
on  the  point  of  going  in  when  Hanssen  and  I  were 
bringing  up  the  sledge."  He  smiled  as  though  at  a 
happy  memory.  Hassel  had  seen  that  it  was  best  to 
be  careful.  There  was  no  need  to  look  for  crevasses; 
there  was  literally  nothing  else  to  be  seen. 

There  could  be  no  question  of  going  farther  into  the 

trap,  for  we  had  long  ago  come  to  the  conclusion  that, 

in  spite  of  our  precautions,  we  had  arrived  at  this  ugly 

place.    We  should  have  to  look  about  for  a  place  for 

the  tent,  but  that  was  easier  said  than  done.     There 

was  no  possibility  of  finding  a  place  large  enough  for 

both  the  tent  and  the  guy-ropes;  the  tent  was  set  up 

on  a  small,  apparently  solid  spot,  and  the  guys  stretched 

across  crevasses  in  all  directions.     We  were  beginning 

to  be  quite  familiar  with  the  place.     That  crevasse  ran 

there  and  there,  and  it  had  a  side-fissure  that  went  so 

and  so — just  like  schoolboys  learning  a  lesson. 

VOL.  II.  27 


10  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

Meanwhile  we  had  brought  all  our  things  as  far  as 
possible  into  a  place  of  safety;  the  dogs  lay  harnessed 
to  reduce  the  risk  of  losing  them.  Wisting  was  just 
going  over  to  his  sledge — he  had  gone  the  same  way 
several  times  before — when  suddenly  I  saw  nothing  but 
his  head,  shoulders  and  arms  above  the  snow.  He  had 
fallen  through,  but  saved  himself  by  stretching  his  arms 
out  as  he  fell.  The  crevasse  was  bottomless,  like  the 
rest.  We  went  into  the  tent  and  cooked  lobscouse. 
Leaving  the  weather  to  take  care  of  itself,  we  made 
ourselves  as  comfortable  as  we  could.  It  was  then  one 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon.  The  wind  had  fallen  con- 
siderably since  we  came  in,  and  before  we  knew  what 
was  happening,  it  was  perfectly  calm.  It  began  to 
brighten  a  little  about  three,  and  we  went  out  to  look 
at  it. 

The  weather  was  evidently  improving,  and  on  the 
northern  horizon  there  was  a  sign  of  blue  sky.  On  the 
south  it  was  thick.  Far  off,  in  the  densest  part  of  the 
mist,  we  could  vaguely  see  the  outline  of  a  dome-like 
elevation,  and  Wisting  and  Hanssen  went  off  to  ex- 
amine it.  The  dome  turned  out  to  be  one  of  the  small 
haycock  formations  that  we  had  seen  before  in  this 
district.  They  struck  at  it  with  their  poles,  and — just 
as  they  expected — it  was  hollow,  and  revealed  the 
darkest  abyss.  Hanssen  was  positively  chuckling  with 
delight  when  he  told  us  about  it;  Hassel  sent  him  an 
envious  glance. 


;S 


c 


S 


•z, 
o 

H 


Q 
H 
•/I 

o 


\ 


HANSSEN'S  REGRETS  11 

By  4  p.m.  it  cleared,  and  a  small  reconnoitring  party, 
composed  of  three,  started  to  find  a  way  out  of  this.  I 
was  one  of  the  three,  so  we  had  a  long  Alpine  rope 
between  us;  I  don't  like  tumbling  in,  if  I  can  avoid  it 
by  such  simple  means.  We  set  out  to  the  east — ^the 
direction  that  had  brought  us  out  of  the  same  broken 
ground  before — and  we  had  not  gone  more  than  a  few 
paces  when  we  were  quite  out  of  it.  It  was  now  clear 
enough  to  look  about  us.  Our  tent  stood  at  the  north- 
eastern corner  of  a  tract  that  was  full  of  hummocks; 
we  could  decide  beyond  a  doubt  that  this  was  the 
dreaded  trap.  We  continued  a  little  way  to  the  east 
until  we  saw  our  course  clearly,  and  then  returned  to 
camp.  We  did  not  waste  much  time  in  getting  things 
ready  and  leaving  the  place.  It  was  a  genuine  relief 
to  find  ourselves  once  more  on  good  ground,  and  we 
resumed  our  journey  southward  at  a  brisk  pace. 

That  we  were  not  quite  out  of  the  dangerous  zone 
was  shown  by  a  number  of  small  hummocks  to  the 
south  of  us.  They  extended  across  our  course  at  right 
angles.  We  could  also  see  from  some  long  but  narrow 
crevasses  we  crossed  that  we  must  keep  a  good  look- 
out. When  we  came  into  the  vicinity  of  the  line  of 
hummocks  that  lay  in  our  course,  we  stopped  and  dis- 
cussed our  prospects.  "  We  shall  save  a  lot  of  time  by 
going  straight  on  through  here  instead  of  going  round," 
said  Hanssen.  I  had  to  admit  this;  but,  on  the  other 
hand,  the  risk  was  much  greater.    "  Oh,  let's  try  it,"  he 


12  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

went  on;  "if  we  can't  do  it,  we  can't."  I  was  weak, 
and  allowed  myself  to  be  persuaded,  and  away  we  went 
among  the  haycocks.  I  could  see  how  Hanssen  was 
enjoying  himself;  this  was  just  what  he  wanted.  We 
went  faster  and  faster.  Curiously  enough,  we  passed 
several  of  these  formations  without  noticing  anything, 
and  began  to  hope  that  we  should  get  through.  Then 
suddenly  Hanssen's  three  leading  dogs  disappeared,  and 
the  others  stopped  abruptly.  He  got  them  hauled  up 
without  much  trouble  and  came  over.  We  others,  who 
were  following,  crossed  without  accident,  but  our  further 
progress  seemed  doubtful,  for  after  a  few  more  paces 
the  same  three  dogs  fell  in  again.  We  were  now  in 
exactly  the  same  kind  of  place  as  before;  crevasses  ran 
in  every  direction,  like  a  broken  pane  of  glass.  I  had 
had  enough,  and  would  take  no  more  part  in  this  death- 
ride.  I  announced  decisively  that  we  must  turn  back, 
follow  our  tracks,  and  go  round  it  all.  Hansen  looked 
quite  disappointed.  "  Well,"  he  said,  "  but  we  shall  be 
over  it  directly."  "I  dare  say  we  shall,"  I  replied; 
"  but  we  must  go  back  first."  This  was  evidently  hard 
on  him;  there  was  one  formation  in  particular  that 
attracted  him,  and  he  wanted  to  try  his  strength  with 
it.  It  was  a  pressure-mass  that,  as  far  as  appearance 
went,  might  just  as  well  have  been  formed  out  in  the 
drift-ice.  It  looked  as  if  it  was  formed  of  four  huge 
lumps  of  ice  raised  on  end  against  each  other.  We 
knew  what  it  contained  without  examination — a  yawn- 


BACK  ON  THE  LINE  13 

ing  chasm.  Hanssen  cast  a  last  regretful  glance  upon 
it,  and  then  turned  back. 

We  could  now  see  all  our  surroundings  clearly.  This 
place  lay,  as  we  had  remarked  before,  in  a  hollow;  we 
followed  it  round,  and  came  up  the  rise  on  the  south 
without  accident.  Here  we  caught  sight  of  one  of  our 
flags ;  it  stood  to  the  east  of  us,  and  thus  confirmed  our 
suspicion  that  we  had  been  going  too  far  to  the  west. 
We  had  one  more  contact  with  the  broken  ground, 
having  to  cross  some  crevasses  and  pass  a  big  hole;  but 
then  it  was  done,  and  we  could  once  more  rejoice  in 
having  solid  ice  beneath  us.  Hanssen,  however,  was 
not  satisfied  till  he  had  been  to  look  into  the  hole.  In 
the  evening  we  reached  the  two  snow-huts  we  had  built 
on  the  last  trip,  and  we  camped  there,  twenty-six  miles 
from  the  depot.  The  huts  were  drifted  up  with  snow, 
so  we  left  them  in  peace,  and  as  the  weather  was  now 
so  mild  and  fine,  we  preferred  the  tent. 

It  had  been  an  eventful  day,  and  we  had  reason  to 
be  satisfied  that  we  had  come  off  so  easily.  The  going 
had  been  good,  and  it  had  all  gone  like  a  game.  When 
we  started  the  next  morning  it  was  overcast  and  thick, 
and  before  we  had  gone  very  far  we  were  in  the  midst 
of  a  south-wester,  with  snow  so  thick  that  we  could 
hardly  see  ten  sledge-lengths  ahead  of  us.  We  had 
intended  to  reach  the  depot  that  day,  but  if  this  con- 
tinued, it  was  more  than  doubtful  whether  we  should 
find  it.    Meanwhile  we  put  on  the  pace.    It  was  a  long 


14     THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

way  on,  so  there  was  no  danger  of  driving  past  it. 
During  this  while  it  had  remained  clear  in  the  zenith, 
and  we  had  been  hoping  that  the  wind  and  snow  would 
cease;  but  we  had  no  such  luck — it  increased  rather 
than  dropped.  Our  best  sledge-meter — one  we  knew 
we  could  depend  on — was  on  Wisting's  sledge ;  therefore 
he  had  to  check  the  distance.  At  1.30  p.m.  he  turned 
round  to  me,  and  pointed  out  that  we  had  gone  the  exact 
distance;  I  called  out  to  Hanssen  to  use  his  eyes  well. 
Then,  at  that  very  moment,  the  depot  showed  up  a  few 
sledge-lengths  to  the  left  of  us,  looking  like  a  regular 
palace  of  snow  in  the  thick  air.  This  was  a  good  test 
both  for  the  sledge-meter  and  the  compass.  We  drove 
up  to  it  and  halted.  There  were  three  important  points 
to  be  picked  up  on  our  way  south,  and  one  of  them  was 
found ;  we  were  all  glad  and  in  good  spirits. 

The  ninety-nine  miles  from  Framheim  to  this  point 
had  been  covered  in  four  marches,  and  we  could  now 
rest  our  dogs,  and  give  them  as  much  seal's  flesh  as  they 
were  capable  of  eating.  Thus  far  the  trip  had  been  a 
good  one  for  the  animals;  with  one  exception,  they  were 
all  in  the  best  condition.  This  exception  was  Uranus. 
We  had  never  been  able  to  get  any  fat  on  his  bones ;  he 
remained  thin  and  scraggy,  and  awaited  his  death  at  the 
depot,  a  little  later,  in  82°  S.  If  Uranus  was  lanky  to 
look  at,  the  same  could  not  be  said  of  Jaala,  poor  beast! 
In  spite  of  her  condition,  she  struggled  to  keep  up ;  she 
did  her  utmost,  but  unless  her  dimensions  were  reduced 


AT  THE  DEPOT  15 

before  we  left  82°  S.,  she  would  have  to  accompany 
Uranus  to  another  world. 

The  cases  of  provisions  and  outfit  that  we  had  left 
here  on  the  last  trip  were  almost  entirely  snowed  under, 
but  it  did  not  take  long  to  dig  them  out.    The  first 
thing  to  be  done  was  to  cut  up  the  seals  for  the  dogs. 
These  grand  pieces  of  meat,  with  the  blubber  attached, 
did  not  have  to  be  thrown  at  the  dogs;  they  just  helped 
themselves  as  long  as  there  was  any  meat  cut  up,  and 
when  that  was  finished,  they  did  not  hesitate  to  attack 
the  "  joint."    It  was  a  pleasure  to  see  them,  as  they  lay 
all  over  the  place,  enjoying  their  food;  it  was  all  so 
deUghtfully  calm  and  peaceful,  to  begin  with.    They 
were  all  hungry,  and  thought  of  nothing  but  satisfying 
their  immediate  cravings ;  but  when  this  was  done  there 
was  an  end  of  the  truce.    Although  Hai  had  only  half 
finished  his  share,  he  must  needs  go  up  to  Rap  and  take 
away  the  piece  he  was  eating.     Of  course,  this  could 
not  happen  without  a  great  row,  which  resulted  in  the 
appearance  of  Hanssen ;  then  Hai  made  himself  scarce. 
He  was  a  fine  dog,  but  fearfully  obstinate;  if  he  had 
once  taken  a  thing  into  his  head,  it  was  not  easy  to 
make  him  give  it  up.    On  one  of  our  depot  journeys  it 
happened  that  I  was  feeding  Hanssen's  dogs.    Hai  had 
made  short  work  of  his  pemmican,  and  looked  round  for 
more.     Ah!  there  was  Rap  enjoying  his — that  would 
just  do  for  him.    In  a  flash  Hai  was  upon  him,  forced 
him  to  give  up  his  dinner,  and  was  about  to  convert  it 


16     THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

to  his  own  use.  Meanwhile  I  had  witnessed  the  whole 
scene,  and  before  Hai  knew  anything  about  it,  I  was 
upon  him  in  turn.  I  hit  him  over  the  nose  with  the 
whip-handle,  and  tried  to  take  the  pemmican  from  him, 
but  it  was  not  so  easy.  Neither  of  us  would  give  in, 
and  soon  we  were  both  rolling  over  and  over  in  the 
snow  struggling  for  the  mastery.  I  came  off  victorious 
after  a  pretty  hot  fight,  and  Rap  got  his  dinner  again. 
Any  other  dog  would  have  dropped  it  at  once  on  being 
hit  over  the  nose,  but  not  Hai. 

It  was  a  treat  to  get  into  the  tent;  the  day  had  been 
a  bitter  one.  During  the  night  the  wind  went  round 
to  the  north,  and  all  the  snow  that  had  been  blown 
northward  by  the  wind  of  the  previous  day  had  nothing 
to  do  but  to  come  back  again;  the  road  was  free.  And 
it  made  the  utmost  use  of  its  opportunity;  nothing 
could  be  seen  for  driving  snow  when  we  turned  out 
next  morning.  We  could  only  stay  where  we  were, 
and  console  ourselves  with  the  thought  that  it  made  no 
difference,  as  it  had  been  decided  that  we  were  to  remain 
here  two  days.  But  staying  in  a  tent  all  day  is  never 
very  amusing,  especially  when  one  is  compelled  to  keep 
to  one's  sleeping-bag  the  whole  time.  You  soon  get 
tired  of  talking,  and  you  can't  write  all  day  long,  either. 
Eating  is  a  good  way  of  passing  the  time,  if  you  can 
afford  it,  and  so  is  reading,  if  you  have  anything  to 
read;  but  as  the  menu  is  limited,  and  the  library  as 
a  rule  somewhat  deficient  on  a  sledging  trip,  these  two 


THE  SLEDGE-LOADS  17 

expedients  fall  to  the  ground.  There  is,  however,  one 
form  of  entertainment  that  may  be  indulged  in  under 
these  circumstances  without  scruple,  and  that  is  a  good 
nap.  Happy  the  man  who  can  sleep  the  clock  round 
on  days  like  these;  but  that  is  a  gift  that  is  not  vouch- 
safed to  all,  and  those  who  have  it  will  not  own  up  to 
it.  I  have  heard  men  snore  till  I  was  really  afraid  they 
would  choke,  but  as  for  acknowledging  that  they  had 
been  asleep — never!  Some  of  them  even  have  the 
coolness  to  assert  that  they  suffer  from  sleeplessness,  but 
it  was  not  so  bad  as  that  with  any  of  us. 

In  the  course  of  the  day  the  wind  dropped,  and  we 
went  out  to  do  some  work.  We  transferred  the  old 
depot  to  the  new  one.  We  now  had  here  three  com- 
plete sledge-loads,  for  which  there  would  be  little  use, 
and  which,  therefore,  were  left  behind.  The  eastern 
party  availed  themselves  of  part  of  these  supplies  on 
their  journey,  but  not  much.  This  depot  is  a  fairly 
large  one,  and  might  come  in  useful  if  anyone  should 
think  of  exploring  the  region  from  King  Edward  Land 
southward.  As  things  were,  we  had  no  need  of  it.  At 
the  same  time  the  sledges  were  packed,  and  when  evening 
came  everything  was  ready  for  our  departure.  There  had 
really  been  no  hurry  about  this,  as  we  were  going  to  stay 
here  on  the  following  day  as  well;  but  one  soon  learns 
in  these  regions  that  it  is  best  to  take  advantage  of  good 
weather  when  you  have  it — you  never  know  how  long 
it  will  last.      There  was,  however,  nothing  to  be  said 


18     THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

about  the  day  that  followed;  we  could  doze  and  doze  as 
much  as  we  liked.  The  work  went  on  regularly,  never- 
theless. The  dogs  gnawed  and  gnawed,  storing  up 
strength  with  every  hour  that  went  by. 

We  will  now  take  a  trip  out  to  our  loaded  sledges, 
and  see  what  they  contain.  Hanssen's  stands  first,  bow 
to  the  south;  behind  it  come  Wisting's,  Bjaaland's  and 
Hassel's.  They  all  look  pretty  much  alike,  and  as 
regards  provisions  their  loads  are  precisely  similar. 

Case  No.  1  contains  about  5,300  biscuits,  and  weighs 
111  pounds. 

Case  No.  2:  112  rations  of  dogs'  pemmican;  11  bags 
of  dried  milk,  chocolate,  and  biscuits.  Total  gross 
weight,  177  pounds. 

Case  No.  3:  124  rations  of  dogs'  pemmican;  10  bags 
of  dried  milk  and  biscuits.    Gross  weight,  161  pounds. 

Case  No.  4 :  39  rations  of  dogs'  pemmican ;  86  rations 
of  men's  pemmican;  9  bags  of  dried  milk  and  biscuits. 
Gross  weight,  165  pounds. 

Case  No.  5 :  96  rations  of  dogs'  pemmican.  Weight, 
122  pounds. 

Total  net  weight  of  provisions  per  sledge,  668 
pounds. 

With  the  outfit  and  the  weight  of  the  sledge  itself, 
the  total  came  to  pretty  nearly  880  pounds. 

Hanssen's  sledge  differed  from  tlie  others,  in  that  it 
had  aluminium  fittings  instead  of  steel  and  no  sledge- 
meter,  as  it  had  to  be  free  from  iron  on  account  of  the 


EQUIPMENT  19 

steering-compass  he  carried.  Each  of  the  other  three 
sledges  had  a  sledge-meter  and  compass.  We  were 
thus  equipped  with  three  sledge-meters  and  four  com- 
passes. The  instruments  we  carried  were  two  sextants 
and  three  artificial  horizons — two  glass  and  one  mercury 
— a  hypsometer  for  measuring  heights,  and  one  aneroid. 
For  meteorological  observations,  four  thermometers. 
Also  two  pairs  of  binoculars.  We  took  a  little  travel- 
ling case  of  medicines  from  Burroughs  Wellcome  and 
Co.  Our  surgical  instruments  were  not  many :  a  dental 
forceps  and — a  beard-clipper.  Our  sewing  outfit  was 
extensive.  We  carried  a  small,  very  light  tent  in 
reserve;  it  would  have  to  be  used  if  any  of  us  were 
obliged  to  turn  back.  We  also  carried  two  Primus 
lamps.  Of  paraffin  we  had  a  good  supply:  twenty-two 
and  a  half  gallons  divided  among  three  sledges.  We 
kept  it  in  the  usual  cans,  but  they  proved  too  weak; 
not  that  we  lost  any  paraffin,  but  Bjaaland  had  to  be 
constantly  soldering  to  keep  them  tight.  We  had 
a  good  soldering  outfit.  Every  man  carried  his  own 
personal  bag,  in  which  he  kept  reserve  clothing,  diaries 
and  observation  books.  We  took  a  quantity  of  loose 
straps  for  spare  ski-bindings.  We  had  double  sleeping- 
bags  for  the  first  part  of  the  time;  that  is  to  say,  an 
inner  and  an  outer  one.  There  were  five  watches 
among  us,  of  which  three  were  chronometer  watches. 

We  had  decided  to  cover  the  distance  between  80° 
and  82°  S.  in  daily  marches  of  seventeen  miles.     We 


20  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

could  easily  have  done  twice  this,  but  as  it  was  more 
important  to  arrive  than  to  show  great  speed,  we 
limited  the  distance;  besides  which,  here  between  the 
depots  we  had  sufficient  food  to  allow  us  to  take  our 
time.  We  were  interested  in  seeing  how  the  dogs 
would  manage  the  loaded  sledges.  We  expected  them 
to  do  well,  but  not  so  well  as  they  did. 

On  October  25  we  left  80°  S.  with  a  light  north-westerly 
breeze,  clear  and  mild.  I  was  now  to  take  up  my 
position  in  advance  of  the  sledges,  and  placed  myself 
a  few  paces  in  front  of  Hanssen's,  with  my  ski  pointing 
in  the  right  direction.  A  last  look  behind  me:  "All 
ready?"  and  away  I  went.  I  thought — no;  I  didn't 
have  time  to  think.  Before  I  knew  anything  about  it, 
I  was  sent  flying  by  the  dogs.  In  the  confusion  that 
ensued  they  stopped,  luckily,  so  that  I  escaped  without 
damage,  as  far  as  that  went.  To  tell  the  truth,  I  was 
angry,  but  as  I  had  sense  enough  to  see  that  the  situation, 
already  sufficiently  comic,  would  be  doubly  ridiculous  if 
I  allowed  my  annoyance  to  show  itself,  I  wisely  kept 
quiet.  And,  after  all,  whose  fault  was  it?  I  was  really 
the  only  one  to  blame;  why  in  the  world  had  I  not  got 
away  faster?  I  now  changed  my  plan  entirely — there 
is  nothing  to  be  ashamed  of  in  that,  I  hope — and  fell  in 
with  the  awkward  squad;  there  I  was  more  successful. 
"All  ready?  Go!"  And  go  they  did.  First  Hanssen 
went  off  like  a  meteor;  close  behind  him  came  Wisting, 
and  then  Bjaaland  and  Hassel.     They  all  had  ski  on, 


SKI-DRIVING  21 

and  were  driving  with  a  line.  I  had  made  up  my  mind 
to  follow  in  the  rear,  as  I  thought  the  dogs  would  not 
keep  this  up  for  long,  but  I  soon  had  enough  of  it. 
We  did  the  first  six  and  a  quarter  miles  in  an  hour. 
I  thought  that  would  do  for  me,  so  I  went  up  to 
Wisting,  made  a  rope  fast  to  his  sledge,  and  there 
I  stood  till  we  reached  85°  5'  S. — three  hundred  and 
forty  miles.  Yes;  that  was  a  pleasant  surprise.  We 
had  never  dreamed  of  anything  of  the  sort — driving  on 
ski  to  the  Pole!  Thanks  to  Hanssen's  brilliant  talents 
as  a  dog-driver,  we  could  easily  do  this.  He  had  his 
dogs  well  in  hand,  and  they  knew  their  master.  They 
knew  that  the  moment  they  failed  to  do  their  duty  they 
would  be  pulled  up,  and  a  hiding  all  round  would 
follow.  Of  course,  as  always  happens,  Nature  occasion- 
ally got  the  better  of  discipline;  but  the  "confirma- 
tion "  that  resulted  checked  any  repetition  of  such 
conduct  for  a  long  while.  The  day's  march  was  soon 
completed  in  this  way,  and  we  camped  early. 

On  the  following  day  we  were  already  in  sight  of  the 
large  pressure-ridges  on  the  east,  which  we  had  seen  for 
the  first  time  on  the  second  depot  journey  between  81° 
and  82°  S.,  and  this  showed  that  the  atmosphere  must 
be  very  clear.  We  could  not  see  any  greater  number 
than  the  first  time,  however.  From  our  experience  of 
beacons  built  of  snow,  we  could  see  that  if  we  built  such 
beacons  now,  on  our  way  south,  they  would  be  splendid 
marks  for  our  return  journey;  we  therefore  decided  to 


22  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

adopt  this  system  of  landmarks  to  the  greatest  possible 
extent.  We  built  in  all  150  beacons,  6  feet  high,  and 
used  in  their  construction  9,000  blocks,  cut  out  of  the 
snow  with  specially  large  snow-knives.  In  each  of  them 
was  deposited  a  paper,  giving  the  number  and  position 
of  the  beacon,  and  indicating  the  distance  and  the 
direction  to  be  taken  to  reach  the  next  beacon  to  the 
north.  It  may  appear  that  my  prudence  was  exag- 
gerated, but  it  always  seemed  to  me  that  one  could  not 
be  too  careful  on  this  endless,  uniform  surface.  If  we 
lost  our  way  here,  it  would  be  difficult  enough  to  reach 
home.  Besides  which,  the  building  of  these  beacons 
had  other  advantages,  which  we  could  all  see  and 
appreciate.  Every  time  we  stopped  to  build  one,  the 
dogs  had  a  rest,  and  they  wanted  this,  if  they  were  to 
keep  up  the  pace. 

We  erected  the  first  beacon  in  80°  23'  S.  To  begin 
with,  we  contented  ourselves  with  putting  them  up  at 
every  thirteenth  or  fifteenth  kilometre.  On  the  29th 
we  shot  the  first  dog,  Hanssen's  Bone.  He  was  too 
old  to  keep  up,  and  was  only  a  hindrance.  He  was 
placed  in  depot  under  a  beacon,  and  was  a  great  joy  to 
us — or  rather  to  the  dogs — later  on. 

On  the  same  day  we  reached  the  second  important 
point — the  depot  in  81°  S.  Our  course  took  us  very 
slightly  to  the  east  of  it.  The  small  pieces  of  packing- 
case  that  had  been  used  as  marks  on  each  side  of  the 
depot  could  be  seen  a  long  way  off.     On  a  subsequent 


HANSSEN  IN  A  CREVASSE  23 

examination  they  showed  no  sign  of  snowfall;  they 
stood  just  as  they  had  been  put  in.  In  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  depot  we  crossed  two  quite  respectable 
crevasses ;  they  were  apparently  filled  up,  and  caused  us 
no  trouble.  We  reached  the  depot  at  2  p.m.;  every- 
thing was  in  the  best  of  order.  The  flag  was  flying,  and 
hardly  looked  as  if  it  had  been  up  a  day,  although  it  had 
now  been  waving  there  for  nearly  eight  months.  The 
drifts  round  the  depot  were  about  li  feet  high. 

The  next  day  was  brilliant — calm  and  clear.  The 
sun  really  baked  the  skin  of  one's  face.  We  put  all 
our  skin  clothing  out  to  dry;  a  little  rime  will  always 
form  at  the  bottom  of  a  sleeping-bag.  We  also  availed 
ourselves  of  this  good  opportunity  to  determine  our 
position  and  check  our  compasses;  they  proved  to  be 
correct.  We  replaced  the  provisions  we  had  consumed 
on  the  way,  and  resumed  our  journey  on  October  31. 

There  was  a  thick  fog  next  morning,  and  very  dis- 
agreeable weather;  perhaps  we  felt  it  more  after  the 
previous  fine  day.  When  we  passed  this  way  for  the 
first  time  going  south,  Hanssen's  dogs  had  fallen  into 
a  crevasse,  but  it  was  nothing  to  speak  of;  otherwise 
we  had  no  trouble.  Nor  did  we  expect  any  this  time; 
but  in  these  regions  what  one  least  expects  frequently 
happens.  The  snow  was  loose  and  the  going  heavy; 
from  time  to  time  we  crossed  a  narrow  crevasse.  Once 
we  saw  through  the  fog  a  large  open  hole ;  we  could  not 
have  been  very  far  from  it,  or  we  should  not  have  seen 


24  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

it,  the  weather  was  so  tliick.  But  all  went  well  till  we  had 
come  thirteen  and  a  half  miles.  Then  Hanssen  had  to 
cross  a  crevasse  a  yard  wide,  and  in  doing  it  he  was  un- 
lucky enough  to  catch  the  point  of  his  ski  in  the  traces 
of  the  hindmost  dogs,  and  fall  right  across  the  crevasse. 
This  looked  unpleasant.  The  dogs  were  across,  and  a 
foot  or  two  on  the  other  side,  but  the  sledge  was  right 
over  the  crevasse,  and  had  twisted  as  Hanssen  fell,  so  that 
a  httle  more  would  bring  it  into  line  with  the  crevasse, 
and  then,  of  course,  down  it  would  go.  The  dogs  had 
quickly  scented  the  fact  that  their  lord  and  master  was 
for  the  moment  incapable  of  administering  a  "confirma- 
tion," and  they  did  not  let  slip  the  golden  opportunity. 
Like  a  lot  of  roaring  tigers,  the  whole  team  set  upon  each 
other  and  fought  till  the  hair  flew.  This  naturally  pro- 
duced short,  sharp  jerks  at  the  traces,  so  that  the  sledge 
worked  round  more  and  more,  and  at  the  same  time  the 
dogs,  in  the  heat  of  the  combat,  were  coming  nearer 
and  nearer  to  the  brink.  If  this  went  on,  all  was 
irretrievably  lost.  One  of  us  jumped  the  crevasse, 
went  into  the  middle  of  the  struggling  team,  and, 
fortunately,  got  them  to  stop.  At  the  same  time, 
Wisting  threw  a  line  to  Hanssen  and  hauled  him  out 
of  his  unpleasant  position  —  although,  I  thought  to 
myself,  as  we  went  on:  I  wonder  whether  Hanssen 
did  not  enjoy  the  situation?  Stretched  across  a  giddy 
abyss,  with  the  prospect  of  slipping  down  it  at  any 
moment — that   was   just   what    he    would    like.      We 


SNOW  BEACONS  25 

secured  the  sledge,  completed  our  seventeen  miles,  and 
camped. 

From  81°  S.  we  began  to  erect  beacons  at  every  nine 
kilometres.  The  next  day  we  observed  the  lowest 
temperature  of  the  whole  of  this  journey:  -31'1°  F. 
The  wind  was  south-south-east,  but  not  very  strong. 
It  did  not  feel  Hke  summer,  all  the  same.  We  now 
adopted  the  habit  which  we  kept  up  all  the  way  to  the 
south — of  taking  our  lunch  while  building  the  beacon 
that  lay  half-way  in  our  day's  march.  It  was  nothing 
very  luxurious — three  or  four  dry  oatmeal  biscuits,  that 
was  all.  If  one  wanted  a  drink,  one  could  mix  snow 
with  the  biscuit — "  bread  and  water."  It  is  a  diet  that 
is  not  much  sought  after  in  our  native  latitudes,  but 
latitude  makes  a  very  great  difference  in  this  world.  If 
anybody  had  offered  us  more  "  bread  and  water,"  we 
should  gladly  have  accepted  it. 

That  day  we  crossed  the  last  crevasse  for  a  long  time 
to  come,  and  it  was  only  a  few  inches  wide.  The  sur- 
face looked  grand  ahead  of  us;  it  went  in  very  long, 
almost  imperceptible  undulations.  We  could  only 
notice  them  by  the  way  in  which  the  beacons  we  put 
up  often  disappeared  rather  rapidly. 

On  November  2  we  had  a  gale  from  the  south,  with 
heavy  snow.  The  going  was  very  stiff,  but  the  dogs 
got  the  sledges  along  better  than  we  expected.  The 
temperature   rose,   as   usual,   with    a   wind    from   this 

quarter:  +14°  F.    It  was  a  pleasure  to  be  out  in  such 

VOL.  II.  28 


26  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

a  temperatui'e,  although  it  did  blow  a  little.  The  day- 
after  we  had  a  light  breeze  from  the  north.  The  heavy- 
going  of  the  day  before  had  completely  disappeared; 
instead  of  it  we  had  the  best  surface  one  could  desire, 
and  it  made  our  dogs  break  into  a  brisk  gallop.  That 
was  the  day  we  were  to  reach  the  depot  in  82°  S.,  but 
as  it  was  extremely  thick,  our  chances  of  doing  so  were 
small.  In  the  course  of  the  afternoon  the  distance  was 
accomplished,  but  no  depot  was  visible.  However,  our 
range  of  vision  was  nothing  to  boast  of — ten  sledge- 
lengths;  not  more.  The  most  sensible  thing  to  do, 
under  the  circumstances,  was  to  camp  and  wait  till  it 
cleared. 

At  four  o'clock  next  morning  the  sun  broke  through. 
We  let  it  get  warm  and  disperse  the  fog,  and  then 
went  out.  What  a  morning  it  was — radiantly  clear 
and  mild.  So  still,  so  still  lay  the  mighty  desert  before 
us,  level  and  white  on  every  side.  But,  no;  there  in 
the  distance  the  level  was  broken:  there  was  a  touch  of 
colour  on  the  white.  The  third  important  point  was 
reached,  the  extreme  outpost  of  civilization.  Our  last 
depot  lay  before  us ;  that  was  an  unspeakable  relief.  The 
victory  now  seemed  half  won.  In  the  fog  we  had  come 
about  three  and  a  half  miles  too  far  to  the  west;  but 
we  now  saw  that  if  we  had  continued  our  march  the 
day  before,  we  should  liave  come  right  into  our  line  of 
flags.  There  they  stood,  flag  after  flag,  and  the  little 
strip  of  black  cloth  seemed  to  wave  quite  proudly,  as 


AT  THE  THIRD  DEPOT  27 

though  it  claimed  credit  for  the  way  in  which  it  had 
discharged  its  duty.  Here,  as  at  the  depot  in  81°  S., 
there  was  hardly  a  sign  of  snowfall.  The  drift  round 
the  depot  had  reached  the  same  height  as  there — li  feet. 
Clearly  the  same  conditions  of  weather  had  prevailed 
all  over  this  region.  The  depot  stood  as  we  had  made 
it,  and  the  sledge  as  we  had  left  it.  Falling  snow  and 
drift  had  not  been  sufficient  to  cover  even  this.  The 
little  drift  that  there  was  offered  an  excellent  place  for 
the  tent,  being  hard  and  firm.  We  at  once  set  about  the 
work  that  had  to  be  done.  First,  Uranus  was  sent  into 
the  next  world,  and  although  he  had  always  given  us  the 
impression  of  being  thin  and  bony,  it  was  now  seen  that 
there  were  masses  of  fat  along  his  back;  he  would  be 
much  appreciated  when  we  reached  here  on  the  return. 
Jaala  did  not  look  as  if  she  would  fulfill  the  conditions, 
but  we  gave  her  another  night.  The  dogs*  pemmican  in 
the  depot  was  just  enough  to  give  the  dogs  a  good 
feed  and  load  up  the  sledges  again.  We  were  so  well 
supplied  with  all  other  provisions  that  we  were  able 
to  leave  a  considerable  quantity  behind  for  the  return 
journey. 

Next  day  we  stayed  here  to  give  the  dogs  a  thorough 
rest  for  the  last  time.  We  took  advantage  of  the  fine 
weather  to  dry  our  outfit  and  check  our  instruments. 
When  evening  came  we  were  all  ready,  and  now  we 
could  look  back  with  satisfaction  to  the  good  work  of 
the  autumn;  we  had  fully  accomplished  what  we  aimed 


28     THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

at — namely,  transferring  our  base  from  78°  38'  to  82°  S. 
Jaala  had  to  follow  Uranus;  they  were  both  laid  on 
the  top  of  the  depot,  beside  eight  little  ones  that  never 
saw  the  light  of  day.  During  our  stay  here  we  decided 
to  build  beacons  at  every  fifth  kilometre,  and  to  lay 
down  depots  at  every  degree  of  latitude.  Although 
the  dogs  were  drawing  the  sledges  easily  at  present,  we 
knew  well  enough  that  in  the  long-run  they  would  find 
it  hard  work  if  they  were  always  to  have  heavy  weights 
to  pull.  The  more  we  could  get  rid  of,  and  the  sooner 
we  could  begin  to  do  so,  the  better. 

On  November  6,  at  8  a.m.,  we  left  82°  S.  Now  the 
unknown  lay  before  us ;  now  our  work  began  in  earnest. 
The  appearance  of  the  Barrier  was  the  same  every  where — 
flat,  with  a  splendid  surface.  At  the  first  beacon  we  put 
up  we  had  to  shoot  Lucy.  We  were  sorry  to  put  an 
end  to  this  beautiful  creature,  but  there  was  nothing 
else  to  be  done.  Her  friends — Karenius,  Sauen,  and 
Schwartz — scowled  up  at  the  beacon  where  she  lay 
as  they  passed,  but  duty  called,  and  the  whip  sang 
dangerously  near  them,  though  they  did  not  seem  to 
hear  it.  We  had  now  extended  our  daily  march  to 
twenty -three  miles;  in  this  way  we  should  do  a  degree 
in  three  days. 

On  the  7th  we  decided  to  stop  for  a  day's  rest.  The 
dogs  had  been  picking  up  wonderfully  every  day,  and 
were  now  at  the  top  of  their  condition,  as  far  as  health 
and  training  went.    With  the  greatest  ease  they  covered 


DEPOT    IN   83'^   S. 


DEPOT   IN   82"    S. 


To  face  por/e  28,  Vol.  II. 


LAND  IN  SIGHT  29 

the  day's  march  at  a  pace  of  seven  and  a  half  kilometres 
(four  miles  and  two-thirds)  an  hour.  As  for  ourselves, 
we  never  had  to  move  a  foot;  all  we  had  to  do  was  to 
let  ourselves  be  towed.  The  same  evening  we  had  to  put 
an  end  to  the  last  of  our  ladies — Else.  She  was  Hassel's 
pride  and  the  ornament  of  his  team;  but  there  was  no 
help  for  it.    She  was  also  placed  at  the  top  of  a  beacon. 

When  we  halted  that  evening  in  82°  20'  S.,  we  saw 
on  the  south-western  horizon  several  heavy  masses  of 
drab-coloured  cloud,  such  as  are  usually  to  be  seen  over 
land.  We  could  make  out  no  land  that  evening,  how- 
ever ;  but  when  we  came  out  next  morning  and  directed 
our  glasses  to  that  quarter,  the  land  lay  there,  lofty  and 
clear  in  the  morning  sun.  We  were  now  able  to  dis- 
tinguish several  summits,  and  to  determine  that  this 
was  the  land  extending  south-eastward  from  Beardmore 
Glacier  in  South  Victoria  Land.  Our  course  had  been 
true  south  all  the  time;  at  this  spot  we  were  about 
250  miles  to  the  east  of  Beardmore  Glacier.  Our  course 
would  continue  to  be  true  south. 

The  same  evening — November  8 — ^we  reached  83°  S. 
by  dead  reckoning.  The  noon  altitude  next  day  gave 
83°  1'  S.  The  depot  we  built  here  contained  provisions 
for  five  men  and  twelve  dogs  for  four  days ;  it  was  made 
square — 6  feet  each  way — of  hard,  solid  blocks  of  snow. 
A  large  flag  was  placed  on  the  top.  That  evening  a 
strange  thing  happened — three  dogs  deserted,  going 
northward    on    our    old    tracks.     They    were    Lucy's 


30  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

favourites,  and  had  probably  taken  it  into  their  heads 
that  they  ought  to  go  back  and  look  after  their  friend. 
It  was  a  great  loss  to  us  all,  but  especially  to  Bjaaland; 
they  were  all  three  first-rate  animals,  and  among  the 
best  we  had.  He  had  to  borrow  a  dog  from  Hanssen's 
team,  and  if  he  did  not  go  quite  so  smoothly  as  before, 
he  was  still  able  to  keep  up. 

On  the  10th  we  got  a  bearing  of  the  mountain  chain 
right  down  in  south  by  west  true.  Each  day  we  drew 
considerably  nearer  the  land,  and  could  see  more  and 
more  of  its  details :  mighty  peaks,  each  loftier  and  wilder 
than  the  last,  rose  to  heights  of  15,000  feet.  What 
struck  us  all  were  the  bare  sides  that  many  of  these 
mountains  showed;  we  had  expected  to  see  them  far 
more  covered  with  snow.  Moimt  Fridtjof  Nansen,  for 
example,  had  quite  a  blue-black  look.  Only  quite  at 
the  summit  was  it  crowned  by  a  mighty  hood  of  ice 
that  raised  its  shining  top  to  some  15,000  feet.  Farther 
to  the  south  rose  Mount  Don  Pedro  Christophersen ;  it 
was  more  covered  with  snow,  but  the  long,  gabled 
summit  was  to  a  great  extent  bare.  Still  farther  south 
Mounts  Alice  Wedel  Jarlsberg,  Alice  Gade,  and  Ruth 
Gade,  came  in  sight;  all  snow-clad  from  peak  to  base. 
I  do  not  think  I  have  ever  seen  a  more  beautiful  or 
wilder  landscape.  Even  from  where  we  were,  we 
seemed  to  be  able  to  see  a  way  up  from  several  places. 
There  lay  Liv's  Glacier,*  for  instance,  which  would 
*  Named  after  Dr.  Nansen's  daughter. — Tr. 


A  NEARER  VIEW  31 

undoubtedly  afford  a  good  and  even  ascent,  but  it  lay 
too  far  to  the  north.  It  is  of  enormous  extent,  and 
would  prove  interesting  to  explore.  Crown  Prince 
Olav's  Mountains  looked  less  promising,  but  they  also 
lay  too  far  to  the  north.  A  little  to  the  west  of  south  lay 
an  apparently  good  way  up.  The  mountains  nearest  to 
the  Barrier  did  not  seem  to  offer  any  great  obstruction. 
What  one  might  find  later,  between  Mounts  Pedro  Chris- 
tophersen  and  Fridtjof  Nansen,  was  not  easy  to  say. 

On  the  12th  we  reached  84°  S.  On  that  day  we 
made  the  interesting  discovery  of  a  chain  of  mountains 
running  to  the  east;  this,  as  it  appeared  from  the  spot 
where  we  were,  formed  a  semicircle,  where  it  joined 
the  mountains  of  South  Victoria  Land.  This  semicircle 
lay  true  south,  and  our  course  was  directed  straight 
towards  it. 

In  the  depot  in  84°  S.  we  left,  besides  the  usual 
quantity  of  provisions  for  five  men  and  twelve  dogs  for 
four  days,  a  can  of  paraffin,  holding  17  litres  (about 
3f  gallons) .  We  had  abundance  of  matches,  and  could 
therefore  distribute  them  over  all  the  depots.  The  Barrier 
continued  as  flat  as  before,  and  the  going  was  as  good  as 
it  could  possibly  be.  We  had  thought  that  a  day's  rest 
would  be  needed  by  the  dogs  for  every  degree  of  latitude, 
but  this  proved  superfluous;  it  looked  as  if  they  could 
no  longer  be  tired.  One  or  two  had  shown  signs  of  bad 
feet,  but  were  now  perfectly  well;  instead  of  losing 
strength,  the  dogs  seemed  to  become  stronger  and  more 


32     THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

active  every  day.  Now  they,  too,  had  sighted  the  land, 
and  the  black  mass  of  JNIount  Fridtjof  Nansen  seemed 
specially  to  appeal  to  them;  Hanssen  often  had  hard 
work  to  keep  them  in  the  right  course.  Without  any 
longer  stay,  then,  we  left  84°  S.the  next  day,  and  steered 
for  the  bay  ahead. 

That  day  we  went  twenty-three  miles  in  thick  fog, 
and  saw  nothing  of  the  land.  It  was  hard  to  have  to 
travel  thus  blindly  off  an  unknown  coast,  but  we  could 
only  hope  for  better  weather.  During  the  previous 
night  we  had  heard,  for  a  change,  a  noise  in  the  ice.  It 
was  nothing  very  great,  and  sounded  like  scattered 
infantry  fire — a  few  rifle-shots  here  and  there  underneath 
our  tent;  the  artillery  had  not  come  up  yet.  We  took 
no  notice  of  it,  though  I  heard  one  man  say  in  the 
morning :  "  Blest  if  I  didn't  think  I  got  a  whack  on  the 
ear  last  night."  I  could  witness  that  it  had  not  cost 
him  his  sleep,  as  that  night  he  had  very  nearly  snored  us 
all  out  of  the  tent.  During  the  forenoon  we  crossed 
a  number  of  apparently  newly-formed  crevasses;  most 
of  them  only  about  an  inch  wide.  There  had  thus 
been  a  small  local  disturbance  occasioned  by  one  of  the 
numerous  small  glaciers  on  land.  On  the  following 
night  all  was  quiet  again,  and  we  never  afterwai'ds  heard 
the  slightest  sound. 

On  November  14  we  reached  84°  40'  S.  We  were 
now  rapidly  approaching  land;  the  mountain  range  on 
the  east  appeared  to  turn  north-eastward.     Our  line  of 


> 

H 

K 
H 

O 
H 

t 

O 


tr' 
> 


AT  THE  FOOT  OF  THE  MOUNTAINS      33 

ascent,  which  we  had  chosen  long  ago  and  now  had  our 
eyes  fixed  upon  as  we  went,  would  take  us  a  trifle  to 
the  west  of  south,  but  so  little  that  the  digression  was 
of  no  account.  The  semicircle  we  saw  to  the  south  made 
a  more  disquieting  impression,  and  looked  as  if  it  would 
offer  great  irregularities.  On  the  following  day  the 
character  of  the  surface  began  to  change;  great  wave- 
like formations  seemed  to  roll  higher  and  higher  as  they 
approached  the  land,  and  in  one  of  the  troughs  of  these 
we  found  the  surface  greatly  disturbed.  At  some 
bygone  time  immense  fissures  and  chasms  would  have 
rendered  its  passage  practically  impossible,  but  now 
they  were  all  drifted  up,  and  we  had  no  difficulty  in 
crossing. 

That  day — November  15 — we  reached  85°  S.,  and 
camped  at  the  top  of  one  of  these  swelling  waves.  The 
valley  we  were  to  cross  next  day  was  fairly  broad,  and 
rose  considerably  on  the  other  side.  On  the  west,  in 
the  direction  of  the  nearest  land,  the  undulation  rose  to 
such  a  height  that  it  concealed  a  great  part  of  the  land 
from  us.  During  the  afternoon  we  built  the  usual 
depot,  and  continued  our  journey  on  the  following  day. 
As  we  had  seen  from  our  camping-ground,  it  was  an 
immense  undulation  that  we  had  to  traverse ;  the  ascent 
on  the  other  side  felt  uncomfortably  warm  in  the  power- 
ful sun,  but  it  was  no  higher  than  300  feet  by  the 
aneroid.  From  the  top  of  this  wave  the  Barrier 
stretched  away  before  us,  flat  at  first,  but  we  could 


34  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

see  disturbances  of  the  surface  in  the  distance.  Now 
we  are  going  to  have  some  fun  in  getting  to  land,  I 
thought,  for  it  seemed  very  natural  that  the  Barrier^ 
hemmed  in  as  it  was  here,  would  be  much  broken  up. 
The  disturbances  we  had  seen  consisted  of  some  big,  old 
crevasses,  which  were  partly  filled  up ;  we  avoided  them 
easily.  Now  there  was  another  deep  depression  before 
us,  with  a  correspondingly  high  rise  on  the  other  side. 
We  went  over  it  capitally;  the  surface  was  absolutely 
smooth,  without  a  sign  of  fissure  or  hole  anywhere. 
Then  we  shall  get  them  when  we  are  on  the  top,  I 
thought.  It  was  rather  stiff  work  uphill,  unaccustomed 
as  we  were  to  slopes.  I  stretched  my  neck  more  and 
more  to  get  a  view.  At  last  we  were  up;  and  what  a 
sight  it  was  that  met  us!  Not  an  irregularity,  not  a 
sign  of  disturbance;  quietly  and  evenly  the  ascent 
continued.  I  believe  that  we  were  then  already  above 
land;  the  large  crevasses  that  we  had  avoided  down 
below  probably  formed  the  boundary.  The  hypsometer 
gave  930  feet  above  the  sea. 

We  were  now  immediately  below  the  ascent,  and 
made  the  final  decision  of  trying  it  here.  This  being 
settled,  we  pitched  our  camp.  It  was  still  early  in  the 
day,  but  we  had  a  great  deal  to  arrange  before  the 
morrow.  Here  we  should  have  to  overhaul  our 
whole  supply  of  provisions,  take  with  us  what  was 
absolutely  necessary  for  the  remainder  of  the  trip,  and 
leave  the  rest  behind  in  depot.    First,  then,  we  camped. 


H 

K 
H 

O 
M 
13 
O 

> 
O 

O 

a 
z 

> 

M 
2: 

02 


FINAL  PREPARATIONS  35 

worked  out  our  position,  fed  the  dogs  and  let  them 
loose  again,  and  then  went  into  our  tent  to  have 
something    to  eat     and    go    through    the    provision 

books. 

We  had  now  reached  one  of  the  most  critical  points 
of  our  journey.    Our  plan  had  now  to  be  laid  so  that 
we  might  not  only  make  the  ascent  as  easily  as  possible, 
but  also  get  through  to  the  end.    Our  calculations  had 
to  be  made  carefully,  and  every  possibility  taken  into 
account.    As  with  every  decision   of  importance,  we 
discussed   the   matter   jointly.     The   distance  we   had 
before  us,  from  this  spot  to  the  Pole  and  back,  was 
683  miles.    Reckoning  with  the  ascent  that  we  saw 
before  us,  with  other  unforeseen  obstructions,  and  finally 
with  the  certain  factor  that  the  strength  of  our  dogs 
would  be  gradually  reduced  to  a  fraction  of  what  it  now 
was,  we  decided  to  take  provisions  and  equipment  for 
sixty  days  on  the  sledges,  and  to  leave  the  remaining 
supplies — enough  for  thirty  days — and  outfit  in  depot. 
We  calculated,  from  the  experience  we  had  had,  that 
we  ought  to  be  able  to  reach  this  point  again  with 
twelve  dogs  left.    We  now  had  forty-two  dogs.     Our 
plan  was  to  take  all  the  forty-two  up  to  the  plateau; 
there  twenty-four  of  them  were  to  be  slaughtered,  and 
the  journey  continued  with  three  sledges  and  eighteen 
dogs.    Of  these  last  eighteen,  it  would  be  necessary,  in 
our  opinion,  to  slaughter  six  in  order  to  bring  the  other 
twelve  back  to  this  point.    As  the  number  of  dogs  grew 


36     THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

less,  the  sledges  would  become  lighter  and  lighter,  and 
when  the  time  came  for  reducing  their  number  to 
twelve,  we  should  only  have  two  sledges  left.  This 
time  again  our  calculations  came  out  approximately 
right ;  it  was  only  in  reckoning  the  number  of  days  that 
we  made  a  little  mistake — we  took  eight  days  less  than 
the  time  allowed.  The  number  of  dogs  agreed  exactly; 
we  reached  this  point  again  with  twelve. 

After  the  question  had  been  well  discussed  and  each 
had  given  his  opinion,  we  went  out  to  get  the  repacking 
done.  It  was  lucky  the  weather  was  so  fine,  otherwise 
tliis  taking  stock  of  pro^asions  might  have  been  a  bitter 
piece  of  work.  All  our  supplies  were  in  such  a  form 
that  we  could  count  them  instead  of  weighing  them. 
Our  pemmican  was  in  rations  of  1  kilogram  (1  pound 
li  ounces).  The  chocolate  was  divided  into  small 
pieces,  as  chocolate  always  is,  so  that  we  knew  what 
each  piece  weighed.  Our  milk-powder  was  put  up  in 
bags  of  101  ounces — just  enough  for  a  meal.  Our 
biscuits  possessed  the  same  property — they  could  be 
counted,  but  this  was  a  tedious  business,  as  they  were 
rather  small.  On  this  occasion  we  had  to  count  6,000 
biscuits.  Our  provisions  consisted  only  of  these  four 
kinds,  and  the  combination  turned  out  right  enough. 
We  did  not  suffer  from  a  craving  either  for  fat  or  sugar, 
though  the  want  of  these  substances  is  very  commonly 
felt  on  such  journeys  as  ours.  In  our  biscuits  we  had 
an  excellent  product,  consisting  of  oatmeal,  sugar,  and 


A  RECONNAISSANCE  37 

dried  milk.  Sweetmeats,  jam,  fruit,  cheese,  etc.,  we 
had  left  behind  at  FramJieim. 

We  took  our  reindeer-skin  clothing,  for  which  we 
had  had  no  use  as  yet,  on  the  sledges.  We  were  now 
coming  on  to  the  high  ground,  and  it  might  easily 
happen  that  it  would  be  a  good  thing  to  have.  We  did 
not  forget  the  temperature  of  -  40°  F.  that  Shackleton 
had  experienced  in  88°  S.,  and  if  we  met  with  the  same, 
we  could  hold  out  a  long  while  if  we  had  the  skin 
clothing.  Otherwise,  we  had  not  very  much  in  our 
bags.  The  only  change  we  had  with  us  was  put  on 
here,  and  the  old  clothes  hung  out  to  air.  We  reckoned 
that  by  the  time  we  came  back,  in  a  couple  of  months, 
they  would  be  sufficiently  aired,  and  we  could  put  them 
on  again.  As  far  as  I  remember,  the  calculation  proved 
correct.  We  took  more  foot-gear  than  anything  else: 
if  one's  feet  are  well  shod,  one  can  hold  out  a  long 
time. 

When  all  this  was  finished,  three  of  us  put  on  oui*  ski 
and  made  for  the  nearest  visible  land.  This  was  a  little 
peak,  a  mile  and  three-quarters  away — Mount  Betty. 
It  did  not  look  lofty  or  imposing,  but  was,  nevertheless, 
1,000  feet  above  the  sea.  Small  as  it  was,  it  became 
important  to  us,  as  it  was  there  we  got  all  our  geological 
specimens.  Running  on  ski  felt  quite  strange,  although 
I  had  now  covered  385  miles  on  them;  but  we  had 
driven  the  whole  way,  and  were  somewhat  out  of  train- 
ing.   We  could  feel  this,  too,  as  we  went  up  the  slope 


38  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

that  afternoon.  After  JNIount  Betty  the  ascent  became 
rather  steep,  but  the  surface  was  even,  and  the  going 
splendid,  so  we  got  on  fast.  First  we  came  up  a  smooth 
mountain-side,  about  1,200  feet  above  the  sea,  then 
over  a  Httle  plateau ;  after  that  another  smooth  slope  like 
the  first,  and  then  down  a  rather  long,  flat  stretch,  which 
after  a  time  began  to  rise  very  gradually,  until  it  finally 
passed  Into  small  glacier  formations.  Our  reconnais- 
sance extended  to  these  small  glaciers.  We  had  ascer- 
tained that  the  way  was  practicable,  as  far  as  we  were 
able  to  see;  we  had  gone  about  five  and  a  half  miles 
from  the  tent,  and  ascended  2,000  feet.  On  the  way 
back  we  went  gloriously;  the  last  two  slopes  down  to 
the  Barrier  gave  us  all  the  speed  we  wanted.  Bjaaland 
and  I  had  decided  to  take  a  turn  round  by  Mount  Betty 
for  the  sake  of  having  real  bare  ground  under  our  feet ; 
we  had  not  felt  it  since  Madeira  in  September,  1910, 
and  now  we  were  in  November,  1911.  No  sooner  said 
than  done.  Bjaaland  prepared  for  an  elegant  "  Tele- 
mark  swing,"  and  executed  it  in  fine  style.  What  I 
prepared  to  do,  I  am  still  not  quite  sure.  What  I  did 
was  to  roll  over,  and  I  did  it  with  great  effect.  I  was 
very  soon  on  my  feet  again,  and  glanced  at  Bjaaland; 
wliether  he  had  seen  my  tumble,  I  am  not  certain. 
However,  I  pulled  myself  together  after  this  unfor- 
tunate performance,  and  remarked  casually  that  it  is 
not  so  easy  to  forget  what  one  has  once  learnt.  No 
doubt  he  thought  that  I  had  managed  the  "  Telemark 


ASCENDING    MOUNT    BETTY. 


To  face  page  3S,  Vol.  II. 


ON  BARE  GROUND  39 

swing  " ;  at  any  rate,  he  was  polite  enough  to  let  me 
think  so. 

Mount  Betty  offered  no  perpendicular  crags  or  deep 
precipices  to  stimulate  our  desire  for  climbing ;  we  only 
had  to  take  off  our  ski,  and  then  we  arrived  at  the  top. 
It  consisted  of  loose  screes,  and  was  not  an  ideal  pro- 
menade for  people  who  had  to  be  careful  of  their  boots. 
It  was  a  pleasure  to  set  one's  feet  on  bare  ground  again, 
and  we  sat  down  on  the  rocks  to  enjoy  the  scene.  The 
rocks  very  soon  made  themselves  felt,  however,  and 
brought  us  to  our  feet  again.  We  photographed  each 
other  in  "  picturesque  attitudes,"  took  a  few  stones  for 
those  who  had  not  yet  set  foot  on  bare  earth,  and 
strapped  on  our  ski.  The  dogs,  after  having  been  so 
eager  to  make  for  bare  land  when  they  first  saw  it,  were 
now  not  the  least  interested  in  it;  they  lay  on  the  snow, 
and  did  not  go  near  the  top.  Between  the  bare  ground 
and  the  snow  surface  there  was  bright,  blue-green  ice, 
showing  that  at  times  there  was  rimning  water  here.  The 
dogs  did  what  they  could  to  keep  up  with  us  on  the 
way  down,  but  they  were  soon  left  behind.  On  our 
return,  we  surprised  our  comrades  with  presents  from 
the  country,  but  I  fear  they  were  not  greatly  appre- 
ciated. I  could  hear  such  words  as,  "  Norway — stones 
— heaps  of  them,"  and  I  was  able  to  put  them  together 
and  understand  what  was  meant.  The  "  presents  "  were 
put  in  depot,  as  not  absolutely  indispensable  on  the 
southern  journey. 


40  THE  START  FOR  THE  POLE 

By  this  time  the  dogs  had  already  begun  to  be  very 
voracious.  Everything  that  came  in  their  way  dis- 
appeared; whips,  ski-bindings,  lashings,  etc.,  were  re- 
garded as  delicacies.  If  one  put  down  anything  for  a 
moment,  it  vanished.  With  some  of  them  this  voracity 
went  so  far  that  we  had  to  chain  them. 


CHAPTER   XI 

THROUGH   THE   MOUNTAINS 

On  the  following  day — November  17 — we  began  the 
ascent.  To  provide  for  any  contingency,  I  left  in  the 
depot  a  paper  with  information  of  the  way  we  intended 
to  take  through  the  mountains,  together  with  our  plan 
for  the  future,  our  outfit,  provisions,  etc.  The  weather 
was  fine,  as  usual,  and  the  going  good.  The  dogs  ex- 
ceeded our  expectations;  they  negotiated  the  two  fairly 
steep  slopes  at  a  jog-trot.  We  began  to  think  there 
was  no  difficulty  they  could  not  surmount;  the  five 
miles  or  so  that  we  had  gone  the  day  before,  and 
imagined  would  be  more  than  enough  for  this  day's 
journey,  were  now  covered  with  full  loads  in  shorter 
time.  The  small  glaciers  higher  up  turned  out  fairly 
steep,  and  in  some  places  we  had  to  take  two  sledges 
at  a  time  with  double  teams.  These  glaciers  had  an 
appearance  of  being  very  old,  and  of  having  entirely 
ceased  to  move.  There  were  no  new  crevasses  to  be 
seen;  those  that  there  were,  were  large  and  wide,  but 
their  edges  were  rounded  off  everywhere,  and  the 
crevasses  themselves  were  almost  entirely  filled  with 
VOL.  II.  41  29 


42  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

snow.  So  as  not  to  fall  into  these  on  the  return,  we 
erected  our  beacons  in  such  a  way  that  the  line  between 
any  two  of  them  would  take  us  clear  of  any  danger.  It 
was  no  use  working  in  Polar  clothing  among  these  hills ; 
the  sun,  which  stood  high  and  clear,  was  uncomfortably 
warm,  and  we  were  obliged  to  take  off  most  of  our 
things.  We  passed  several  summits  from  3,000  to 
7,000  feet  high;  the  snow  on  one  of  them  had  quite  a 
reddish-brown  tint. 

Our  distance  this  first  day  was  eleven  and  a  half 
miles,  with  a  rise  of  2,000  feet.  Our  camp  that  evening 
lay  on  a  little  glacier  among  huge  crevasses;  on  three 
sides  of  us  were  towering  summits.  When  we  had  set 
our  tent,  two  parties  went  out  to  explore  the  way  in 
advance.  One  party — Wisting  and  Hanssen — took  the 
way  that  looked  easiest  from  the  tent  —  namely,  the 
course  of  the  glacier ;  it  here  rose  rapidly  to  4,000  feet, 
and  disappeared  in  a  south-westerly  direction  between 
two  peaks.  Bjaaland  formed  the  other  party.  He 
evidently  looked  upon  this  ascent  as  too  tame,  and 
started  up  the  steepest  part  of  the  mountain-side. 
I  saw  him  disappear  up  aloft  like  a  fly.  Hassel  and 
I  attended  to  the  necessary  work  round  about  and  in 
the  tent. 

We  were  sitting  inside  chatting,  when  we  suddenly 
heard  someone  come  swishing  down  towards  the  tent. 
We  looked  at  each  other ;  that  fellow  had  some  pace  on. 
We  had  no  doubt  as  to  who  it  was — Bjaaland,  of  course. 


BJAALAND'S  CHOICE  43 

He  must  have  gone  off  to  refresh  old  memories.  He 
had  a  lot  to  tell  us ;  amongst  other  things,  he  had  found 
"  the  finest  descent  "  on  the  other  side.  What  he  meant 
by  "  fine  "  I  was  not  certain.  If  it  was  as  fine  as  the 
ascent  he  had  made,  then  I  asked  to  be  excused.  We 
now  heard  the  others  coming,  and  these  we  could  hear 
a  long  way  off.  They  had  also  seen  a  great  deal,  not  to 
mention  "  the  finest  descent."  But  both  parties  agreed 
in  the  mournful  intelligence  that  we  should  have  to 
go  down  again.  They  had  both  observed  the  immense 
glacier  that  stretched  beneath  us  running  east  and  west. 
A  lengthy  discussion  took  place  between  the  two  parties, 
who  mutually  scorned  each  other's  "discoveries."  "Yes; 
but  look  here,  Bjaaland,  we  could  see  that  from  where 

you  were  standing  there's  a  sheer  drop " — "  You 

couldn't  see  me  at  all.     I  tell  you  I  was  to  the  west 

of  the  peak  that  Hes  to  the  south  of  the  peak  that " 

I  gave  up  trying  to  follow  the  discussion  any  longer. 
The  way  in  which  the  different  parties  had  disappeared 
and  come  in  sight  again  gave  me  every  reason  to  decide 
in  favour  of  the  route  the  last  arrivals  had  taken.  I 
thanked  these  keen  gentlemen  for  their  strenuous 
ramble  in  the  interests  of  the  expedition,  and  went 
straight  off  to  sleep.  I  dreamed  of  mountains  and 
precipices  all  night,  and  woke  up  with  Bjaaland  whiz- 
zing down  from  the  sky.  I  announced  once  more  that 
I  had  made  up  my  mind  for  the  other  course,  and  went 
to  sleep  again. 


44  THROUGH  THE  MOUXTAINS 

We  debated  next  morning  whether  it  would  not  be 
better  to  take  the  sledges  two  by  two  to  begin  with; 
the  glacier  before  us  looked  quite  steep  enough  to 
require  double  teams.  It  had  a  rise  of  2,000  feet  in 
quite  a  short  distance.  But  we  would  try  first  with  the 
single  teams.  The  dogs  had  shown  that  their  capabili- 
ties were  far  above  our  expectation ;  perhaj^s  thej''  would 
be  able  to  do  even  this.  We  crept  off.  The  ascent 
began  at  once — good  exercise  after  a  quart  of  chocolate. 
We  did  not  get  on  fast,  but  we  won  our  way.  It  often 
looked  as  if  the  sledge  would  stop,  but  a  shout  from  the 
driver  and  a  sharp  crack  of  the  whip  kept  the  dogs  on 
the  move.  It  was  a  fine  beginning  to  the  day,  and  we 
gave  them  a  well-deserved  rest  when  we  got  up.  We 
then  drove  in  through  the  narrow  pass  and  out  on  the 
other  side.  It  was  a  magnificent  panorama  that  oj^ened 
before  us.  From  the  pass  we  had  come  out  on  to  a 
very  small  flat  terrace,  which  a  few  yards  farther  on 
began  to  drop  steeply  to  a  long  valley.  Round  about 
us  lav  summit  after  summit  on  every  side.  We  had 
now  come  behind  the  scenes,  and  could  get  our  bearings 
better.  We  now  saw  the  southern  side  of  the  immense 
Mount  Nansen;  Don  Pedro  Christophersen  we  could 
see  in  his  full  length.  Between  these  two  mountains 
we  could  follow  the  course  of  the  glacier  that  rose  in 
terraces  along  their  sides.  It  looked  fearfully  broken 
and  disturbed,  but  we  could  follow  a  little  connected 
line  among  the  many  crevasses;  we  saw  that  we  could 


LAST  VIEW  OF  THE  BARRIER        45 

go  a  long  way,  but  we  also  saw  that  the  glacier  forbade 
us  to  use  it  in  its  full  extent.  Between  the  first  and 
second  terraces  the  ice  was  evidently  impassable.  But 
we  could  see  that  there  was  an  unbroken  ledge  up  on  the 
side  of  the  mountain;  Don  Pedro  would  help  us  out. 
On  the  north  along  the  Nansen  Mountain  there  was 
nothing  but  chaos,  perfectly  impossible  to  get  through. 
We  put  up  a  big  beacon  where  we  were  standing,  and 
took  bearings  from  it  all  round  the  compass. 

I  went  back  to  the  pass  to  look  out  over  the  Barrier 
for  the  last  time.  The  new  mountain  chain  lay  there 
sharp  and  clear;  we  could  see  how  it  turned  from  the 
east  up  to  east-north-east,  and  finally  disappeared  in 
the  north-east — as  we  judged,  about  84°  S.  From  the 
look  of  the  sky,  it  appeared  that  the  chain  was  continued 
farther.  According  to  the  aneroid,  the  height  of  the 
terrace  on  which  we  stood  was  4,000  feet  above  the  sea. 
From  here  there  was  only  one  way  down,  and  we  began 
to  go.  In  making  these  descents  with  loaded  sledges, 
one  has  to  use  the  greatest  care,  lest  the  speed  increase 
to  such  a  degree  that  one  loses  command  over  the 
sledge.  If  this  happens,  there  is  a  danger,  not  only  of 
running  over  the  dogs,  but  of  colliding  with  the  sledge 
in  front  and  smashing  it.  This  was  all  the  more  im- 
portant in  our  case,  as  the  sledges  carried  sledge-meters. 
We  therefore  put  brakes  of  rope  under  our  runners 
when  we  were  to  go  downhill.  This  was  done  very 
simply  by  taking  a  few  turns  with  a  thin  piece  of  rope 


46  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

round  each  runner;  the  more  of  these  turns  one  took, 
the  more  powerful,  of  course,  was  the  brake.  The  art 
consisted  in  choosing  the  right  number  of  turns,  or  the 
right  brake;  this  was  not  always  attained,  and  the  con- 
sequence was  that,  before  we  had  come  to  the  end  of 
these  descents,  there  were  several  collisions.  One  of  the 
drivers,  in  particular,  seemed  to  have  a  supreme  con- 
tempt for  a  proper  brake;  he  would  rush  do\\Ti  like 
a  flash  of  lightning,  and  carry  the  man  in  front  with 
him.  With  practice  we  avoided  this,  but  several  times 
things  had  an  ugly  look. 

The  first  drop  took  us  down  800  feet;  then  we  had 
to  cross  a  wide,  stiff  piece  of  valley  before  the  ascent 
began  again.  The  snow  between  the  mountains  was 
loose  and  deep,  and  gave  the  dogs  hard  work.  The 
next  ascent  was  up  very  steep  glaciers,  the  last  of  which 
was  the  steepest  bit  of  climbing  we  had  on  the  whole 
journey — stiff  work  even  for  double  teams.  Going  in 
front  of  the  dogs  up  these  slopes  was,  I  could  see,  a 
business  that  Bjaaland  would  accomplish  far  more  satis- 
factorily than  I,  and  I  gave  up  the  place  to  him.  The 
first  glacier  was  steep,  but  the  second  was  like  the  side 
of  a  house.  It  was  a  pleasure  to  watch  Bjaaland  use 
his  ski  up  there;  one  could  see  that  he  had  been  up  a 
hill  before.  Nor  was  it  less  interesting  to  see  the  dogs 
and  the  drivers  go  up.  Hanssen  drove  one  sledge 
alone;  Wisting  and  Hassel  the  other.  They  went  by 
jerks,  foot  by  foot,  and  ended  by  reaching  the  top.    The 


ON  THE  GREAT  GLACIER  47 

second  relay  went  somewhat  more  easily  in  the  tracks 
made  by  the  first. 

Our  height  here  was  4,550  feet,  the  last  ascent  having 
brought  us  up  1,250  feet;  we  had  arrived  on  a  plateau, 
and  after  the  dogs  had  rested  we  continued  our  march. 
Now,  as  we  advanced,  we  had  a  better  view  of  the  way 
we  were  going;  before  this  the  nearest  mountains  had 
shut  us  in.  The  mighty  glacier  opened  out  before  us, 
stretching,  as  we  could  now  see,  right  up  from  the 
Barrier  between  the  lofty  mountains  running  east  and 
west.  It  was  by  this  glacier  that  we  should  have  to 
gain  the  plateau;  we  could  see  that.  We  had  one 
more  descent  to  make  before  reacliing  it,  and  from 
above  we  could  distinguish  the  edges  of  some  big  gaps 
in  this  descent,  and  found  it  prudent  to  examine  it  first. 
As  we  thought,  there  was  a  side-glacier  coming  down 
into  it,  with  large,  ugly  crevasses  in  many  places;  but 
it  was  not  so  bad  as  to  prevent  our  finally  reaching, 
with  caution  and  using  good  brakes,  the  great  main 
ice-field — Axel  Heiberg  Glacier.  The  plan  we  had 
proposed  to  ourselves  was  to  work  our  way  up  to  the 
place  where  the  glacier  rose  in  abrupt  masses  between 
the  two  mountains.  The  task  we  had  undertaken 
was  greater  than  we  thought.  In  the  first  place,  the 
distance  was  three  times  as  great  as  any  of  us  had 
believed;  and,  in  the  second  place,  the  snow  was  so 
loose  and  deep  that  it  was  hard  work  for  the  dogs  after 
all  their  previous  efforts.    We  set  our  course  along  the 


48  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

white  line  that  we  had  been  able  to  follow  among  the 
numerous  crevasses  right  up  to  the  first  terrace.  Here 
tributary  glaciers  came  do^\Ti  on  all  sides  from  the 
mountains  and  joined  the  main  one;  it  was  one  of 
these  many  small  arms  that  we  reached  that  evening, 
directly  under  Don  Pedro  Christophersen. 

The  mountain  below  which  we  had  our  camp  was 
covered  with  a  chaos  of  immense  blocks  of  ice.  The 
glacier  on  which  we  were  was  much  broken  up,  but,  as 
with  all  the  others,  the  fissures  were  of  old  date,  and, 
to  a  large  extent,  drifted  up.  The  snow  was  so  loose 
that  we  had  to  trample  a  place  for  the  tent,  and  we 
could  push  the  tent-pole  right  down  without  meeting 
resistance;  probably  it  would  be  better  higher  up.  In 
the  evening  Hanssen  and  Bjaaland  went  out  to  recon- 
noitre, and  found  the  conditions  as  we  had  seen  them 
from  a  distance.  The  way  up  to  the  first  terrace  was 
easily  accessible;  what  the  conditions  would  be  like 
between  this  and  the  second  terrace  we  had  still  to 
discover. 

It  was  stiff  work  next  day  getting  up  to  the  first 
terrace.  The  arm  of  the  glacier  that  led  up  was  not 
very  long,  but  extremely  steep  and  full  of  big  crevasses ; 
it  had  to  be  taken  in  relays,  two  sledges  at  a  time. 
The  state  of  the  going  was,  fortunately,  better  than  on 
the  previous  day,  and  the  surface  of  the  glacier  was 
fine  and  hard,  so  that  the  dogs  got  a  splendid  hold. 
Bjaaland  went  in  advance  up  through  this  steep  glacier. 


DIFFICULTIES  AHEAD  49 

and  had  his  work  cut  out  to  keep  ahead  of  the  eager 
animals.  One  would  never  have  thought  we  were 
between  85°  and  86°  S.;  the  heat  was  positively  disagree- 
able, and,  although  lightly  clad,  we  sweated  as  if  we 
were  running  races  in  the  tropics.  We  were  ascending 
rapidly,  but,  in  spite  of  the  sudden  change  of  pressure, 
we  did  not  j^et  experience  any  difficulty  of  breathing, 
headache,  or  other  unpleasant  results.  That  these 
sensations  would  make  their  appearance  in  due  course 
was,  however,  a  matter  of  which  we  could  be  certain. 
Shackleton's  description  of  his  march  on  the  plateau, 
when  headache  of  the  most  violent  and  unpleasant  kind 
was  the  order  of  the  day,  was  fresh  in  the  memory  of 
all  of  us. 

In  a  comparatively  short  time  we  reached  the  ledge 
in  the  glacier  that  we  had  noticed  a  long  way  off;  it 
was  not  quite  flat,  but  sloped  slightly  towards  the  edge. 
When  we  came  to  the  place  to  which  Hanssen  and 
Bjaaland  had  carried  their  reconnaissance  on  the  previous 
evening,  we  had  a  very  fine  prospect  of  the  further 
course  of  the  glacier.  To  continue  along  it  was  an 
impossibility;  it  consisted  here — between  the  two  vast 
mountains — of  nothing  but  crevasse  after  crevasse,  so 
huge  and  ugly  that  we  were  forced  to  conclude  that 
our  further  advance  that  way  was  barred.  Over  by 
Fridtjof  Nansen  we  could  not  go;  this  mountain 
here  rose  perpendicularly,  in  parts  quite  bare,  and 
formed  with  the  glacier  a  surface  so  wild  and  cut  up 


50  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

that  all  thoughts  of  crossing  the  Ice-field  in  that  direc- 
tion had  to  be  instantly  abandoned.  Our  only  chance 
lay  in  the  direction  of  Don  Pedro  Christophersen ; 
here,  so  far  as  we  could  see,  the  connection  of  the 
glacier  and  the  land  offered  possibilities  of  further 
progress.  Without  interruption  the  glacier  was  merged 
in  the  snow-clad  mountain-side,  which  rose  rapidly 
towards  the  partially  bare  summit.  Our  view,  however, 
did  not  extend  very  far.  The  first  part  of  the  mountain- 
side was  soon  bounded  by  a  lofty  ridge  running  east  and 
west,  in  which  we  could  see  huge  gaps  here  and  there. 
From  the  place  where  we  were  standing,  we  had  the 
impression  that  we  should  be  able  to  continue  our  course 
up  there  under  the  ridge  between  these  gaps,  and  thus 
come  out  beyond  the  disturbed  tract  of  glacier.  We 
might  possibly  succeed  in  this,  but  we  could  not  be 
certain  until  we  were  up  on  the  ridge  itself. 

We  took  a  little  rest — it  was  not  a  long  one — and  then 
started.  We  were  impatient  to  see  whether  we  could 
get  forward  up  above.  There  could  be  no  question  of 
reaching  the  height  without  double  teams;  first  we  had 
to  get  Hanssen's  and  Wisting's  sledges  up,  and  then  the 
two  others.  We  were  not  particularly  keen  on  thus 
covering  the  ground  twice,  but  the  conditions  made  it 
imperative.  We  should  have  been  pleased  just  then 
if  we  had  known  that  this  was  to  be  the  last  ascent  that 
would  require  double  teams;  but  we  did  not  know  this, 
and  it  was  more  than  any  of  us  dared  to  hope.     The 


Eh 


a 


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o 

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Z 

o 


A  CAMP  ON  THE  MOUNTAIN  51 

same  hard  work,  and  the  same  trouble  to  keep  the  dogs 
at  an  even  pace,  and  then  we  were  up  under  the  ridge 
amongst  the  open  chasms.  To  go  farther  without  a 
careful  examination  of  the  ground  was  not  to  be  thought 
of.  Doubtless,  our  day's  march  had  not  been  a  par- 
ticularly long  one,  but  the  piece  we  had  covered  had 
indeed  been  fatiguing  enough.  We  therefore  camped, 
and  set  our  tent  at  an  altitude  of  5,650  feet  above 

the  sea. 

We  at  once  proceeded  to  reconnoitre,  and  the  first 
thing  to  be  examined  was  the  way  we  had  seen  from 
below.  This  led  in  the  right  direction— that  is,  in  the 
direction  of  the  glacier,  east  and  west — and  was  thus 
the  shortest.  But  it  is  not  always  the  shortest  way  that 
is  the  best;  here,  in  any  case,  it  was  to  be  hoped  that 
another  and  longer  one  would  offer  better  conditions. 
The  shortest  way  was  awful— possibly  not  altogether 
impracticable,  if  no  better  was  to  be  found.  First  we  had 
to  work  our  way  across  a  hard,  smooth  slope,  which  formed 
an  angle  of  45  degrees,  and  ended  in  a  huge,  bottomless 
chasm.  It  was  no  great  pleasure  to  cross  over  here  on 
ski,  but  with  heavily-laden  sledges  the  enjoyment  would 
be  still  less.  The  prospect  of  seeing  sledge,  driver,  and 
dogs  slide  down  sideways  and  disappear  into  the  abyss 
was  a  great  one.  We  got  across  with  whole  skins  on 
ski,  and  continued  our  exploration.  The  mountain-side 
along  which  we  were  advancing  gradually  narrowed 
between  vast  fissures  above  and  vaster  fissures  below. 


52  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

and  finally  passed  by  a  very  narrow  bridge — hardly 
broader  than  the  sledges — into  the  glacier.  On  each 
side  of  the  bridge,  one  looked  down  into  a  deep  blue 
chasm.  To  cross  here  did  not  look  very  inviting;  no 
doubt  we  could  take  the  dogs  out  and  haul  the  sledges 
over,  and  thus  manage  it — presuming  the  bridge  held — 
but  our  further  progress,  which  would  have  to  be  made 
on  the  glacier,  would  apparently  offer  many  surprises 
of  an  unpleasant  kind.  It  was  quite  possible  that,  with 
time  and  patience,  one  would  be  able  to  tack  through 
the  aj^parently  endless  succession  of  deep  crevasses;  but 
we  should  first  have  to  see  whether  something  better 
than  this  could  not  be  found  in  another  direction.  We 
therefore  returned  to  camp. 

Here  in  the  meantime  everything  had  been  put  in 
order,  the  tent  set  up,  and  the  dogs  fed.  Now  came 
the  great  question:  What  was  there  on  the  other  side 
of  the  ridge?  Was  it  the  same  desperate  confusion,  or 
would  the  ground  off'er  better  facilities?  Three  of  us 
went  off  to  see.  Excitement  rose  as  we  neared  the 
saddle ;  so  much  depended  on  finding  a  reasonable  way. 
One  more  pull  and  we  were  up;  it  was  worth  the 
trouble.  The  first  glance  showed  us  that  this  was  the 
way  we  had  to  go.  The  mountain-side  ran  smooth  and 
even  under  the  lofty  summit — like  a  gabled  church 
tower — of  Mount  Don  Pedro  Christophersen,  and 
followed  the  direction  of  the  glacier.  We  could  see 
the  place  where  this  long,  even  surface  united  with  the 


EXPLORING  THE  WAY  53 

glacier;  to  all  appearance  it  was  free  from  disturbance. 
We  saw  some  crevasses,  of  course,  but  they  were  far 
apart,  and  did  not  give  us  the  idea  that  they  would 
be  a  hindrance.  But  we  were  still  too  far  from  the 
spot  to  be  able  to  draw  any  certain  conclusions  as  to 
the  character  of  the  ground;  we  therefore  set  off 
towards  the  bottom  to  examine  the  conditions  more 
closely.  The  surface  was  loose  up  here,  and  the  snow 
fairly  deep;  our  ski  slipped  over  it  well,  but  it  would 
be  heavy  for  dogs.  We  advanced  rapidly,  and  soon 
came  to  the  huge  crevasses.  They  were  big  enough 
and  deep  enough,  but  so  scattered  that,  without  much 
trouble,  we  could  find  a  way  between  them.  The 
hollow  between  the  two  mountains,  which  was  filled 
by  the  Heiberg  Glacier,  grew  narrower  and  narrower 
towards  the  end,  and,  although  appearances  were  still 
very  pleasant,  I  expected  to  find  some  disturbance  when 
we  arrived  at  the  point  where  the  mountain-side  passed 
into  the  glacier.  But  my  fears  proved  groundless;  by 
keeping  right  under  Don  Pedro  we  went  clear  of  all 
trouble,  and  in  a  short  time,  to  our  great  joy,  we  found 
ourselves  above  and  beyond  that  chaotic  part  of  the 
Heiberg  Glacier  which  had  completely  barred  our 
progress. 

Up  here  all  was  strangely  peaceful;  the  mountain- 
side and  the  glacier  united  in  a  great  flat  terrace — a 
plain,  one  might  call  it — without  disturbance  of  any 
kind.    We  could  see  depressions  in  the  surface  where 


54  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

the  huge  crevasses  had  formerly  existed,  but  now  they 
were  entirely  filled  up,  and  formed  one  with  the  surround- 
ing level.  We  could  now  see  right  to  the  end  of  this 
mighty  glacier,  and  form  some  idea  of  its  proportions. 
Mount  Wilhelm  Christophersen  and  Mount  Ole  Engel- 
stad  formed  the  end  of  it;  these  two  beehive-shaped 
summits,  entirely  covered  with  snow,  towered  high  into 
the  sky.  We  understood  now  that  the  last  of  the  ascent 
was  before  us,  and  that  what  we  saw  in  the  distance 
between  these  two  mountains  was  the  great  plateau 
itself.  The  question,  then,  was  to  find  a  way  up,  and  to 
conquer  this  last  obstruction  in  the  easiest  manner.  In 
the  radiantly  clear  air  we  could  see  the  smallest  details 
with  our  excellent  prismatic  glasses,  and  make  our 
calculations  with  great  confidence.  It  would  be  possible 
to  clamber  up  Don  Pedro  himself;  we  had  done  things 
as  difficult  before.  But  here  the  side  of  the  mountain 
was  fairly  steep,  and  full  of  big  crevasses  and  a  fearful 
quantity  of  gigantic  blocks  of  ice.  Between  Don  Pedro 
and  WiUiehn  Christophersen  an  arm  of  the  glacier  went 
up  on  to  the  plateau,  but  it  was  so  disturbed  and  broken 
up  that  it  could  not  be  used.  Between  Wilhelm 
Christophersen  and  Ole  Engelstad  there  was  no  means 
of  getting  through.  Between  Ole  Engelstad  and  Fridtjof 
Nansen,  on  the  other  hand,  it  looked  more  promising, 
but  as  yet  the  first  of  these  mountains  obstructed  our 
view  so  much  that  we  could  not  decide  with  certainty. 
We  were  all  three  rather  tired,  but  agreed  to  continue 


BACK  TO  CAMP  55 

our  excursion,  and  find  out  what  was  here  concealed. 
Our  work  to-day  would  make  our  progress  to-morrow 
so  much  the  easier.  We  therefore  went  on,  and  laid 
our  course  straight  over  the  topmost  flat  terrace  of  the 
Heiberg  Glacier.  As  we  advanced,  the  ground  between 
Nansen  and  Engelstad  opened  out  more  and  more,  and 
without  going  any  farther  we  were  able  to  decide  from 
the  formations  that  here  we  should  undoubtedly  find  the 
best  way  up.  If  the  final  ascent  at  the  end  of  the 
glacier,  which  was  only  partly  visible,  should  present 
difficulties,  we  could  make  out  from  where  we  stood 
that  it  would  be  possible,  without  any  great  trouble,  to 
work  our  way  over  the  upper  end  of  the  Nansen  Moun- 
tain itself,  which  here  passed  into  the  plateau  by  a  not 
too  difficult  glacier.  Yes,  now  we  were  certain  that  it 
was  indeed  the  great  plateau  and  nothing  else  that  we 
saw  before  us.  In  the  pass  between  the  two  mountains, 
and  some  little  distance  within  the  plateau,  Helland 
Hansen  showed  up,  a  very  curious  peak  to  look  at.  It 
seemed  to  stick  its  nose  up  through  the  plateau,  and  no 
more;  its  shape  was  long,  and  it  reminded  one  of 
nothing  so  much  as  the  ridge  of  a  roof.  Although  this 
peak  was  thus  only  just  visible,  it  stood  11,000  feet 
above  the  sea. 

After  we  had  examined  the  conditions  here,  and  found 
out  that  on  the  following  day — if  the  weather  per- 
mitted— we  should  reach  the  plateau,  we  turned  back, 
well  satisfied  with  the  result  of  our  trip.    We  all  agreed 


56  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

that  we  were  tired,  and  longing  to  reach  camp  and  get 
some  food.  The  place  where  we  turned  was,  according 
to  the  aneroid,  8,000  feet  above  the  sea;  we  were  there- 
fore 2,500  feet  higher  than  our  tent  down  on  the  hill-side. 
Going  down  in  our  old  tracks  was  easier  work,  though 
the  return  journey  was  somewhat  monotonous.  In  many 
places  the  slope  was  rapid,  and  not  a  few  fine  runs  were 
made.  On  approaching  our  camping-ground  we  had 
the  sharpest  descent,  and  here,  reluctant  as  we  might  be, 
we  found  it  wiser  to  put  both  our  poles  together  and 
form  a  strong  brake.  We  came  down  smartly  enough, 
all  the  same.  It  was  a  grand  and  imposing  sight  we 
had  when  we  came  out  on  the  ridge  under  which — far 
below — our  tent  stood.  Surrounded  on  all  sides  by 
huge  crevasses  and  gaping  chasms,  it  could  not  be  said 
that  the  site  of  our  camp  looked  very  inviting.  The 
wildness  of  the  landscape  seen  from  this  point  is  not 
to  be  described;  chasm  after  chasm,  crevasse  after 
ci'evasse,  with  great  blocks  of  ice  scattered  promiscuously 
about,  gave  one  the  impression  that  here  Nature  was  too 
powerful  for  us.  Here  no  progress  was  to  be  thought  of. 
It  was  not  without  a  certain  satisfaction  that  we 
stood  there  and  contemplated  the  scene.  The  little  dark 
speck  down  there — our  tent — in  the  midst  of  this  chaos, 
gave  us  a  feeling  of  strength  and  power.  We  knew  in 
oiu*  hearts  tliat  the  ground  would  have  to  be  ugly  indeed 
if  we  were  not  to  manoeuvre  our  way  across  it  and  find 
a  place  for  that  little  home  of  ours.    Crash  upon  crash^ 


AVALANCHES  57 

roar  upon  roar,  met  our  ears.  Now  it  was  a  shot  from 
Mount  Nansen,  now  from  one  of  the  others;  we  could 
see  the  clouds  of  snow  rise  high  into  the  air.  It  was 
evident  that  these  mountains  were  throwing  off  their 
winter  mantles  and  putting  on  a  more  spring-like  garb 

We  came  at  a  tearing  pace  down  to  the  tent,  where 
our  companions  had  everything  in  most  perfect  order. 
The  dogs  lay  snoring  in  the  heat  of  the  sun,  and  hardly 
condescended  to  move  when  we  came  scudding  in  among 
them.  Inside  the  tent  a  regular  tropical  heat  prevailed ; 
the  sun  was  shining  directly  on  to  the  red  cloth  and 
warming  it.  The  Primus  hummed  and  hissed,  and  the 
pemmican-pot  bubbled  and  spurted.  We  desired  nothing 
better  in  the  world  than  to  get  in,  fling  ourselves  down, 
eat,  and  drink.  The  news  we  brought  was  no  trifling 
matter — the  plateau  to-morrow.  It  sounded  almost  too 
good  to  be  true ;  we  had  reckoned  that  it  would  take  us 
ten  days  to  get  up,  and  now  we  should  do  it  in  four.  In 
this  way  we  saved  a  great  deal  of  dog  food,  as  we  should 
be  able  to  slaughter  the  superfluous  animals  six  days 
earlier  than  we  had  calculated.  It  was  quite  a  little 
feast  that  evening  in  the  tent;  not  that  we  had  any 
more  to  eat  than  usual — we  could  not  allow  ourselves 
that — but  the  thought  of  the  fresh  dog  cutlets  that 
awaited  us  when  we  got  to  the  top  made  our  mouths 
water.  In  course  of  time  we  had  so  habituated 
ourselves  to  the  idea  of  the  approaching  slaughter  that 
this  event  did  not  appear  to  us  so  horrible  as  it  would 

VOL.  II.  30 


58  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

otherwise  have  done.  Judgment  had  already  been 
pronounced,  and  the  selection  made  of  those  who  were 
worthy  of  prolonged  life  and  those  who  were  to  be 
sacrificed.  This  had  been,  I  may  add,  a  difficult  problem 
to  solve,  so  efficient  were  they  all. 

The  rumblings  continued  all  night,  and  one  avalanche 
after  another  exposed  parts  of  the  mountain-sides  that 
had  been  concealed  from  time  immemorial.  The 
following  day,  November  20,  we  were  up  and  away 
at  the  usual  time,  about  8  a.m.  The  weather  was 
splendid,  calm  and  clear.  Getting  up  over  the  saddle 
was  a  rough  beginning  of  the  day  for  our  dogs,  and  they 
gave  a  good  account  of  themselves,  pulling  the  sledges 
up  with  single  teams  this  time.  The  going  was  heavy, 
as  on  the  preceding  day,  and  our  advance  through  the 
loose  snow  was  not  rapid.  We  did  not  follow  our 
tracks  of  the  day  before,  but  laid  our  course  directty  for 
the  place  where  we  had  decided  to  attempt  the  ascent. 
As  we  approached  INIount  Ole  Engelstad,  under  which 
we  had  to  pass  in  order  to  come  into  the  arm  of  the 
glacier  between  it  and  Mount  Nansen,  our  excitement 
began  to  rise.  What  does  the  end  look  like?  Does 
the  glacier  go  smoothly  on  into  the  plateau,  or  is  it 
broken  up  and  impassable  ?  We  rounded  JNIount  Engel- 
stad more  and  more ;  wider  and  wider  grew  the  opening. 
The  surface  looked  extremely  good  as  it  gradually  came 
into  view,  and  it  did  not  seem  as  though  our  assumption 
of  the  previous  day  would  be  put  to  shame.     At  last 


THE  LAST  ASCENT  59 

the  whole  landscape  opened  out,  and  without  obstruction 
of  any  kind  whatever  the  last  part  of  the  ascent  lay 
before  us.  It  was  both  long  and  steep  from  the  look  of 
it,  and  we  agreed  to  take  a  little  rest  before  beginning 
the  final  attack. 

We  stopped  right  under  Mount  Engelstad  in  a  warm 
and  sunny  place,  and  allowed  ourselves  on  this  occasion 
a  little  lunch,  an  indulgence  that  had  not  hitherto  been 
permitted.  The  cooking-case  was  taken  out,  and  soon 
the  Primus  was  humming  in  a  way  that  told  us  it  would 
not  be  long  before  the  chocolate  was  ready.  It  was  a 
heavenly  treat,  that  drink.  We  had  all  walked  our- 
selves warm,  and  our  throats  were  as  dry  as  tinder. 
The  contents  of  the  pot  were  served  roimd  by  the  cook — 
Hanssen.  It  was  no  use  asking  him  to  share  alike;  he 
could  not  be  persuaded  to  take  more  than  half  of  what 
was  due  to  him— the  rest  he  had  to  divide  among  his 
comrades.  The  drink  he  had  prepared  this  time  was 
what  he  called  chocolate,  but  I  had  some  difficulty  in 
believing  him.  He  was  economical,  was  Hanssen,  and 
permitted  no  extravagance;  that  could  be  seen  very 
well  by  his  chocolate.  Well,  after  all,  to  people  who 
were  accustomed  to  regard  "  bread  and  water "  as  a 
luxury,  it  tasted,  as  I  have  said,  heavenly.  It  was  the 
liquid  part  of  the  lunch  that  was  served  extra;  if  any- 
one wanted  something  to  eat,^  he  had  to  provide  it 
himself — nothing  was  offered  him.  Happy  was  he  who 
had  saved  some  biscuits  from  his  breakfast! 


60  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

Our  halt  was  not  a  very  long  one.  It  is  a  queer 
thing  that,  when  one  only  has  on  light  underclothing 
and  windproof  overalls,  one  cannot  stand  still  for  long 
without  feeling  cold.  Although  the  temperature  was 
no  lower  than  -  4°  F.,  we  were  glad  to  be  on  the  move 
again.  The  last  ascent  was  fairly  hard  work,  especially 
the  first  half  of  it.  We  never  expected  to  do  it  with 
single  teams,  but  tried  it  all  the  same.  For  this  last 
pull  up  I  must  give  the  highest  praise  both  to  the  dogs 
and  their  drivers;  it  was  a  brilliant  performance  on 
both  sides.  I  can  still  see  the  situation  clearlv  before 
me.  The  dogs  seemed  positively  to  understand  that 
this  was  the  last  big  effort  that  was  asked  of  them ;  they 
lay  flat  down  and  hauled,  dug  their  cla\^'s .  in  and 
dragged  themselves  forward.  But  they  had  to  stop  and 
get  breath  pretty  often,  and  then  the  driver's  strength 
was  put  to  the  test.  It  is  no  child's  play  to  set  a 
heavily-laden  sledge  in  motion  time  after  time.  How 
they  toiled,  men  and  beasts,  up  that  slope!  But  they 
got  on,  inch  by  inch,  until  the  steepest  part  was  behind 
them.  Before  them  lay  the  rest  of  the  ascent  in  a 
gentle  rise,  up  which  they  could  drive  without  a  stop. 
It  was  stiff,  nevertheless,  and  it  took  a  long  time  before 
we  were  all  up  on  the  plateau  on  the  southern  side  of 
Mount  Engelstad. 

We  were  very  curious  and  anxious  to  see  what  the 
plateau  looked  like.  We  had  expected  a  great,  level 
plain,  extending  boundlessly  towards  the  south;  but  in 


AT  THE  TOP  61 

this  we  were  disappointed.  Towards  the  south-west  it 
looked  very  level  and  fine,  but  that  was  not  the  way  we 
had  to  go.  Towards  the  south  the  ground  continued  to 
rise  in  long  ridges  running  east  and  west,  probably  a 
continuation  of  the  mountain  chain  running  to  the 
south-east,  or  a  connection  between  it  and  the  plateau. 
We  stubbornly  continued  our  march;  we  would  not 
give  in  until  we  had  the  plain  itself  before  us.  Our 
hope  was  that  the  ridge  projecting  from  Mount  Don 
Pedro  Christophersen  would  be  the  last ;  we  now  had  it 
before  us.  The  going  changed  at  once  up  here ;  the  loose 
snow  disappeared,  and  a  few  wind-waves(5a5frw^')  began 
to  show  themselves.  These  were  specially  unpleasant  to 
deal  with  on  this  last  ridge ;  they  lay  from  south-east  to 
north-west,  and  were  as  hard  as  flints  and  as  sharp  as 
knives.  A  fall  among  them  might  have  had  very 
serious  consequences.  One  would  have  thought  the 
dogs  had  had  enough  work  that  day  to  tire  them,  but 
this  last  ridge,  with  its  unpleasant  snow-waves,  did  not 
seem  to  trouble  them  in  the  least.  We  all  drove  up 
gaily,  towed  by  the  sledges,  on  to  what  looked  to  us 
like  the  final  plateau,  and  halted  at  8  p.m.  The 
weather  had  held  fine,  and  we  could  apparently  see  a 
very  long  way.  In  the  far  distance,  extending  to  the 
north-west,  rose  peak  after  peak ;  this  was  the  chain  of 
mountains  running  to  the  south-east,  which  we  now 
saw  from  the  other  side.  In  our  own  vicinity,  on  the 
other   hand,    we    saw   nothing   but   the   backs    of   the 


62  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

mountains  so  frequently  mentioned.  We  afterwards 
learned  how  deceptive  the  light  can  be.  I  consulted 
the  aneroid  immediately  on  our  arrival  at  the  camping- 
ground,  and  it  showed  10,920  feet  above  the  sea,  which 
the  hypsometer  afterwards  confirmed.  All  the  sledge- 
meters  gave  seventeen  geographical  miles,  or  thirty-one 
kilometres  (nineteen  and  a  quarter  statute  miles) .  This 
day's  work — nineteen  and  a  quarter  miles,  with  an  ascent 
of  5,750  feet — gives  us  some  idea  of  what  can  be 
performed  by  dogs  in  good  training.  Our  sledges  still 
had  what  might  be  considered  heavy  loads;  it  seems 
superfluous  to  give  the  animals  any  other  testimonial 
than  the  bare  fact. 

It  was  difficult  to  find  a  place  for  the  tent,  so  hard 
was  the  snow  up  here.  We  found  one,  however,  and 
set  the  tent.  Sleeping-bags  and  kit-bags  were  handed 
in  to  me,  as  usual,  through  the  tent-door,  and  I  arranged 
everything  inside.  The  cooking-case  and  the  necessary 
provisions  for  that  evening  and  the  next  morning 
were  also  passed  in;  but  the  part  of  my  work  that 
went  more  quickly  than  usual  that  night  was  getting 
the  Primus  started,  and  pumping  it  up  to  high- 
pressure.  I  was  hoping  thereby  to  produce  enough 
noise  to  deaden  the  shots  that  I  knew  would  soon 
be  heard — twenty-four  of  our  brave  companions  and 
faithful  helpers  were  marked  out  for  death.  It  was 
liard — but  it  had  to  be  so.  We  had  agreed  to  shrink 
from  nothing  in  order  to  reach  our  goal.     Each  man 


DOGS  SLAUGHTERED  63 

was  to  kill  his  own  dogs  to  the  number  that  had  been 
fixed. 

The  pemmican  was  cooked  remarkably  quickly  that 
evening,  and  I  believe  I  was  unusually  industrious  in 
stirring  it.  There  went  the  first  shot — I  am  not  a 
nervous  man,  but  I  must  admit  that  I  gave  a  start.  Shot 
now  followed  upon  shot — they  had  an  uncanny  sound 
over  the  great  plain.  A  trusty  servant  lost  his  life  each 
time.  It  was  long  before  the  first  man  reported  that  he 
had  finished;  they  were  all  to  open  their  dogs,  and  take 
out  the  entrails  to  prevent  the  meat  being  contaminated. 
The  entrails  were  for  the  most  part  devoured  warm  on 
the  spot  by  the  victims'  comrades,  so  voracious  were 
they  all.  Suggen,  one  of  Wisting's  dogs,  was  especially 
eager  for  warm  entrails;  after  enjoying  this  luxury,  he 
could  be  seen  staggering  about  in  a  quite  misshapen 
condition.  Many  of  the  dogs  would  not  touch  them  at 
first,  but  their  appetite  came  after  a  while. 

The  holiday  humour  that  ought  to  have  prevailed  in 
the  tent  that  evening — our  first  on  the  plateau — did  not 
make  its  appearance;  there  was  depression  and  sadness 
in  the  air — we  had  grown  so  fond  of  our  dogs.  The 
place  was  named  the  "  Butcher's  Shop."  It  had  been 
arranged  that  we  should  stop  here  two  days  to  rest  and 
eat  dog.  There  was  more  than  one  among  us  who  at 
first  would  not  hear  of  taking  any  part  in  this  feast ;  but 
as  time  went  by,  and  appetites  became  sharper,  this 
view  underwent  a  change,  until,  during  the  last  few 


64  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

days  before  reaching  the  Butcher's  Shop,  we  all  thought 
and  talked  of  nothing  but  dog  cutlets,  dog  steaks,  and 
the  like.  But  on  this  first  evening  we  put  a  restraint 
on  ourselves;  we  thought  we  could  not  fall  upon  our 
four-footed  friends  and  devour  them  before  they  had 
had  time  to  grow  cold. 

We  quickly  found  out  that  the  Butcher's  Shop  was 
not  a  hospitable  locality.  During  the  night  the  tem- 
perature sank,  and  violent  gusts  of  wind  swept  over  the 
plain;  they  shook  and  tore  at  the  tent,  but  it  would 
take  more  than  that  to  get  a  hold  of  it.  The  dogs 
spent  the  night  in  eating;  we  could  hear  the  crunching 
and  grinding  of  their  teeth  whenever  we  were  awake  for 
a  moment.  The  effect  of  the  great  and  sudden  change 
of  altitude  made  itself  felt  at  once;  when  I  wanted  to 
turn  round  in  my  bag,  I  had  to  do  it  a  bit  at  a  time,  so 
as  not  to  get  out  of  breath.  That  my  comrades  were 
affected  in  the  same  way,  I  knew  without  asking  them ; 
my  ears  told  me  enough. 

It  was  calm  when  we  turned  out,  but  the  weather  did 
not  look  altogether  promising;  it  was  overcast  and 
threatening.  We  occupied  the  forenoon  in  flaying  a 
number  of  dogs.  As  I  have  said,  all  the  survivors  were 
not  yet  in  a  mood  for  dog's  flesh,  and  it  therefore  had 
to  be  served  in  the  most  enticing  form.  When  flayed 
and  cut  up,  it  went  down  readily  all  along  the  line; 
even  the  most  fastidious  then  overcame  their  scruples. 
But  with  the  skin  on  we  should  not  have  been  able  to 


THE  BUTCHER'S  SHOP  65 

persuade  them  all  to  eat  that  morning;  probably  this 
distaste  was  due  to  the  smell  clinging  to  the  skins,  and 
I  must  admit  that  it  was  not  appetizing.  The  meat 
itself,  as  it  lay  there  cut  up,  looked  well  enough,  in  all 
conscience;  no  butcher's  shop  could  have  exhibited  a 
finer  sight  than  we  showed  after  flaying  and  cutting 
up  ten  dogs.  Great  masses  of  beautiful  fresh,  red 
meat,  with  quantities  of  the  most  tempting  fat,  lay 
spread  over  the  snow.  The  dogs  went  round  and  sniffed 
at  it.  Some  helped  themselves  to  a  piece;  others  were 
digesting.  We  men  had  picked  out  what  we  thought 
was  the  youngest  and  tenderest  one  for  ourselves.  The 
whole  arrangement  was  left  to  Wisting,  both  the  selec- 
tion and  the  preparation  of  the  cutlets.  His  choice  fell 
upon  Rex,  a  beautiful  little  animal — one  of  his  own 
dogs,  by  the  way.  With  the  skill  of  an  expert,  he  hacked 
and  cut  away  what  he  considered  would  be  sufficient 
for  a  meal.  I  could  not  take  my  eyes  off  his  work ;  the 
delicate  little  cutlets  had  an  absolutely  hypnotizing 
effect  as  they  were  spread  out  one  by  one  over  the 
snow.  They  recalled  memories  of  old  days,  when  no 
doubt  a  dog  cutlet  would  have  been  less  tempting  than 
now — memories  of  dishes  on  which  the  cutlets  were 
elegantly  arranged  side  by  side,  with  paper  frills  on  the 
bones,  and  a  neat  pile  of  petits  pois  in  the  middle.  All, 
my  thoughts  wandered  still  farther  afield — but  that 
does  not  concern  us  now,  nor  has  it  anything  to  do  with 
the  South  Pole. 


66  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

I  was  aroused  from  my  musings  by  Wisting  digging 
his  axe  into  the  snow  as  a  sign  that  his  work  was  done, 
after  which  he  picked  up  the  cutlets,  and  went  into  the 
tent.  The  clouds  had  dispersed  somewhat,  and  from 
time  to  time  the  sun  appeared,  though  not  in  its  most 
genial  aspect.  We  succeeded  in  catching  it  just  in  time 
to  get  our  latitude  determined — 85°  36'  S.  We  were 
lucky,  as  not  long  after  the  wind  got  up  from  the  east- 
south-east,  and,  before  we  knew  what  was  happening, 
everything  was  in  a  cloud  of  snow.  But  now  we 
snapped  our  fingers  at  the  weather;  what  difference 
did  it  make  to  us  if  the  wind  howled  in  the  guy-ropes 
and  the  snow  drifted?  We  had,  in  any  case,  made  up 
our  minds  to  stay  here  for  a  while,  and  we  had  food  in 
abundance.  We  knew  the  dogs  thought  much  the  same : 
so  long  as  we  have  enough  to  eat,  let  the  weather  go  hang. 

Inside  the  tent  Wisting  was  getting  on  well  when  we 
came  in  after  making  these  observations.  The  pot  was 
on,  and,  to  judge  by  the  savoury  smell,  the  preparations 
were  already  far  advanced.  The  cutlets  were  not  fried ; 
we  had  neither  frying-pan  nor  butter.  We  could,  no 
doubt,  have  got  some  lard  out  of  the  pemmican,  and  we 
might  have  contrived  some  sort  of  a  pan,  so  that  we 
could  have  fried  them  if  it  had  been  necessary;  but  we 
found  it  far  easier  and  quicker  to  boil  them,  and  in  this 
way  we  got  excellent  soup  into  the  bargain.  Wisting 
knew  his  business  surprisingly  well;  he  had  put  into 
the  soup  all  those  parts  of  the  pemmican  that  contained 


PROVISIONS  TRANSFERRED  67 

most  vegetables,  and  now  he  served  us  the  finest  fresh 
meat  soup  with  vegetables  in  it.  The  clou  of  the  repast 
was  the  dish  of  cutlets.  If  we  had  entertained  the 
slightest  doubt  of  the  quality  of  the  meat,  this  vanished 
instantly  on  the  first  trial.  The  meat  was  excellent, 
quite  excellent,  and  one  cutlet  after  another  disap- 
peared with  lightning-like  rapidity.  I  must  admit  that 
they  would  have  lost  nothing  by  being  a  little  more 
tender,  but  one  must  not  expect  too  much  of  a  dog. 
At  this  first  meal  I  finished  five  cutlets  myself,  and 
looked  in  vain  in  the  pot  for  more.  Wisting  appeared 
not  to  have  reckoned  on  such  a  brisk  demand. 

We  employed  the  afternoon  in  going  through  our 
stock  of  provisions,  and  dividing  the  whole  of  it  among 
three  sledges;  the  fourth — Hassel's — was  to  be  left 
behind.  The  provisions  were  thus  divided.  Sledge 
No.  1  (Wisting's)  contained: 

Biscuits,  3,700  (daily  ration,  40  biscuits  per  man). 

Dogs'  pemmican,  2771  pounds  (i  kilogram,  or 
1  pound  11  ounces  per  dog  per  day). 

Men's  pemmican,  59i  pounds  (350  grams,  or 
1234  ounces  per  man  per  day). 

Chocolate,  12f  pounds  (40  grams,  or  1*4  ounces  per 
man  per  day). 

Milk-powder,  13^  pounds  (60  grams,  or  2*1  ounces 
per  man  per  day) . 

The  other  two  sledges  had  approximately  the  same 
supplies,  and  thus  permitted  us  on  leaving  this  place  to 


68  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

extend  our  march  over  a  period  of  sixty  daj-s  with  full 
rations.  Our  eighteen  surviving  dogs  were  divided  into 
three  teams,  six  in  each.  According  to  our  calculation, 
we  ought  to  be  able  to  reach  the  Pole  from  here  with 
these  eighteen,  and  to  leave  it  again  with  sixteen. 
Hassel,  who  was  to  leave  his  sledge  at  this  point,  thus 
concluded  his  provision  account,  and  the  divided  pro- 
visions were  entered  in  the  books  of  the  three  others. 

All  this,  then,  was  done  that  day  on  paper.  It 
remained  to  make  the  actual  transfer  of  provisions  later, 
when  the  weather  permitted.  To  go  out  and  do  it  that 
afternoon  was  not  advisable.  Next  day,  November  23, 
the  wind  had  gone  round  to  the  north-east,  with  com- 
paratively manageable  weather,  so  at  seven  in  the 
morning  we  began  to  repack  the  sledges.  This  was  not 
an  altogether  pleasant  task;  although  the  weather 
was  what  I  have  called  "  comparatively  manageable," 
it  was  very  far  from  being  suitable  for  packing  pro- 
visions. The  chocolate,  which  by  this  time  consisted 
chiefly  of  very  small  pieces,  had  to  be  taken  out, 
counted,  and  then  divided  among  the  three  sledges. 
The  same  with  the  biscuits;  every  single  biscuit  had  to 
be  taken  out  and  counted,  and  as  yve  had  some  thousands 
of  them  to  deal  with,  it  will  readilv  be  understood  what 
it  was  to  stand  there  in  about  -  4°  F.  and  a  gale  of 
wind,  most  of  the  time  with  bare  hands,  fumbling  over 
this  troublesome  occupation.  The  wind  increased  while 
we  were  at  work,  and  when  at  last  we  had  finished,  the 


WEATHER-BOUND  69 

snow  was  so  thick  that  we  could  scarcely  see  the 
tent. 

Our  original  intention  of  starting  again  as  soon  as 
the  sledges  were  ready  was  abandoned.  We  did  not 
lose  very  much  by  this;  on  the  contrary,  we  gained  on 
the  whole.  The  dogs — the  most  important  factor  of  all 
— had  a  thorough  rest,  and  were  well  fed.  They  had 
undergone  a  remarkable  change  since  our  arrival  at  the 
Butcher's  Shop;  they  now  wandered  about,  fat,  sleek, 
and  contented,  and  their  former  voracity  had  completely 
disappeared.  As  regards  ourselves,  a  day  or  two  longer 
made  no  difference;  our  most  important  article  of  diet, 
the  pemmican,  was  practically  left  untouched,  as  for  the 
time  being  dog  had  completely. taken  its  place.  There 
was  thus  no  great  sign  of  depression  to  be  noticed  when 
we  came  back  into  the  tent  after  finishing  our  work, 
and  had  to  while  away  the  time.  As  I  went  in,  I  could 
descry  Wisting  a  little  way  off  kneeling  on  the  ground, 
and  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  cutlets.  The  dogs 
stood  in  a  ring  round  him,  and  looked  on  with  interest. 
The  north-east  wind  whistled  and  howled,  the  air  was 
thick  with  driving  snow,  and  Wisting  was  not  to  be 
envied.  But  he  managed  his  work  well,  and  we  got 
our  dinner  as  usual.  During  the  evening  the  wind 
moderated  a  little,  and  went  more  to  the  east;  we  went 
to  sleep  with  the  best  hopes  for  the  following  day. 

Saturday,  November  25,  came ;  it  was  a  grand  day  in 
many  respects.     I  had  already  seen  proofs  on  several 


70  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

occasions  of  the  kind  of  men  my  comrades  were,  but 
their  conduct  that  day  was  such  that  I  shall  never 
forget  it,  to  whatever  age  I  may  live.  In  the  course  of 
the  night  the  wind  had  gone  back  to  the  north,  and 
increased  to  a  gale.  It  was  blowing  and  snowing  so 
that  when  we  came  out  in  the  morning  we  could  not 
see  the  sledges;  they  were  half  snowed  under.  The 
dogs  had  all  crept  together,  and  protected  themselves  as 
well  as  they  could  against  the  blizzard.  The  tempera- 
ture was  not  so  very  low  (- 16*6°  F.),  but  low  enough 
to  be  disagreeably  felt  in  a  storm.  We  had  all  taken  a 
turn  outside  to  look  at  the  weather,  and  were  sitting  on 
our  sleeping-bags  discussing  the  poor  prospect.  "  It's 
the  devil's  own  weather  here  at  the  Butcher's,"  said 
one;  "it  looks  to  me  as  if  it  would  never  get  any 
better.  This  is  the  fifth  day,  and  it's  blowing  worse 
than  ever."  We  all  agreed.  "  There's  nothing  so  bad 
as  lying  weather-bound  like  this,"  continued  another; 
"  it  takes  more  out  of  you  than  going  from  morning  to 
night."  Personally,  I  was  of  the  same  opinion.  One 
day  may  be  pleasant  enough,  but  two,  three,  four, 
and,  as  it  now  seemed,  five  days — no,  it  was  awful. 
"  Shall  we  try  it?"  No  sooner  was  the  proposal  sub- 
mitted than  it  was  accepted  unanimously  and  with 
acclamation.  When  I  think  of  my  four  friends  of  the 
southern  journey,  it  is  the  memory  of  that  morning 
that  comes  first  to  my  mind.  All  the  qualities  that 
I  most  admire  in  a  man  were  clearly  shown  at  that 


r 


WMi,' 


fV     ^i"^! imi^  .\  ^^m^^'^m^ 


/ 


^' 


AT    THE    END    OF    A   DAY's    MARCH  :     THE    POLE    EXPEDITION, 


THE    TEXT    AFTER    A    BLIZZARD. 


To  face  page 'iO,  Vol.  11 


START  IN  A  BLIZZARD  71 

juncture:  courage  and  dauntlessness,  without  boasting 
or  big  words.  Amid  joking  and  chaff,  everything  was 
packed,  and  then — out  into  the  bhzzard. 

It  was  practically  impossible  to  keep  one's  eyes  open ; 
the  fine  drift-snow  penetrated  everywhere,  and  at  times 
one  had  a  feeling  of  being  blind.  The  tent  was  not 
only  drifted  up,  but  covered  with  ice,  and  in  taking 
it  down  we  had  to  handle  it  with  care,  so  as  not  to 
break  it  in  pieces.  The  dogs  were  not  much  inclined 
to  start,  and  it  took  time  to  get  them  into  their  harness, 
but  at  last  we  were  ready.  One  more  glance  over  the 
camping-ground  to  see  that  nothing  we  ought  to  have 
with  us  had  been  forgotten.  The  fourteen  dogs'  car- 
casses that  were  left  were  piled  up  in  a  heap,  and 
Hassel's  sledge  was  set  up  against  it  as  a  mark.  The 
spare  sets  of  dog-harness,  some  Alpine  ropes,  and  all 
our  crampons  for  ice-work,  which  we  now  thought 
would  not  be  required,  were  left  behind.  The  last 
thing  to  be  done  was  planting  a  broken  ski  upright 
by  the  side  of  the  depot.  It  was  Wisting  who  did  this, 
thinking,  presumably,  that  an  extra  mark  would  do  no 
harm.  That  it  was  a  happy  thought  the  future  will 
show. 

And  then  we  were  off.  It  was  a  hard  pull  to  begin 
with,  both  for  men  and  beasts,  as  the  high  sastrugi 
continued  towards  the  south,  and  made  it  extremely 
difficult  to  advance.  Those  who  had  sledges  to  drive 
had  to  be  very  attentive,  and  support  them  so  that  they 


72  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

did  not  capsize  on  the  big  waves,  and  we  who  had  no 
sledges  found  great  difficulty  in  keeping  our  feet,  as  we 
had  nothing  to  lean  against.  We  went  on  like  this, 
slowly  enough,  but  the  main  thing  was  that  we  made 
progress.  The  ground  at  first  gave  one  the  impression 
of  rising,  though  not  much.  The  going  was  extremely 
heavy;  it  was  like  dragging  oneself  through  sand. 
Meanwhile  the  sastrugi  grew  smaller  and  smaller,  and 
finally  they  disappeared  altogether,  and  the  surface 
became  quite  flat.  The  going  also  improved  by  degrees, 
for  what  reason  it  is  difficult  to  say,  as  the  storm  con- 
tinued unabated,  and  the  drift — now  combined  with 
falling  snow — was  thicker  than  ever.  It  was  all  the 
driver  could  do  to  see  his  own  dogs.  The  surface, 
which  had  become  perfectly  level,  had  the  appearance 
at  times  of  sinking ;  in  any  case,  one  would  have  thought 
so  from  the  pace  of  the  sledges.  Now  and  again  the 
dogs  would  set  off  suddenly  at  a  gallop.  The  wind  aft, 
no  doubt,  helped  the  pace  somewhat,  but  it  alone  could 
not  account  for  the  change. 

I  did  not  like  this  tendency  of  the  ground  to  fall 
away.  In  my  opinion,  we  ought  to  have  done  with 
anything  of  that  sort  after  reaching  the  height  at 
which  we  were;  a  slight  slope  upward,  possibly,  but 
down — no,  that  did  not  agree  with  my  reckoning.  So 
far  the  incline  had  not  been  so  great  as  to  cause  un- 
easiness, but  if  it  seriously  began  to  go  downhill,  we 
should  have  to  stop  and  camp.     To  run  down  at  full 


DESCENDING  AGAIN  73 

gallop,  blindly  and  in  complete  ignorance  of  the  ground, 
would  be  madness.  We  might  risk  falling  into  some 
chasm  before  we  had  time  to  pull  up. 

Hanssen,  as  usual,  was  driving  first.  Strictly  speak- 
ing, I  should  now  have  been  going  in  advance,  but  the 
uneven  surface  at  the  start  and  the  rapid  pace  after- 
wards had  made  it  impossible  to  walk  as  fast  as  the  dogs 
could  pull.  I  was  therefore  following  by  the  side  of 
Wisting's  sledge,  and  chatting  with  him.  Suddenly  I 
saw  Hanssen's  dogs  shoot  ahead,  and  downhill  they 
went  at  the  wildest  pace,  Wisting  after  them.  I 
shouted  to  Hanssen  to  stop,  and  he  succeeded  in  doing 
so  by  twisting  his  sledge.  The  others,  who  were 
following,  stopped  when  they  came  up  to  him.  We 
were  in  the  middle  of  a  fairly  steep  descent;  what 
there  might  be  below  was  not  easy  to  decide,  nor  would 
we  try  to  find  out  in  that  weather.  Was  it  possible 
that  we  were  on  our  way  down  through  the  mountains 
again?  It  seemed  more  probable  that  we  lay  on  one  of 
the  numerous  ridges;  but  we  could  be  sure  of  nothing 
before  the  weather  cleared.  We  trampled  down  a  place 
for  the  tent  in  the  loose  snow,  and  soon  got  it  up.  It 
was  not  a  long  day's  march  that  we  had  done — eleven 
and  three-quarter  miles — but  we  had  put  an  end  to 
our  stay  at  the  Butcher's  Shop,  and  that  was  a  great 
thing.  The  boiling-point  test  that  evening  showed  that 
we  were  10,300  feet  above  the  sea,  and  that  we  had 
thus  gone  down  620  feet  from  the  Butcher's.     We 

VOL.  II.  31 


74  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

turned  in  and  went  to  sleep.  As  soon  as  it  brightened, 
we  should  have  to  be  ready  to  jump  out  and  look  at 
the  weather;  one  has  to  seize  every  opportunity  in 
these  regions.  If  one  neglects  to  do  so,  it  may  mean  a 
long  wait  and  much  may  be  lost.  We  therefore  all 
slept  with  one  eye  open,  and  we  knew  well  that  nothing 
could  happen  without  our  noticing  it. 

At  three  in  the  morning  the  sun  cut  through  the 
clouds  and  we  through  the  tent-door.  To  take  in  the 
situation  was  more  than  the  work  of  a  moment.  The 
sun  showed  as  yet  like  a  pat  of  butter,  and  had  not 
succeeded  in  dispersing  the  thick  mists;  the  wind  had 
dropped  somewhat,  but  was  still  fairly  strong.  This  is, 
after  all,  the  worst  part  of  one's  job — turning  out  of 
one's  good,  warm  sleeping-bag,  and  standing  outside  for 
some  time  in  thin  clothes,  watching  the  weather.  We 
knew  by  experience  that  a  gleam  like  this,  a  clearing  in 
the  weather,  might  come  suddenly,  and  then  one  had  to 
be  on  the  spot.  The  gleam  came;  it  did  not  last  long, 
but  long  enough.  We  lay  on  the  side  of  a  ridge  that 
fell  away  pretty  steeply.  The  descent  on  the  south 
was  too  abrupt,  but  on  the  south-east  it  was  better  and 
more  gradual,  and  ended  in  a  wide,  level  tract.  We 
could  see  no  crevasses  or  unpleasantness  of  any  kind. 
It  was  not  very  far  that  we  could  see,  though;  only 
our  nearest  surroundings.  Of  the  mountains  we  saw 
nothing,  neither  Fridtjof  Nansen  nor  Don  Pedro 
Christophersen.     Well    content    with    our    morning's 


STILL  DOWNHILL  75 

work,  we  turned  in  again  and  slept  till  6  a.m.,  when  we 
began  our  morning  preparations.  The  weather,  which 
had  somewhat  improved  during  the  night,  had  now 
broken  loose  again,  and  the  north-easter  was  doing  all 
it  could.  However,  it  would  take  more  than  storm 
and  snow  to  stop  us  now,  since  we  had  discovered  the 
nature  of  our  immediate  surroundings;  if  we  once  got 
down  to  the  plain,  we  knew  that  we  could  always  feel 
our  way  on. 

After  putting  ample  brakes  on  the  sledge-runners, 
we  started  off  downhill  in  a  south-easterly  direction. 
The  slight  idea  of  the  position  that  we  had  been  able  to 
get  in  the  morning  proved  correct.  The  descent  was 
easy  and  smooth,  and  we  reached  the  plain  without  any 
adventure.  We  could  now  once  more  set  our  faces  to 
the  south,  and  in  thick  driving  snow  we  continued  our 
way  into  the  unknown,  with  good  assistance  from  the 
howling  north-easterly  gale.  We  now  recommenced 
the  erection  of  beacons,  which  had  not  been  necessary 
during  the  ascent.  In  the  course  of  the  forenoon  we 
again  passed  over  a  little  ridge,  the  last  of  them  that 
we  encountered.  The  surface  was  now  fine  enough, 
smooth  as  a  floor  and  without  a  sign  of  sastrugi. 
If  our  progress  was  nevertheless  slow  and  difficult,  tliis 
was  due  to  the  wretched  going,  which  was  real  torture 
to  all  of  us.  A  sledge  journey  through  the  Sahara 
could  not  have  offered  a  worse  surface  to  move 
over.    Now  the  forerunners  came  into  their  own,  and 


76  THROUGH  THE  INIOUNTAINS 

from  here  to  the  Pole  Hassel  and  I  took  it  in  turns  to 
occupy  the  position. 

The  weather  improved  in  the  course  of  the  day,  and 
when  we  camped  in  the  afternoon  it  looked  quite 
smihng.  The  sun  came  through  and  gave  a  delightful 
warmth  after  the  last  few  bitter  days.  It  was  not  yet 
clear,  so  that  we  could  see  nothing  of  our  surroundings. 
The  distance  according  to  our  three  sledge-meters  was 
eighteen  and  a  half  miles;  taking  the  bad  going  into 
consideration,  we  had  reason  to  be  well  satisfied  with  it. 
Our  altitude  came  out  at  9,475  feet  above  the  sea,  or  a 
drop  of  825  feet  in  the  course  of  the  day.  This  surprised 
me  greatly.  What  did  it  mean?  Instead  of  rising 
gradually,  we  were  going  slowly  down.  Something 
extraordinary  must  await  us  farther  on,  but  what? 
According  to  dead  reckoning  our  latitude  that  evening 
was  86°  S. 

November  27  did  not  bring  us  the  desired  weather; 
the  night  was  filled  with  sharp  gusts  from  the  north; 
the  morning  came  with  a  slack  wind,  but  accompanied 
by  mist  and  snowfall.  This  was  abominable;  here  we 
were,  advancing  over  absolutely  virgin  ground,  and  able 
to  see  nothing.  The  surface  remained  about  the  same 
— possibly  rather  more  undulating.  That  it  had  been 
blowing  here  at  some  time,  and  violently  too,  was  shown 
bv  the  under-surface,  which  was  composed  of  sastmgi 
as  hard  as  iron.  Luckily  for  us,  the  snowfall  of  the  last 
few  days  had  filled  these  up,  so  as  to  present  a  level 


ADVANCING  BLINDLY  77 

surface.    It  was  heavy  going,  though  better  than  on  the 
previous  day. 

As  we  were  advancing,  still  blindly,  and  fretting  at 
the  persistently  thick  weather,  one  of  us  suddenly  called 
out:  "Hullo,  look  there!"  A  wild,  dark  summit  rose 
high  out  of  the  mass  of  fog  to  the  east-south-east.  It 
was  not  far  away — on  the  contrary,  it  seemed  threaten- 
ingly near  and  right  over  us.  We  stopped  and  looked 
at  the  imposing  sight,  but  Nature  did  not  expose  her 
objects  of  interest  for  long.  The  fog  rolled  over  again, 
thick,  heavy  and  dark,  and  blotted  out  the  view.  We 
knew  now  that  we  had  to  be  prepared  for  surprises. 
After  we  had  gone  about  ten  miles  the  fog  again  lifted 
for  a  moment,  and  we  saw  quite  near — a  mile  or  so 
away — two  long,  narrow  mountain  ridges  to  the  west 
of  us,  running  north  and  south,  and  completely  covered 
with  snow.  These — HeUand  Hansen's  INIountains — 
were  the  only  ones  we  saw  on  our  right  hand  during 
the  march  on  the  plateau;  they  were  between  9,000 
and  10,000  feet  high,  and  would  probably  serve  as 
excellent  landmarks  on  the  return  journey.  There  was 
no  connection  to  be  traced  between  these  mountains 
and  those  lying  to  the  east  of  them;  they  gave  us  the 
impression  of  being  entirely  isolated  summits,  as  we  could 
not  make  out  any  lofty  ridge  running  east  and  west. 
We  continued  our  course  in  the  constant  expectation 
of  finding  some  surprise  or  other  in  our  line  of  route. 
The  air  ahead  of  us  was  as  black  as  pitch,  as  though  it 


78  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

concealed  something.  It  could  not  be  a  storm,  or  it 
would  have  been  already  upon  us.  But  we  went  on 
and  on,  and  nothing  came.  Our  day's  march  was 
eighteen  and  a  half  miles. 

I  see  that  my  diary  for  November  28  does  not  begin 
very  promisingly:  "Fog,  fog — and  again  fog.  Also 
fine  falling  snow,  which  makes  the  going  impossible. 
Poor  beasts,  they  have  toiled  hard  to  get  the  sledges 
forward  to-day."  But  the  day  did  not  turn  out  so 
badly  after  all,  as  we  worked  our  way  out  of  this 
uncertainty  and  found  out  what  was  behind  the  pitch- 
dark  clouds.  During  the  forenoon  the  sun  came 
through  and  thrust  aside  the  fog  for  a  while ;  and  there, 
to  the  south-east,  not  many  miles  away,  lay  an  immense 
mountain  mass.  From  this  mass,  right  across  our 
course,  ran  a  great,  ancient  glacier;  the  sun  shone 
down  upon  it  and  showed  us  a  surface  full  of  huge 
irregularities.  On  the  side  nearest  to  the  mountain  these 
disturbances  were  such  that  a  hasty  glance  was  enough 
to  show  us  the  impossibility  of  advancing  that  way. 
But  right  in  our  line  of  route — straight  on  to  the  glacier 
— it  looked,  as  far  as  we  could  see,  as  though  we  could 
get  along.  The  fog  came  and  went,  and  we  had  to 
take  advantage  of  the  clear  intervals  to  get  our  bear- 
ings. It  would,  no  doubt,  have  been  better  if  we  could 
have  halted,  set  up  our  tent,  and  waited  for  decently 
clear  weather,  so  that  we  might  survey  the  ground  at 
our  ease   and  choose  the  best   way.     Going   forward 


A  GLIMPSE  OF  THE  MOUNTAINS     79 

without  an  idea  of  what  the  ground  was  like,  was  not 
very  pleasant.  But  how  long  should  we  have  to  wait 
for  clear  weather?  That  question  was  unanswerable; 
possibly  a  week,  or  even  a  fortnight,  and  we  had  no 
time  for  that.  Better  go  straight  on,  then,  and  take 
what  might  come. 

What  we  could  see  of  the  glacier  appeared  to  be 
pretty  steep;  but  it  was  only  between  the  south  and 
south-east,  under  the  new  land,  that  the  fog  now  and 
again  lifted  sufficiently  to  enable  us  to  see  anything. 
From  the  south  round  to  the  west  the  fog  lay  as  thick 
as  gruel.  We  could  see  that  the  big  crevasses  lost 
themselves  in  it,  and  the  question  of  what  the  glacier 
looked  like  on  the  west  had  to  be  put  aside  for  the 
moment.  It  was  to  the  south  we  had  to  go,  and  there 
it  was  possible  to  go  forward  a  little  way.  We  continued 
our  march  until  the  ground  began  to  show  signs  of  the 
glacier  in  the  form  of  small  crevasses,  and  then  we 
halted.  It  was  our  intention  to  lighten  our  sledges 
before  tackling  the  glacier ;  from  the  little  we  could  see 
of  it,  it  was  plain  enough  that  we  should  have  stiff  work. 
It  was  therefore  important  to  have  as  little  as  possible 
on  the  sledges. 

We  set  to  work  at  once  to  build  the  depot;  the  snow 
here  was  excellent  for  this  purpose — as  hard  as  glass. 
In  a  short  time  an  immense  erection  of  adamantine 
blocks  of  snow  rose  into  the  air,  containing  provisions 
for  five  men  for  six  days  and  for  eighteen  dogs  for 


80  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

five  days.    A  number  of  small  articles  were  also  left 
behind. 

While  we  were  thus  occupied,  the  fog  had  been 
coming  and  going ;  some  of  the  intervals  had  been  quite 
clear,  and  had  given  me  a  good  view  of  the  nearest  part 
of  the  range.  It  appeared  to  be  quite  isolated,  and 
to  consist  of  four  mountains;  one  of  these — Mount 
Helmer  Hanssen — lay  separated  from  the  rest.  The 
other  three — INIounts  Oscar  Wisting,  Sverre  Hassel,  and 
Olav  Bjaaland — lay  closer  together.  Behind  this  group 
the  air  had  been  heavy  and  black  the  whole  time,  show- 
ing that  more  land  must  be  concealed  there.  Suddenly, 
in  one  of  the  brightest  intervals,  there  came  a  rift  in  this 
curtain,  and  the  summits  of  a  colossal  mountain  mass 
appeared.  Our  first  impression  was  that  this  mountain 
— Mount  Thorvald  Nilsen — must  be  something  over 
20,000  feet  high ;  it  positively  took  our  breath  away,  so 
formidable  did  it  appear.  But  it  was  only  a  glimpse 
that  we  had,  and  then  the  fog  enclosed  it  once  more. 
We  had  succeeded  in  taking  a  few  meagre  bearings  of 
the  different  summits  of  the  nearest  group;  they  were 
not  very  grand,  but  better  ones  were  not  to  be  obtained. 
For  that  matter,  the  site  of  the  depot  was  so  well 
marked  by  its  position  under  the  foot  of  the  glacier  that 
we  agreed  it  would  be  impossible  to  miss  it. 

Having  finished  the  edifice,  which  rose  at  least  6  feet 
into  the  air,  we  put  one  of  our  black  provision  cases  on 
the  top  of  it,  so  as  to  be  able  to  see  it  still  more  easily 


DANGEROUS  CREVASSES  81 

on  the  way  back.  An  observation  we  had  contrived  to 
take  while  the  work  was  in  progress  gave  us  our  latitude 
as  86°  21'  S.  This  did  not  agree  very  well  with  the 
latitude  of  our  dead  reckoning — 86°  23'  S.  Meanwhile 
the  fog  had  again  enveloped  everything,  and  a  fine, 
light  snow  was  falling.  We  had  taken  a  bearing  of  the 
line  of  glacier  that  was  most  free  of  crevasses,  and  so  we 
moved  on  again.  It  was  some  time  before  we  felt  our 
way  up  to  the  glacier.  The  crevasses  at  its  foot  were 
not  large,  but  we  had  no  sooner  entered  upon  the  ascent 
than  the  fun  began.  There  was  something  uncanny 
about  this  perfectly  blind  advance  among  crevasses  and 
chasms  on  all  sides.  We  examined  the  compass  from 
time  to  time,  and  went  forward  cautiously. 

Hassel  and  I  went  in  front  on  a  rope ;  but  that,  after 
all,  was  not  much  of  a  help  to  our  drivers.  We  naturally 
glided  lightly  on  our  ski  over  places  where  the  dogs 
would  easily  fall  through.  This  lowest  part  of  the 
glacier  was  not  entirely  free  from  danger,  as  the  crevasses 
were  often  rendered  quite  invisible  by  a  thin  overlying 
layer  of  snow.  In  clear  weather  it  is  not  so  bad  to  have 
to  cross  such  a  surface,  as  the  effect  of  light  and  shade 
is  usually  to  show  up  the  edges  of  these  insidious  pitfalls, 
but  on  a  day  like  this,  when  everything  looked  alike, 
one's  advance  is  doubtful.  We  kept  it  going,  however, 
by  using  the  utmost  caution.  Wisting  came  near  to 
sounding  the  depth  of  one  of  these  dangerous  crevasses 
with  sledge,  dogs  and  all,  as  the  bridge  he  was  about  to 


82  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

cross  gave  way.  Thanks  to  his  presence  of  mind  and  a 
lightning-Hke  movement — some  would  call  it  luck — he 
managed  to  save  himself.  In  this  way  we  worked  up 
about  200  feet,  but  then  we  came  upon  such  a  labyrinth 
of  yawning  chasms  and  open  abysses  that  we  could  not 
move.  There  was  nothing  to  be  done  but  to  find  the 
least  disturbed  spot,  and  set  the  tent  there. 

As  soon  as  this  was  done  Hanssen  and  I  set  out  to 
explore.  We  were  roped,  and  therefore  safe  enough. 
It  required  some  study  to  find  a  way  out  of  the  trap  we 
had  run  ourselves  into.  Towards  the  group  of  moun- 
tains last  described — which  now  lay  to  the  east  oi  us — 
it  had  cleared  sufficiently  to  give  us  a  fairly  good  view 
of  the  appearance  of  the  glacier  in  that  direction.  What 
we  had  before  seen  at  a  distance,  was  now  confirmed. 
The  part  extending  to  the  mountains  was  so  ground  up 
and  broken  that  there  was  positively  not  a  spot  where 
one  could  set  one's  foot.  It  looked  as  if  a  battle  had 
been  fought  here,  and  the  ammunition  had  been  great 
blocks  of  ice.  They  lay  pell-mell,  one  on  the  top  of 
another,  in  all  directions,  and  evoked  a  picture  of  violent 
confusion.  Thank  God  we  were  not  here  while  this 
was  going  on,  I  thought  to  myself,  as  I  stood  looking 
out  over  this  battlefield;  it  must  have  been  a  spectacle 
like  doomsday,  and  not  on  a  small  scale  either.  To 
advance  in  that  direction,  then,  was  hopeless,  but  that 
was  no  great  matter,  since  our  way  was  to  the  south. 
On  the  south  we  could  see  nothing;  the  fog  lay  thick 


THE  DEVIL'S  GLACIER  83 

and  heavy  there.  All  we  could  do  was  to  try  to  make 
our  way  on,  and  we  therefore  crept  southward. 

On  leaving  our  tent  we  had  first  to  cross  a  com- 
paratively narrow  snow-bridge,  and  then  go  along  a 
ridge  or  saddle,  raised  by  pressure,  with  wide  open 
crevasses  on  both  sides.  This  ridge  led  us  on  to  an  ice- 
wave  about  25  feet  high — a  formation  which  was  due  to 
the  pressure  having  ceased  before  the  wave  had  been 
forced  to  break  and  form  hummocks.  We  saw  well 
enough  that  this  would  be  a  difficult  place  to  pass  with 
sledges  and  dogs,  but  in  default  of  anything  better 
it  would  have  to  be  done.  From  the  top  of  this  wave- 
formation  we  could  see  down  on  the  other  side,  which 
had  hitherto  been  hidden  from  us.  The  fog  prevented 
our  seeing  far,  but  the  immediate  surroundings  were 
enough  to  convince  us  that  with  caution  we  could  beat 
up  farther.  From  the  height  on  which  we  stood,  every 
precaution  would  be  required  to  avoid  going  down  on 
the  other  side;  for  there  the  wave  ended  in  an  open 
crevasse,  specially  adapted  to  receive  any  drivers,  sledges 
or  dogs  that  might  make  a  slip. 

This  trip  that  Hanssen  and  I  took  to  the  south  was 
made  entirely  at  random,  as  we  saw  absolutely  nothing ; 
our  object  was  to  make  tracks  for  the  following  day's 
journey.  The  language  we  used  about  the  glacier  as 
we  went  was  not  altogether  complimentary;  we  had 
endless  tacking  and  turning  to  get  on.  To  go  one  yard 
forward,  I  am  sure  we  had  to  go  at  least  ten  to  one 


84  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

side.  Can  anyone  be  surprised  that  we  called  it  the 
Devil's  Glacier?  At  any  rate,  our  companions  ac- 
knowledged the  justness  of  the  name  with  ringing 
acclamations  when  we  told  them  of  it. 

At  Hell's  Gate  Hanssen  and  I  halted.  Tliis  was 
a  very  remarkable  formation;  the  glacier  had  here 
formed  a  long  ridge  about  20  feet  high;  then,  in  the 
middle  of  this  ridge,  a  fissure  had  opened,  making  a 
gateway  about  6  feet  wide.  This  formation — like  every- 
thing else  on  the  glacier — was  obviously  very  old,  and 
for  the  most  part  filled  with  snow.  From  this  point  the 
glacier,  as  far  as  our  view  extended  to  the  south,  looked 
better  and  better;  we  therefore  turned  round  and  fol- 
lowed our  tracks  in  the  comforting  conviction  that  we 
should  manage  to  get  on. 

Our  companions  were  no  less  pleased  with  tlie  news 
we  brought  of  our  prospects.  Our  altitude  that  evening 
was  8,650  feet  above  the  sea — that  is  to  say,  at  the 
foot  of  the  glacier  we  had  reached  an  altitude  of  8,450 
feet,  or  a  drop  from  the  Butcher's  of  2,570  feet.  We 
now  knew  very  well  that  we  should  have  this  ascent  to 
make  again,  perhaps  even  more;  and  this  idea  did  not 
arouse  any  particular  enthusiasm.  In  my  diary  I  see 
that  I  conclude  the  day  with  the  following  words: 
"  What  will  the  next  surprise  be,  I  wonder?" 

It  was,  in  fact,  an  extraordinary  journey  that  we  were 
undertaking,  through  new  regions,  new  mountains, 
glaciers,  and  so  on,  without  being  able  to  see.     That 


> 

Q 

H 
X 
H 

o 

c/i 

« 
o 


AT  HELL'S  GATE  85 

we  were  prepared  for  suprises  was  perhaps  quite  natural. 
What  I  Hked  least  about  this  feeling  one's  way  forward 
in  the  dark  was  that  it  would  be  difficult — very  difficult 
indeed — to  recognize  the  ground  again  on  the  way  back. 
But  with  this  glacier  lying  straight  across  our  line  of 
route,  and  with  the  numerous  beacons  we  had  erected, 
we  reassured  ourselves  on  this  score.  It  would  take  a 
good  deal  to  make  us  miss  them  on  the  return.  The 
point  for  us,  of  course,  was  to  find  our  descent  on  to  the 
Barrier  again — a  mistake  there  might  be  serious  enough. 
And  it  will  appear  later  in  this  narrative  that  my  fear 
of  our  not  being  able  to  recognize  the  way  was  not 
entirely  groundless.  The  beacons  we  had  put  up  came 
to  our  aid,  and  for  our  final  success  we  owe  a  deep  debt 
of  gratitude  to  our  prudence  and  thoughtfulness  in 
adopting  this  expedient. 

Next  morning,  November  29,  brought  considerably 
clearer  weather,  and  allowed  us  a  very  good  survey  of 
our  position.  We  could  now  see  that  the  two  mountain 
ranges  uniting  in  86°  S.  were  continued  in  a  mighty 
chain  running  to  the  south-east,  with  summits  from 
10,000  to  15,000  feet.  Mount  Thorvald  Nilsen  was  the 
most  southerly  we  could  see  from  this  point.  Mounts 
Hanssen,  Wisting,  Bjaaland,  and  Hassel  formed,  as  we 
had  thought  the  day  before,  a  group  by  themselves,  and 
lay  separated  from  the  main  range. 

The  drivers  had  a  warm  morning's  work.  They  had 
to   drive   with   great   circumspection   and  patience   to 


86  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

grapple  with  the  kind  of  ground  we  had  before  us;  a 
slight  mistake  might  be  enough  to  send  both  sledge  and 
dogs  with  lightning  rapidity  into  the  next  world.  It 
took,  nevertheless,  a  remarkably  short  time  to  cover  the 
distance  we  had  explored  on  the  previous  evening; 
before  we  knew  it,  we  were  at  Hell's  Gate. 

Bjaaland  took  an  excellent  photograph  here,  which 
gives  a  very  good  idea  of  the  difficulties  this  part  of  the 
journey  presented.  In  the  foreground,  below  the  high 
snow-ridge  that  forms  one  side  of  a  very  wide  but  partly 
filled-up  crevasse,  the  marks  of  ski  can  be  seen  in  the 
snow.  This  was  the  photographer,  who,  in  passing  over 
this  snow -bridge,  struck  his  ski  into  it  to  try  the  strength 
of  the  support.  Close  to  the  tracks  can  be  seen  an  open 
piece  of  the  crevasse;  it  is  a  pale  blue  at  the  top,  but 
ends  in  the  deepest  black — in  a  bottomless  abyss.  The 
photographer  got  over  the  bridge  and  back  with  a  whole 
skin,  but  there  could  be  no  question  of  risking  sledges 
and  dogs  on  it,  and  it  can  be  seen  in  the  photograph 
that  the  sledges  have  been  turned  right  around  to  try 
another  way.  The  two  small  black  figures  in  the 
distance,  on  the  right,  are  Hassel  and  I,  who  are 
reconnoitring  ahead. 

It  was  no  very  great  distance  that  we  put  behind  us 
that  day — nine  and  a  quarter  miles  in  a  straight  line. 
But,  taking  into  account  all  the  turns  and  circuits  we 
had  been  compelled  to  make,  it  was  not  so  short  after 
all.    We  set  our  tent  on  a  good,  solid  foundation,  and 


c 


o 

a 
o 

w 
a 

H 
O 

O 


A  GLORIOUS  LANDMARK  87 

were  well  pleased  with  the  day's  work.  The  altitude 
was  8,960  feet  above  the  sea.  The  sun  was  now  in  the 
west,  and  shining  directly  upon  the  huge  mountain 
masses.  It  was  a  fairy  landscape  in  blue  and  white, 
red  and  black,  a  play  of  colours  that  defies  description. 
Clear  as  it  now  appeared  to  be,  one  could  understand 
that  the  weather  was  not  all  that  could  be  wished,  for 
the  south-eastern  end  of  Mount  Thorvald  Nilsen  lost 
itself  in  a  dark,  impenetrable  cloud,  which  led  one  to 
suspect  a  continuation  in  that  direction,  though  one 
could  not  be  certain. 

Mount  Nilsen — ah!  anything  more  beautiful,  taking 
it  altogether,  I  have  never  seen.  Peaks  of  the  most 
varied  forms  rose  high  into  the  air,  partly  covered  with 
driving  clouds.  Some  were  sharp,  but  most  were  long 
and  rounded.  Here  and  there  one  saw  bright,  shining 
glaciers  plunging  wildly  down  the  steep  sides,  and 
merging  into  the  underlying  ground  in  fearful  confusion. 
But  the  most  remarkable  of  them  all  was  Mount  Helmer 
Hanssen ;  its  top  was  as  round  as  the  bottom  of  a  bowl, 
and  covered  by  an  extraordinary  ice-sheet,  which  was 
so  broken  up  and  disturbed  that  the  blocks  of  ice  bristled 
in  every  direction  like  the  quills  of  a  porcupine.  It 
glittered  and  burned  in  the  sunlight — a  glorious  spec- 
tacle. There  could  only  be  one  such  mountain  in  the 
world,  and  as  a  landmark  it  was  priceless.  We  knew 
that  we  could  not  mistake  that,  however  the  sur- 
roundings might  appear  on  the  return  journey,  when 


88  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

possibly  the  conditions  of  lighting  might  be  altogether 
different. 

After  camping,  two  of  us  went  out  to  explore  farther. 
The  prospect  from  the  tent  was  not  encouraging,  but 
we  might  possibly  find  things  better  than  we  expected. 
We  were  lucky  to  find  the  going  so  fine  as  it  was  on 
the  glacier;  we  had  left  our  crampons  behind  at  the 
Butcher's  Shop,  and  if  we  had  found  smooth  ice,  instead 
of  a  good,  firm  snow  surf  ace,  such  as  we  now  had,  it  would 
have  caused  us  much  trouble.  Up — still  up,  among 
monsters  of  crevasses,  some  of  them  hundreds  of  feet 
wide  and  possibly  thousands  of  feet  deep.  Our  pros- 
pects of  advancing  were  certainly  not  bright;  as  far  as 
we  could  see  in  the  line  of  our  route  one  immense  ridge 
towered  above  another,  concealing  on  their  farther  sides 
huge,  wide  chasms,  which  all  had  to  be  avoided.  We 
went  forward — steadily  forward — though  the  way  round 
was  both  long  and  troublesome.  We  had  no  rope  on 
tliis  time,  as  the  irregularities  were  so  plain  that  it  would 
have  been  difficult  to  go  into  them.  It  turned  out, 
however,  at  several  points,  that  the  rope  would  not  have 
been  out  of  place.  We  were  just  going  to  cross  over 
one  of  the  numerous  ridges — the  surface  here  looked 
perfectly  whole — wlien  a  great  j^iece  broke  right  under 
the  back  half  of  Ilanssen's  ski.  We  could  not  deny 
ourselves  the  pleasure  of  glancing  down  into  the  hole. 
The  sight  was  not  an  inviting  one,  and  we  agreed  to  avoid 
this  place  when  we  came  on  with  our  dogs  and  sledges. 


GRATITUDE  FOR  SKI  89 

Every  day  we  had  occasion  to  bless  our  ski.  We 
often  used  to  ask  each  other  where  we  should  now  have 
been  without  these  excellent  appliances.  The  usual 
answer  was:  Most  probably  at  the  bottom  of  some 
crevasse.  When  we  first  read  the  different  accounts 
of  the  aspect  and  nature  of  the  Barrier,  it  was  clear  to 
all  of  us,  who  were  born  and  bred  with  ski  on  our  feet, 
that  these  must  be  regarded  as  indispensable.  This 
view  was  confirmed  and  strengthened  every  day,  and 
I  am  not  giving  too  much  credit  to  our  excellent  ski 
when  I  say  that  they  not  only  played  a  very  important 
part,  but  possibly  the  most  important  of  all,  on  our 
journey  to  the  South  Pole.  Many  a  time  we  traversed 
stretches  of  surface  so  cleft  and  disturbed  that  it  would 
have  been  an  impossibility  to  get  over  them  on  foot. 
I  need  scarcely  insist  on  the  advantages  of  ski  in  deep, 
loose  snow. 

After  advancing  for  two  hours,  we  decided  to  return. 

From  the  raised  ridge  on  which  we  were  then  standing, 

the  surface  ahead  of  us  looked  more  promising  than 

ever;  but  we  had  so  often  been  deceived  on  the  glacier 

that   we   had   now   become   definitely  sceptical.     How 

often,  for  instance,  had  we  thought  that  beyond  this  or 

that  undulation  our  trials  would  be  at  an  end,  and  that 

the  way  to  the  south  would  lie  open  and  free;  only  to 

reach  the  place  and  find  that  the  ground  behind  the 

ridge  was,  if  possible,  worse  than  what  we  had  already 

been  sti-uggling  with.    But  this  time  we  seemed  some- 
VOL.  II.  32 


90  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

how  to  feel  victory  in  the  air.  The  formations  appeared 
to  promise  it,  and  yet — had  we  been  so  often  deceived 
by  these  formations  that  we  now  refused  to  offer  them 
a  thought?  Was  it  possibly  instinct  that  told  us  this? 
I  do  not  know,  but  certain  it  is  that  Hanssen  and  I 
agreed,  as  we  stood  there  discussing  our  prospects,  that 
behind  the  farthest  ridge  we  saw,  we  should  conquer 
the  glacier.  We  had  a  feverish  desire  to  go  and  have 
a  look  at  it;  but  the  way  round  the  many  crevasses 
was  long,  and — I  may  as  well  admit  it — we  were 
beginning  to  get  tired.  The  return,  downliill  as  it 
was,  did  not  take  long,  and  soon  we  were  able  to  tell 
our  comrades  that  the  prospects  for  the  morrow  were 
very  promising. 

While  we  had  been  away,  Hassel  had  measured  the 
Nilsen  Mountain,  and  found  its  height  to  be  15,500  feet 
above  the  sea.  How  well  I  remember  that  evening, 
when  we  stood  contemplating  the  glorious  sight  that 
Nature  offered,  and  believing  the  air  to  be  so  clear  that 
anything  within  range  of  vision  must  have  shown  itself; 
and  how  well,  too,  I  remember  our  astonishment  on  the 
return  journey  on  finding  the  whole  landscape  com- 
pletely transformed!  If  it  had  not  been  for  Mount 
Helmer  Hanssen,  it  would  have  been  difficult  for  us  to 
know  where  we  were.  The  atmosphere  in  these  regions 
may  play  the  most  awkward  tricks.  Absolutely  clear 
as  it  seemed  to  us  that  evening,  it  nevertheless  turned 
out  later  that  it  had  been  anything  but  clear.    One  has, 


o 
z 

H 

H 

K 
O 

<; 

> 

o 


TRICKS  OF  THE  ATMOSPHERE        91 

therefore,  to  be  very  careful  about  what  one  sees  or 
does  not  see.  In  most  cases  it  has  proved  that  travellers 
in  the  Polar  regions  have  been  more  apt  to  see  too  much 
than  too  little ;  if,  however,  we  had  charted  this  tract  as 
we  saw  it  the  first  time,  a  great  part  of  the  mountain 
ranges  would  have  been  omitted. 

During  the  night  a  gale  sprang  up  from  the  south- 
east, and  blew  so  that  it  howled  in  the  guy-ropes  of  the 
tent;  it  was  well  that  the  tent-pegs  had  a  good  hold. 
In  the  morning,  while  we  were  at  breakfast,  it  was  still 
blowing,  and  we  had  some  thoughts  of  waiting  for  a 
time ;  but  suddenly,  without  warning,  the  wind  dropped 
to  such  an  extent  that  all  our  hesitation  vanished.  What 
a  change  the  south-east  wind  had  produced!  The 
splendid  covering  of  snow  that  the  day  before  had 
made  ski-running  a  pleasure,  was  now  swept  away  over 
great  stretches  of  surface,  exposing  the  hard  substratum. 
Our  thoughts  flew  back;  the  crampons  we  had  left 
behind  seemed  to  dance  before  my  eyes,  backwards  and 
forwards,  grinning  and  pointing  fingers  at  me.  It  would 
be  a  nice  little  extra  trip  back  to  the  Butcher's  to  fetch 
them. 

Meanwhile,  we  packed  and  made  everything  ready. 
The  tracks  of  the  day  before  were  not  easy  to  follow; 
but  if  we  lost  them  now  and  again  on  the  smooth  ice 
surface,  we  picked  them  up  later  on  a  snow-wave  that 
had  resisted  the  attack  of  the  wind.  It  was  hard  and 
strenuous  work  for  the  drivers.    The  sledges  were  diffi- 


92  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

cult  to  manage  over  the  smooth,  sloping  ice ;  sometimes 
they  went  straight, but  just  as  often  cross- wise, requiring 
sharp  attention  to  keep  them  from  capsizing.  And  this 
had  to  be  prevented  at  all  costs,  as  the  thin  provision 
cases  would  not  stand  many  bumps  on  the  ice;  besides 
which,  it  was  such  h^rd  work  righting  the  sledges  again 
that  for  this  reason  alone  the  drivers  exercised  the 
greatest  care.  The  sledges  were  put  to  a  severe  test 
that  day,  with  the  many  great  and  hard  irregularities 
we  encountered  on  the  glacier;  it  is  a  wonder  they  sur- 
vived it,  and  is  a  good  testimonial  for  Bjaaland's  work. 

The  glacier  that  day  presented  the  worst  confusion 
we  had  yet  had  to  deal  with.  Hassel  and  I  went  in 
front,  as  usual,  with  the  rope  on.  Up  to  the  spot 
Hanssen  and  I  had  reached  the  evening  before  our  pro- 
gress was  comparatively  easy;  one  gets  on  so  much 
quicker  when  one  knows  that  the  way  is  practicable. 
After  this  point  it  became  worse;  indeed,  it  was  often 
so  bad  that  we  had  to  stop  for  a  long  time  and  try  in 
various  directions,  before  finding  a  way.  More  than 
once  the  axe  had  to  be  used  to  hack  away  obstructions. 
At  one  time  things  looked  really  serious;  chasm  after 
chasm,  hummock  after  hummock,  so  high  and  steep 
that  they  were  like  mountains.  Here  we  went  out  and 
explored  in  every  direction  to  find  a  passage;  at  last  we 
found  one,  if,  indeed,  it  deserved  the  name  of  a  passage. 
It  was  a  bridge  so  narrow  that  it  scarcely  allowed  room 
for  the  width  of  the  sledge;  a  fearful  abyss  on  each 


A  TRIAL  OF  PATIENCE  93 

side.  The  crossing  of  this  place  reminded  me  of  the 
tight-rope  walker  going  over  Niagara.  It  was  a  good 
thing  none  of  us  was  subject  to  giddiness,  and  that  the 
dogs  did  not  know  exactly  what  the  result  of  a  false 
step  would  be. 

On  the  other  side  of  this  bridge  we  began  to  go 
downhill,  and  our  course  now  lay  in  a  long  valley 
between  lofty  undulations  on  each  side.  It  tried  our 
patience  severely  to  advance  here,  as  the  line  of  the 
hollow  was  fairly  long  and  ran  due  west.  We  tried 
several  times  to  lay  our  course  towards  the  south  and 
clamber  up  the  side  of  the  undulation,  but  these  efforts 
did  not  pay  us.  We  could  always  get  up  on  to  the 
ridge,  but  we  could  not  come  down  again  on  the  other 
side;  there  was  nothing  to  be  done  but  to  follow  the 
natural  course  of  the  valley  until  it  took  us  into  the 
tract  lying  to  the  south.  It  was  especially  the  drivers 
whose  patience  was  sorely  tried,  and  I  could  see  them 
now  and  then  take  a  turn  up  to  the  top  of  the  ridge, 
not  satisfied  with  the  exploration  Hassel  and  I  had 
made.  But  the  result  was  always  the  same;  they  had 
to  submit  to  Nature's  caprices  and  follow  in  our  tracks. 

Our  course  along  this  natural  line  was  not  entirely 
free  from  obstruction;  crevasses  of  various  dimensions 
constantly  crossed  our  path.  The  ridge  or  undulation, 
at  the  top  of  which  we  at  last  arrived,  had  quite  an 
imposing  effect.  It  terminated  on  the  east  in  a  steep 
drop  to  the  underlying  surface,  and  attained  at  this 


94  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

point  a  height  of  over  100  feet.  On  the  west  it  sloped 
gradually  into  the  lower  ground  and  allowed  us  to 
advance  that  way.  In  order  to  have  a  better  view  of 
the  surroundings  we  ascended  the  eastern  and  highest 
part  of  the  ridge,  and  from  here  we  at  once  had  a 
confirmation  of  our  supposition  of  the  day  before.  The 
ridge  we  had  then  seen,  behind  which  we  hoped  to  find 
better  conditions,  could  now  be  seen  a  good  way  ahead. 
And  what  we  then  saw  made  our  hearts  beat  fast  with 
joy.  Could  that  great  white,  unbroken  plain  over 
there  be  real,  or  was  it  only  an  illusion?  Time  would 
show. 

Meanwhile  Hassel  and  I  jogged  on,  and  the  others 
followed.  We  had  to  get  through  a  good  many 
difficulties  yet  before  we  reached  that  point,  but, 
compared  with  all  the  breakneck  places  we  had  already 
crossed,  these  were  of  a  comparatively  tame  description. 
It  was  with  a  sigh  of  relief  that  we  arrived  at  the  plain 
that  promised  so  well;  its  extent  was  not  very  great, 
but  we  were  not  very  exacting  either  in  this  respect, 
after  our  last  few  days'  march  over  the  broken  surface. 
Farther  to  the  south  we  could  still  see  great  masses 
piled  up  by  pressure,  but  the  intervals  between  them 
were  very  great  and  the  surface  was  whole.  This 
was,  then,  the  first  time  since  we  tackled  the  Devil's 
Glacier  that  we  were  able  to  steer  true  south  for  a  few 
minutes. 

As  we  progressed,  it  could  be  seen  that  we  had  really 


A  CHANGE  IN  THE  GROUND  95 

come  upon  another  kind  of  ground;  for  once  we  had 
not  been  made  fools  of.  Not  that  we  had  an  unbroken, 
level  surface  to  go  upon — it  would  be  a  long  time  before 
we  came  to  that — but  we  were  able  to  keep  our  course 
for  long  stretches  at  a  time.  The  huge  crevasses 
became  rarer,  and  so  filled  up  at  both  ends  that  we  were 
able  to  cross  them  without  going  a  long  way  round. 
There  was  new  life  in  all  of  us,  both  dogs  and  men,  and 
we  went  rapidly  southward.  As  we  advanced,  the 
conditions  improved  more  and  more.  We  could  see  in 
the  distance  some  huge  dome-shaped  formations,  that 
seemed  to  tower  high  into  the  air:  these  turned  out 
to  be  the  southernmost  limit  of  the  big  crevasses 
and  to  form  the  transition  to  the  third  phase  of  the 
glacier. 

It  was  a  stiff  climb  to  get  up  these  domes,  which 
were  fairly  high  and  swept  smooth  by  the  wind.  They 
lay  straight  in  our  course,  and  from  their  tops  we  had  a 
good  view.  The  surface  we  were  entering  upon  was 
quite  different  from  that  on  the  northern  side  of  the 
domes.  Here  the  big  crevasses  were  entirely  filled  with 
snow  and  might  be  crossed  anywhere.  What  specially 
attracted  one's  attention  here  was  an  immense  number 
of  small  formations  in  the  shape  of  haycocks.  Great 
stretches  of  the  surface  were  swept  bare,  exposing  the 
smooth  ice. 

It  was  evident  that  these  various  formations  or  phases 
in  the  glacier  were  due  to  the  underlying  ground.    The 


96  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

first  tract  we  had  passed,  where  the  confusion  was  so 
extreme,  must  be  tlie  part  that  lay  nearest  the  bare 
land;  in  proportion  as  the  glacier  left  the  land,  it 
became  less  disturbed.  In  the  haycock  district  the 
disturbance  had  not  produced  cracks  in  the  surface  to 
any  extent,  only  upheaval  here  and  there.  How  these 
haycocks  were  formed  and  what  they  looked  like  inside 
we  were  soon  to  find  out.  It  was  a  pleasure  to  be  able 
to  advance  all  the  time,  instead  of  constantly  turning 
and  going  round;  only  once  or  twice  did  we  have  to 
turn  aside  for  the  larger  haycocks,  otherwise  we  kept 
our  course.  The  great,  clean-swept  stretches  of  surface 
that  we  came  upon  from  time  to  time  were  split  in 
every  direction,  but  the  cracks  were  very  narrow — about 
half  an  inch  wide. 

We  had  difficulty  in  finding  a  place  for  the  tent  that 
evening;  the  surface  was  equally  hard  everywhere,  and 
at  last  we  had  to  set  it  on  the  bare  ice.  Luckily  for 
our  tent-pegs,  this  ice  was  not  of  the  bright,  steely 
variety;  it  was  more  milky  in  appearance  and  not  so 
hard,  and  we  were  thus  able  to  knock  in  the  pegs  with 
the  axe.  When  the  tent  was  up,  Hassel  went  out  as 
usual  to  fetch  snow  for  the  cooker.  As  a  rule  he 
performed  this  task  with  a  big  knife,  specially  made  for 
snow;  but  this  evening  he  went  out  armed  with  an  axe. 
He  was  very  pleased  with  the  abundant  and  excellent 
material  that  lay  to  his  hand;  there  was  no  need  to  go 
far.    Just  outside  the  tent  door,  two  feet  away,  stood  a 


A  BAD  DAY  97 

fine  little  haycock,  that  looked  as  if  it  would  serve  the 
purpose  well.  Hassel  raised  his  axe  and  gave  a  good 
sound  blow;  the  axe  met  with  no  resistance,  and  went 
in  up  to  the  haft.  The  haycock  was  hollow.  As  the 
axe  was  pulled  out  the  surrounding  part  gave  way,  and 
one  could  hear  the  pieces  of  ice  falHng  down  through 
the  dark  hole.  It  appeared,  then,  that  two  feet  from 
our  door  we  had  a  most  convenient  way  down  into  the 
cellar.  Hassel  looked  as  if  he  enjoyed  the  situation. 
"Black  as  a  sack,"  he  smiled;  "couldn't  see  any 
bottom."  Hanssen  was  beaming;  no  doubt  he  would 
have  liked  the  tent  a  little  nearer.  The  material 
provided  by  the  haycock  was  of  the  best  quality,  and 
well  adapted  for  cooking  purposes. 

The  next  day,  December  1,  was  a  very  fatiguing 
one  for  us  all.  From  early  morning  a  blinding  blizzard 
raged  from  the  south-east,  with  a  heavy  fall  of  snow. 
The  going  was  of  the  very  worst  kind — polished  ice. 
I  stumbled  forward  on  ski,  and  had  comparatively 
easy  work.  The  drivers  had  been  obliged  to  take  off 
their  ski  and  put  them  on  the  loads,  so  as  to  walk  by  the 
side,  support  the  sledges,  and  give  the  dogs  help  when 
they  came  to  a  difficult  place;  and  that  was  pretty 
often,  for  on  this  smooth  ice  surface  there  were  a 
number  of  small  scattered  sastrugi,  and  these  con- 
sisted of  a  kind  of  snow  that  reminded  one  more  of 
fish-glue  than  of  anything  else  when  the  sledges  came 
in  contact  with  it.     The  dogs  could  get  no  hold  with 


98  THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

their  claws  on  the  smooth  ice,  and  when  the  sledge 
came  on  to  one  of  these  tough  little  waves,  they 
could  not  manage  to  haul  it  over,  try  as  they  might. 
The  driver  then  had  to  put  all  his  strength  into  it 
to  prevent  the  sledge  stopping.  Thus  in  most  cases 
the  combined  efforts  of  men  and  dogs  carried  the 
sledge  on. 

In  the  course  of  the  afternoon  the  surface  again  began 
to  be  more  disturbed,  and  great  crevasses  crossed  our 
path  time  after  time.  These  crevasses  were  really 
rather  dangerous;  they  looked  very  innocent,  as  they 
were  quite  filled  up  with  snow,  but  on  a  nearer  ac- 
quaintance with  them  we  came  to  understand  that  they 
were  far  more  hazardous  than  we  dreamed  of  at  first. 
It  turned  out  that  between  the  loose  snow-filling  and 
the  firm  ice  edges  there  was  a  fairly  broad,  open  space, 
leading  straight  down  into  the  depths.  The  layer  of 
snow  which  covered  it  over  was  in  most  cases  quite 
thin.  In  driving  out  into  one  of  these  snow-filled 
crevasses  nothing  happened  as  a  rule;  but  it  was  in 
getting  off  on  the  other  side  that  the  critical  moment 
arrived.  For  here  the  dogs  came  up  on  to  the  smooth 
ice  surface,  and  could  get  no  hold  for  their  claws,  with  the 
result  that  it  was  left  entirely  to  the  driver  to  haul  the 
sledge  up.  The  strong  pull  he  then  had  to  give 
sent  him  through  the  thin  layer  of  snow.  Under  these 
circumstances  he  took  a  good,  firm  hold  of  the  sledge- 
lashing,  or  of  a  special  strap  that  had  been  made  with  a 


INSIDE  THE  TENT  99 

view  to  these  accidents.  But  familiarity  breeds  con- 
tempt, even  with  the  most  cautious,  and  some  of  the 
drivers  were  often  within  an  ace  of  going  down  into 
"  the  cellar." 

If  this  part  of  the  journey  was  trying  for  the  dogs,  it 
was  certainly  no  less  so  for  the  men.  If  the  weather  had 
even  been  fine,  so  that  we  could  have  looked  about  us, 
we  should  not  have  minded  it  so  much,  but  in  this  vile 
weather  it  was,  indeed,  no  pleasure.  Our  time  was 
also  a  good  deal  taken  up  with  thawing  noses  and 
cheeks  as  they  froze — not  that  we  stopped;  we  had 
no  time  for  that.  We  simply  took  off  a  mit,  and  laid 
the  warm  hand  on  the  frozen  spot  as  we  went;  when 
we  thought  we  had  restored  sensation,  we  put  the  hand 
back  into  the  mit.  By  this  time  it  would  want  warm- 
ing. One  does  not  keep  one's  hands  bare  for  long  with 
the  thermometer  several  degrees  below  zero  and  a  storm 
blowing.  In  spite  of  the  unfavourable  conditions  we 
had  been  working  in,  the  sledge-meters  that  evening 
showed  a  distance  of  fifteen  and  a  half  miles.  We 
were  well  satisfied  with  the  day's  work  when  we 
camped. 

Let  us  cast  a  glance  into  the  tent  this  evening. 
It  looks  cosy  enough.  The  inner  half  of  the  tent 
is  occupied  by  three  sleeping-bags,  whose  respective 
owners  have  found  it  both  comfortable  and  expedient  to 
turn  in,  and  may  now  be  seen  engaged  with  their  diaries. 
The  outer  half — that  nearest  the  door — has  only  two 


100         THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

sleeping-bags,  but  the  rest  of  the  space  is  taken  up  with 
the  whole  cooking  apparatus  of  the  expedition.  The 
owners  of  these  two  bags  are  still  sitting  up.  Hanssen 
is  cook,  and  will  not  turn  in  until  the  food  is  readv 
and  served.  Wisting  is  his  sworn  comrade  and  assistant, 
and  is  ready  to  lend  him  any  aid  that  maj^  be  required. 
Hanssen  appears  to  be  a  careful  cook ;  he  evidently  does 
not  like  to  burn  the  food,  and  his  spoon  stirs  the  con- 
tents of  the  pot  incessantly.  "  Soup!"  The  effect  of 
the  word  is  instantaneous.  Everyone  sits  up  at  once 
with  a  cup  in  one  hand  and  a  spoon  in  the  other.  Each 
one  in  his  turn  has  his  cup  filled  with  what  looks  like 
the  most  tasty  vegetable  soup.  Scalding  hot  it  is,  as 
one  can  see  by  the  faces,  but  for  all  that  it  disappears 
with  surprising  rapidity.  Again  the  cups  are  filled,  this 
time  with  more  solid  stuff — pemmican.  With  praise- 
worthy despatch  their  contents  are  once  more  de- 
molished, and  they  are  filled  for  the  third  time.  There 
is  nothing  the  matter  with  these  men's  appetites.  The 
cups  are  carefully  scraped,  and  the  enjoyment  of  bread 
and  water  begins.  It  is  easy  to  see,  too,  that  it  is  an 
enjoyment — greater,  to  judge  by  the  pleasure  on  their 
faces,  than  the  most  skilfully  devised  menu  could  afford. 
They  positively  caress  the  biscuits  before  they  eat  them. 
And  tlie  water — ice-cold  water  they  all  call  for — this 
also  disappears  in  great  quantities,  and  procures,  I  feel 
certain  from  their  expression,  a  far  greater  pleasure  and 
satisfaction  than  the  finest  wine  that  was  ever  produced. 


PREPARATIONS  FOR  SUNDAY       101 

The  Primus  hums  softly  during  the  whole  meal,  and 
the  temperature  in  the  tent  is  quite  pleasant. 

When  the  meal  is  over,  one  of  them  calls  for  scissors 
and  looking-glass,  and  then  one  may  see  the  Polar 
explorers  dressing  their  hair  for  the  approaching  Sunday. 
The  heard  is  cut  quite  short  with  the  clipper  every 
Saturday  evening;  this  is  done  not  so  much  from 
motives  of  vanity  as  from  considerations  of  utility  and 
comfort.  The  beard  invites  an  accumulation  of  ice, 
which  may  often  be  very  embarrassing.  A  beard  in 
the  Polar  regions  seems  to  me  to  be  just  as  awkward 
and  unpractical  as — well,  let  us  say,  walking  with  a  tall 
hat  on  each  foot.  As  the  beard-clipper  and  the  mirror 
make  their  round,  one  after  the  other  disappears  into  his 
bag,  and  with  five  "  Good-nights,"  silence  falls  upon  the 
tent.  The  regular  breathing  soon  announces  that  the 
day's  work  demand  its  tribute.  Meanwhile  the  south- 
easter howls,  and  the  snow  beats  against  the  tent.  The 
dogs  have  curled  themselves  up,  and  do  not  seem  to 
trouble  themselves  about  the  weather. 

The  storm  continued  unabated  on  the  following  day, 
and  on  account  of  the  dangerous  nature  of  the  ground 
we  decided  to  wait  awhile.  In  the  course  of  the  morn- 
ing— towards  noon,  perhaps — the  wind  dropped  a  little, 
and  out  we  went.  The  sun  peeped  through  at  times, 
and  we  took  the  welcome  opportunity  of  getting  an 
altitude— 86°  47'  S.  was  the  result. 

At  this  camp  we  left  behind  all  our  delightful  rein- 


r 


102         THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

deer-skin  clothing,  as  we  could  see  that  we  should  have 
no  use  for  it,  the  temperature  being  far  too  high.  We 
kept  the  hoods  of  our  reindeer  coats,  however;  we 
might  be  glad  of  them  in  going  against  the  wind.  Our 
day's  march  was  not  to  be  a  long  one;  the  little  slack- 
ening of  the  wind  about  midday  was  only  a  joke.  It 
soon  came  on  again  in  earnest,  with  a  sweeping  blizzard 
from  the  same  quarter — the  south-east.  If  we  had 
known  the  ground,  we  should  possibly  have  gone  on; 
but  in  this  storm  and  driving  snow,  which  prevented 
our  keeping  our  eyes  open,  it  was  no  use.  A  serious 
accident  might  happen  and  ruin  all.  Two  and  half 
miles  was  therefore  our  whole  distance.  The  tempera- 
ture when  we  camped  was  -  5"8°  F.  Height  above  the 
sea,  9,780  feet. 

In  the  course  of  the  night  the  wind  veered  from 
south-east  to  north,  falling  light,  and  the  weather 
cleared.  This  M^as  a  good  chance  for  us,  and  we  were 
not  slow  to  avail  ourselves  of  it.  A  gradually  rising 
ice  surface  lay  before  us,  bright  as  a  mirror.  As  on  the 
preceding  days,  I  stumbled  along  in  front  on  ski,  while 
the  others,  without  their  ski,  had  to  follow  and  support 
the  sledges.  The  surface  still  offered  filled  crevasses, 
though  perhaps  less  frequently  than  before.  JNIean- 
while  small  patches  of  snow  began  to  show  themselves 
on  the  polished  surface,  and  soon  increased  in  number 
and  size,  initil  before  very  long  they  united  and  covered 
the  unpleasant  ice  with  a  good  and  even  layer  of  snow. 


THE  DEVIL'S  BALLROOM  103 

Then  ski  were  put  on  again,  and  we  continued  our  way 
to  the  south  with  satisfaction. 

We  were  all  rejoicing  that  we  had  now  conquered 
this  treacherous  glacier,  and  congratulating  ourselves 
on  having  at  last  arrived  on  the  actual  plateau.  As  we 
were  going  along,  feeling  pleased  about  this,  a  ridge 
suddenly  appeared  right  ahead,  telling  us  plainly  that 
perhaps  all  our  sorrows  were  not  yet  ended.  The 
ground  had  begun  to  sink  a  little,  and  as  we  came 
nearer  we  could  see  that  we  had  to  cross  a  rather  wide, 
but  not  deep,  valley  before  we  arrived  under  the  ridge. 
Great  lines  of  hummocks  and  haycock-shaped  pieces  of 
ice  came  in  view  on  every  side;  we  could  see  that  we 
should  have  to  keep  our  ej^es  open. 

And  now  we  came  to  the  formation  in  the  glacier 
that  we  called  the  Devil's  Ballroom.  Little  by  little 
the  covering  of  snow  that  we  had  praised  in  such 
high  terms  disappeared,  and  before  us  lay  this  wide 
valley,  bare  and  gleaming.  At  first  it  went  well 
enough;  as  it  was  downhill,  we  were  going  at  a  good 
pace  on  the  smooth  ice.  Suddenly  Wisting's  sledge 
cut  into  the  surface,  and  turned  over  on  its  side.  We 
all  knew  what  had  happened — one  of  the  runners  was 
in  a  crevasse.  Wisting  set  to  work,  with  the  assistance 
of  Hassel,  to  raise  the  sledge,  and  take  it  out  of  its 
dangerous  position;  meanwhile  Bjaaland  had  got  out 
his  camera  and  was  setting  it  up.  Accustomed  as  we 
were  to  such  incidents,  Hanssen  and  I  were  watching 


104        THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAIXS 

the  scene  from  a  point  a  little  way  in  advance,  where 
we  had  arrived  when  it  happened.  As  the  photography- 
took  rather  a  long  time,  I  assumed  that  the  crevasse 
was  one  of  the  filled  ones  and  presented  no  particular 
danger,  but  that  Bjaaland  wanted  to  have  a  souvenir 
among  his  photographs  of  the  numerous  crevasses  and 
ticklish  situations  we  had  been  exposed  to.  As  to  the 
crack  being  filled  up,  there  was  of  course  no  need  to 
inquire.  I  hailed  them,  and  asked  how  they  were 
getting  on.  "Oh,  all  right,"  was  the  answer;  "we've 
just  finished." — "  What  does  the  crevasse  look  like?" — 
"Oh,  as  usual,"  they  shouted  back;  "no  bottom."  I 
mention  this  little  incident  just  to  show  how  one  can 
grow  accustomed  to  anything  in  this  world.  There 
were  these  two — Wisting  and  Hassel — lying  over  a 
yawning,  bottomless  abyss,  and  having  their  photo- 
graph taken;  neither  of  them  gave  a  thought  to  the 
serious  side  of  the  situation.  To  judge  from  the  laughter 
and  jokes  we  heard,  one  would  have  thought  their  posi- 
tion was  something  quite  different. 

When  the  photographer  had  quietly  and  leisurely 
finished  his  work — he  got  a  remarkably  good  picture 
of  the  scene — the  other  two  together  raised  the  sledge, 
and  the  journey  was  continued.  It  was  at  this  crevasse 
that  we  entered  his  Majesty's  Ballroom.  The  surface, 
did  not  really  look  bad.  True,  the  snow  was  blown 
away,  which  made  it  difficult  to  advance,  but  we  did 
not  see  many  cracks.  There  were  a  good  many  pressure- 


THE  BALLROOM  FLOOR  105 

masses,  as  already  mentioned,  but  even  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  these  we  could  not  see  any  marked 
disturbance.  The  first  sign  that  the  surface  was  more 
treacherous  than  it  appeared  to  be  was  when  Hanssen's 
leading  dogs  went  right  through  the  apparently  solid 
floor.  They  remained  hanging  by  their  harness,  and 
were  easily  pulled  up  again.  When  we  looked  through 
the  hole  they  had  made  in  the  crust,  it  did  not  give  us 
the  impression  of  being  very  dangerous,  as,  2  or  3  feet 
below  the  outer  crust,  there  lay  another  surface,  which 
appeared  to  consist  of  pulverized  ice.  We  assumed 
that  this  lower  surface  was  the  solid  one,  and  that 
therefore  there  was  no  danger  in  falling  through  the 
upper  one.  But  Bjaaland  was  able  to  tell  us  a  different 
story.  He  had,  in  fact,  fallen  through  the  outer  crust, 
and  was  well  on  his  way  through  the  inner  one  as  well, 
when  he  got  hold  of  a  loop  of  rope  on  his  sledge  and 
saved  himself  in  the  nick  of  time.  Time  after  time  the 
dogs  now  fell  through,  and  time  after  time  the  men  went 
in.  The  effect  of  the  open  space  between  the  two 
crusts  was  that  the  ground  under  our  feet  sounded 
unpleasantly  hollow  as  we  went  over  it.  The  drivers 
whipped  up  their  dogs  as  much  as  they  could,  and  with 
shouts  and  brisk  encouragement  they  went  rapidly  over 
the  treacherous  floor.  Fortunately  this  curious  forma- 
tion was  not  of  great  extent,  and  we  soon  began  to 
observe  a  change  for  the  better  as  we  came  up  the 

ridge.    It  soon  appeared  that  the  Ballroom  was  the 
VOL.  II.  33 


106         THROUGH  THE  MOUNTAINS 

glacier's  last  farewell  to  us.  With  it  all  irregularities 
ceased,  and  both  surface  and  going  improved  by  leaps 
and  bounds,  so  that  before  very  long  we  had  the  satis- 
faction of  seeing  that  at  last  we  had  really  conquered 
all  these  unpleasant  difficulties.  The  surface  at  once 
became  fine  and  even,  with  a  splendid  covering  of  snow 
everywhere,  and  we  went  rapidly  on  our  way  to  the 
south  with  a  feeling  of  security  and  safety. 


FOR    THE    FINAL    MARCH. 

To  face  page  106,  Vol.  II. 

4 

a 

a 

o 

a 

CHAPTER  XII 

AT  THE  POLE 

lNlat.87°  S. — according  to  dead  reckoning — we  saw  the 
last  of  the  land  to  the  north-east.  The  atmosphere  was 
then  apparently  as  clear  as  could  be,  and  we  felt  certain 
that  our  view  covered  all  the  land  there  was  to  be  seen 
from  that  spot.  We  were  deceived  again  on  this  occa- 
sion, as  will  be  seen  later.  Our  distance  that  day 
(December  4)  was  close  upon  twenty-five  miles;  height 
above  the  sea,  10,100  feet. 

The  weather  did  not  continue  fine  for  long.  Next 
day  (December  5)  there  was  a  gale  from  the  north,  and 
once  more  the  whole  plain  was  a  mass  of  drifting  snow. 
In  addition  to  this  there  was  thick  falling  snow,  which 
blinded  us  and  made  things  worse,  but  a  feeling  of 
security  had  come  over  us  and  helped  us  to  advance 
rapidly  and  without  hesitation,  although  we  could  see 
nothing.  That  day  we  encountered  new  surface  condi- 
tions— big,  hard  snow- waves  {sastrugi).  These  were 
anything  but  pleasant  to  work  among,  especially  when 
one  could  not  see  them.  It  was  of  no  use  for  us  "  fore- 
runners "   to  think  of  going  in  advance  under  these 

107 


108  AT  THE  POLE 

circumstances,  as  it  was  impossible  to  keep  on  one's 
feet.  Three  or  four  paces  was  often  the  most  we 
managed  to  do  before  falHng  down.  The  sastrugi  were 
very  high,  and  often  abrupt;  if  one  came  on  them 
unexpectedly,  one  required  to  be  more  than  an 
acrobat  to  keep  on  one's  feet.  The  plan  we  found  to 
work  best  in  these  conditions  was  to  let  Hanssen's  dogs 
go  first;  this  was  an  unpleasant  job  for  Hanssen,  and 
for  his  dogs  too,  but  it  succeeded,  and  succeeded  well. 
An  upset  here  and  there  was,  of  course,  unavoidable,  but 
with  a  little  patience  the  sledge  was  always  righted 
again.  The  drivers  had  as  much  as  they  could  do  to 
support  their  sledges  among  the  sastrugi,  but  while 
supporting  the  sledges,  they  had  at  the  same  time  a 
support  for  themselves.  It  was  worse  for  us  who  had 
no  sledges,  but  by  keeping  in  the  wake  of  them  we 
could  see  where  the  irregularities  lay,  and  thus  get  over 
them.  Hanssen  deserves  a  special  word  of  praise  for  his 
driving  on  this  surface  in  such  weather.  It  is  a  difficult 
matter  to  drive  Eskimo  dogs  forward  when  they  cannot 
see;  but  Hanssen  managed  it  well,  both  getting  the 
dogs  on  and  steering  his  course  by  compass.  One  would 
not  think  it  possible  to  keep  an  approximately  right 
course  when  the  uneven  ground  gives  such  violent 
shocks  that  the  needle  flies  several  times  round  the 
compass, and  is  no  sooner  still  again  than  it  recommences 
the  same  dance;  but  when  at  last  we  got  an  observa- 
tion, it  turned  out  that  Hanssen  had  steered  to  a  hair, 


THE  TOP  OF  THE  PLATEAU         109 

for  the  observations  and  dead  reckoning  agreed  to  a 
mile.  In  spite  of  all  hindrances,  and  of  being  able 
to  see  nothing,  the  sledge-meters  showed  nearly  twenty- 
five  miles.  The  hypsometer  showed  11,070  feet  above 
the  sea;  we  had  therefore  reached  a  greater  altitude 
than  the  Butcher's. 

December  6  brought  the  same  weather:  thick  snow, 
sky  and  plain  all  one,  nothing  to  be  seen.  Nevertheless 
we  made  splendid  progress.  The  sastrugi  gradually 
became  levelled  out,  until  the  surface  was  perfectly 
smooth;  it  was  a  relief  to  have  even  ground  to  go 
upon  once  more.  These  irregularities  that  one  was 
constantly  falling  over  were  a  nuisance ;  if  we  had  met 
with  them  in  our  usual  surroundings  it  would  not  have 
mattered  so  much;  but  up  here  on  the  high  ground, 
where  we  had  to  stand  and  gasp  for  breath  every  time 
we  rolled  over,  it  was  certainly  not  pleasant. 

That  day  we  passed  88°  S.,  and  camped  in  88°  9'  S. 
A  great  surprise  awaited  us  in  the  tent  that  evening.  I 
expected  to  find,  as  on  the  previous  evening,  that  the 
boiling-point  had  fallen  somewhat;  in  other  words,  that 
it  would  show  a  continued  rise  of  the  ground,  but  to  our 
astonishment  this  was  not  so.  The  water  boiled  at 
exactly  the  same  temperature  as  on  the  preceding  day. 
I  tried  it  several  times,  to  convince  myself  that  there 
was  nothing  wrong,  each  time  with  the  same  result. 
There  was  great  rejoicing  among  us  all  when  I  was  able 
to  announce  that  we  had  arrived  on  the  top  of  the  plateau. 


110  AT  THE  POLE 

December  7  began  like  the  6th,  with  absolutely  thick 
weather,  but,  as  they  say,  you  never  know  what  the  day 
is  like  before  sunset.  Possibly  I  might  have  chosen 
a  better  expression  than  this  last — one  more  in  agree- 
ment with  the  natural  conditions — but  I  will  let  it  stand 
Though  for  several  weeks  now  the  sun  had  not  set,  my 
readers  will  not  be  so  critical  as  to  reproach  me  with 
inaccuracy.  With  a  light  wind  from  the  north-east,  we 
now  went  southward  at  a  good  speed  over  the  perfectly 
level  plain,  with  excellent  going.  The  uphill  work  had 
taken  it  out  of  our  dogs,  though  not  to  any  serious 
extent.  They  had  turned  greedy — there  is  no  denying 
that — and  the  half  kilo  of  pemmican  they  got  each  day 
was  not  enough  to  fill  their  stomachs.  Early  and  late 
they  were  looking  for  something — no  matter  what — to 
devour.  To  begin  with  they  contented  themselves  with 
such  loose  objects  as  ski-bindings,  whips,  boots,  and  the 
like;  but  as  we  came  to  know  their  proclivities,  we  took 
such  care  of  everything  that  they  found  no  extra  meals 
lying  about.  But  that  was  not  the  end  of  the  matter. 
They  then  went  for  the  fixed  lashings  of  the  sledges, 
and — if  we  had  allowed  it — would  very  quickly  have 
resolved  the  various  sledges  into  their  component  parts. 
But  we  found  a  way  of  stopping  that :  every  evening,  on 
halting,  the  sledges  were  buried  in  the  snow,  so  as  to 
hide  all  the  lashings.  That  was  successful;  curiously 
enough,  they  never  tried  to  force  the  "  snow  rampart." 

I  may  mention  as  a  curious  thing  that  these  ravenous 


AN  IMPORTANT  OBSERVATION      111 

animals,  that  devoured  everything  they  came  across, 
even  to  the  ebonite  points  of  our  ski-sticks,  never  made 
any  attempt  to  break  into  the  provision  cases.  They 
lay  there  and  went  about  among  the  sledges  with  their 
noses  just  on  a  level  with  the  split  cases,  seeing  and 
scenting  the  pemmican,  without  once  making  a  sign  of 
taking  any.  But  if  one  raised  a  lid,  they  were  not  long 
in  showing  themselves.  Then  they  all  came  in  a  great 
hurry  and  flocked  about  the  sledges  in  the  hope  of 
getting  a  little  extra  bit.  I  am  at  a  loss  to  explain  this 
behaviour;  that  bashfulness  was  not  at  the  root  of  it,  I 
am  tolerably  certain. 

During  the  forenoon  the  thick,  grey  curtain  of  cloud 
began  to  grow  thinner  on  the  horizon,  and  for  the  first 
time  for  three  days  we  could  see  a  few  miles  about  us. 
The  feeling  was  something  like  that  one  has  on  waking 
from  a  good  nap,  rubbing  one's  eyes  and  looking  around. 
We  had  become  so  accustomed  to  the  grey  twilight 
that  this  positively  dazzled  us.  Meanwhile,  the  upper 
layer  of  air  seemed  obstinately  to  remain  the  same  and 
to  be  doing  its  best  to  prevent  the  sun  from  showing 
itself.  We  badly  wanted  to  get  a  meridian  altitude,  so 
that  we  could  determine  our  latitude.  Since  86°  47'  S. 
we  had  had  no  observation,  and  it  was  not  easy  to  say 
when  we  should  get  one.  Hitherto,  the  weather  con- 
ditions on  the  high  ground  had  not  been  particularly 
favourable.  Although  the  prospects  were  not  very 
promising,  we  halted  at  11   a.m.   and  made  ready  to 


112  AT  THE  POLE 

catch  the  sun  if  it  should  be  kind  enough  to  look  out. 
Hassel  and  Wisting  used  one  sextant  and  artificial 
horizon,  Hanssen  and  I  the  other  set. 

I  don't  know  that  I  have  ever  stood  and  absolutely 
pulled  at  the  sun  to  get  it  out  as  I  did  that  time.  If 
we  got  an  observation  here  which  agreed  with  our 
reckoning,  then  it  would  be  possible,  if  the  worst  came 
to  the  worst,  to  go  to  the  Pole  on  dead  reckoning; 
but  if  we  got  none  now,  it  was  a  question  w^hether 
our  claim  to  the  Pole  would  be  admitted  on  the  dead 
reckoning  we  should  be  able  to  produce.  Whether 
my  pulling  helped  or  not,  it  is  certain  that  the  sun 
appeared.  It  was  not  very  brilliant  to  begin  with, 
but,  practised  as  we  now  were  in  availing  ourselves 
of  even  the  poorest  chances,  it  was  good  enough. 
Down  it  came,  was  checked  by  all,  and  the  altitude 
written  down.  The  curtain  of  cloud  was  rent  more 
and  more,  and  before  we  had  finished  our  work — that 
is  to  say,  caught  the  sun  at  its  highest,  and  convinced 
ourselves  that  it  was  descending  again — it  was  shining 
in  all  its  glory.  We  had  put  away  our  instruments 
and  were  sitting  on  the  sledges,  engaged  in  the  calcula- 
tions. I  can  safely  say  that  we  were  excited.  What 
would  the  result  be,  after  marching  blindly  for  so  long 
and  over  such  impossible  ground,  as  we  had  been 
doing?  We  added  and  subtracted,  and  at  last  there 
was  the  result.  We  looked  at  each  other  in  sheer 
incredulity:  the  result  was  as  astonishing  as  the  most 


a. 


O 


< 

o 

^^ 
H 
< 
> 

w 

en 

n 
o 

<: 


SHACKLETON  PASSED  113 

consummate  conjuring  trick — 88°  16'  S.,  precisely  to  a 
minute  the  same  as  our  reckoning,  88°  16'  S.  If  we 
were  forced  to  go  to  the  Pole  on  dead  reckoning,  then 
surely  the  most  exacting  would  admit  our  right  to 
do  so.  We  put  away  our  observation  books,  ate  one 
or  two  biscuits,  and  went  at  it  again. 

We  had  a  great  piece  of  work  before  us  that  day: 
nothing  less  than  carrying  our  flag  farther  south  than 
the  foot  of  man  had  trod.  We  had  our  silk  flag 
ready;  it  was  made  fast  to  two  ski-sticks  and  laid 
on  Hanssen's  sledge.  I  had  given  him  orders  that  as 
soon  as  we  had  covered  the  distance  to  88°  23'  S.,  which 
was  Shackleton's  farthest  south,  the  flag  was  to  be 
hoisted  on  his  sledge.  It  was  my  turn  as  forerunner, 
and  I  pushed  on.  There  was  no  longer  any  difficulty 
in  holding  one's  course;  I  had  the  grandest  cloud- 
formations  to  steer  by,  and  everything  now  went  like 
a  machine.  First  came  the  forerunner  for  the  time 
being,  then  Hanssen,then  Wisting,and  finally  Bjaaland. 
The  forerunner  who  was  not  on  duty  went  where  he 
liked;  as  a  rule  he  accompanied  one  or  other  of  the 
sledges.  I  had  long  ago  fallen  into  a  reverie — far 
removed  from  the  scene  in  which  I  was  moving;  what 
I  thought  about  I  do  not  remember  now,  but  I  was 
so  preoccupied  that  I  had  entirely  forgotten  my  sur- 
roundings. Then  suddenly  I  was  roused  from  my 
dreaming  by  a  jubilant  shout,  followed  by  ringing 
cheers.     I  turned  round  quickly  to  discover  the  reason 


114  AT  THE  POLE 

of  this  unwonted  occurrence,  and  stood  speechless  and 
overcome. 

I  find  it  impossible  to  express  the  feelings  that 
possessed  me  at  this  moment.  All  the  sledges  had 
stopped,  and  from  the  foremost  of  them  the  Norwegian 
flag  was  flying.  It  shook  itself  out,  waved  and  flapped 
so  that  the  silk  rustled;  it  looked  wonderfully  well 
in  the  pure,  clear  air  and  the  shining  wliite  surround- 
ings. 88°  23'  was  past;  we  were  farther  south  than 
any  human  being  had  been.  No  other  moment  of  the 
whole  trip  affected  me  like  this.  The  tears  forced 
their  way  to  my  eyes;  by  no  effort  of  will  could  I  keep 
them  back.  It  was  the  flag  yonder  that  conquered  me 
and  my  will.  Luckily  I  was  some  way  in  advance  of 
the  others,  so  that  I  had  time  to  pull  myself  together 
and  master  my  feelings  before  reaching  my  comrades. 
We  all  shook  hands,  with  mutual  congratulations;  we 
had  won  our  way  far  by  holding  together,  and  we  would 
go  farther  yet — to  the  end. 

We  did  not  pass  that  spot  without  according  our 
highest  tribute  of  admiration  to  the  man,  who — together 
with  Ills  gallant  companions — had  planted  his  country's 
flag  so  infinitely  nearer  to  the  goal  than  any  of  his 
precursors.  Sir  Ernest  Shackleton's  name  will  always 
be  written  in  the  annals  of  Antarctic  exploration  in 
letters  of  fire.  Pluck  and  grit  can  work  wonders,  and 
I  know  of  no  better  example  of  this  than  what  that  man 
lias  accomplished. 


THE  LAST  DEPOT  115 

The  cameras  of  course  had  to  come  out,  and  we  got 
an  excellent  photograph  of  the  scene  which  none  of  us 
will  ever  forget.  We  went  on  a  couple  of  miles  more, 
to  88°  25\  and  then  camped.  The  weather  had  improved, 
and  kept  on  improving  all  the  time.  It  was  now  almost 
perfectly  calm,  radiantly  clear,  and,  under  the  circum- 
stances, quite  summer-like:  -0-4°  F.  Inside  the  tent 
it  was  quite  sultry.  This  was  more  than  we  had  expected. 

After  much  consideration  and  discussion  we  had 
come  to  the  conclusion  that  we  ought  to  lay  down  a 
depot — the  last  one — at  this  spot.  The  advantages  of 
lightening  our  sledges  were  so  great  that  we  should 
have  to  risk  it.  Nor  would  there  be  any  great  risk 
attached  to  it,  after  all,  since  we  should  adopt  a  system 
of  marks  that  would  lead  even  a  blind  man  back  to  the 
place.  We  had  determined  to  mark  it  not  only  at  right 
angles  to  our  course — that  is,  from  east  to  west — but  by 
snow  beacons  at  every  two  geographical  miles  to  the 
south. 

We  stayed  here  on  the  following  day  to  arrange  this 
depot.  Hanssen's  dogs  were  real  marvels,  all  of  them ; 
nothing  seemed  to  have  any  effect  on  them.  They  had 
grown  rather  thinner,  of  course,  but  they  were  still  as 
strong  as  ever.  It  was  therefore  decided  not  to  lighten 
Hanssen's  sledge,  but  only  the  two  others;  both  Wisting's 
andBjaaland's  teams  had  suffered,  especially  the  latter's. 
The  reduction  in  weight  that  was  effected  was  consider- 
able— nearly  110  pounds  on  each  of  the  two  sledges; 


116  AT  THE  POLE 

there  was  thus  about  220  pounds  in  the  depot.  The 
snow  here  was  ill-adapted  for  building,  but  we  put  up 
quite  a  respectable  monument  all  the  same.  It  was 
dogs'  pemmican  and  biscuits  that  were  left  behind;  we 
carried  with  us  on  the  sledges  provisions  for  about  a 
month.  If,  therefore,  contrary  to  expectation,  we  should 
be  so  unlucky  as  to  miss  this  depot,  we  should  never- 
theless be  fairly  sure  of  reaching  our  depot  in  86°  21' 
before  supplies  ran  short.  The  cross-marking  of  the 
depot  was  done  with  sixty  splinters  of  black  packing 
case  on  each  side,  with  100  paces  between  each.  Every 
other  one  had  a  shred  of  black  cloth  on  the  top.  The 
splinters  on  the  east  side  were  all  marked,  so  that  on 
seeing  them  we  should  know  instantly  that  we  were  to 
the  east  of  the  depot.  Those  on  the  west  had  no  marks. 
The  warmth  of  the  past  few  days  seemed  to  have 
matured  our  frost-sores,  and  we  presented  an  awful 
appearance.  It  was  Wisting,  Hanssen,  and  I  who  had 
suffered  the  worst  damage  in  the  last  south-east  blizzard; 
the  left  side  of  our  faces  was  one  mass  of  sore,  bathed  in 
matter  and  serum.  We  looked  like  the  worst  type  of 
tramps  and  ruffians,  and  would  probably  not  have  been 
recognized  by  our  nearest  relations.  These  sores  were 
a  great  trouble  to  us  during  the  latter  part  of  the  journey. 
The  slightest  gust  of  wind  produced  a  sensation  as  if 
one's  face  were  being  cut  backwards  and  forwards  with 
a  blunt  knife.  They  lasted  a  long  time,  too;  I  can 
remember  Hanssen  removing  the  last  scab  when  we 


SHALL  WE  BE  FIRST?  117 

were  coming  into  Hobart — three  months  later.  We 
were  very  lucky  in  the  weather  during  this  depot  work; 
the  sun  came  out  all  at  once,  and  we  had  an  excellent 
opportunity  of  taking  some  good  azimuth  observations, 
the  last  of  any  use  that  we  got  on  the  journey. 

December  9  arrived  with  the  same  fine  weather  and 
sunshine.  True,  we  felt  our  frost-sores  rather  sharply 
that  day,  with  -  18'4°  F.  and  a  little  breeze  dead  against 
us,  but  that  could  not  be  helped.  We  at  once  began  to 
put  up  beacons — a  work  which  was  continued  with  great 
regularity  right  up  to  the  Pole.  These  beacons  were 
not  so  big  as  those  we  had  built  down  on  the  Barrier; 
we  could  see  that  they  would  be  quite  large  enough 
with  a  height  of  about  3  feet,  as  it  was  very  easy  to  see 
the  slightest  irregularity  on  this  perfectly  flat  surface. 
While  thus  engaged  we  had  an  opportunity  of  becoming 
thoroughly  acquainted  with  the  nature  of  the  snow. 
Often — very  often  indeed — on  this  part  of  the  plateau, 
to  the  south  of  88°  25',  we  had  difficulty  in  getting 
snow  good  enough — that  is,  solid  enough  for  cutting 
blocks.  The  snow  up  here  seemed  to  have  fallen  very 
quietly,  in  light  breezes  or  calms.  We  could  thrust  the 
tent-pole,  which  was  6  feet  long,  right  down  without 
meetiiig  resistance,  which  showed  that  there  was  no 
hard  layer  of  snow.  The  surface  was  also  perfectly 
level;  there  was  not  a  sign  of  sastrugi  in  any 
direction. 

Every  step  we  now  took  in  advance  brought  us  rapidly 


118  AT  THE  POLE 

nearer  the  goal ;  we  could  feel  fairly  certain  of  reaching 
it  on  the  afternoon  of  the  14th.  It  was  very  natural 
that  our  conversation  should  be  chiefly  concerned  with 
the  time  of  arrival.  None  of  us  would  admit  that  he 
was  nervous,  but  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  we  all  had 
a  little  touch  of  that  malady.  What  should  we  see 
when  we  got  there?    A  vast,  endless  plain,  that  no  eye 

had  yet  seen  and  no  foot  yet  trodden;  or No,  it 

was  an  impossibility;  with  the  speed  at  which  we  had 
travelled,  we  must  reach  the  goal  first,  there  could  be 

no  doubt  about  that.    And  yet — and  yet Wherever 

there  is  the  smallest  loophole,  doubt  creeps  in  and  gnaws 
and  gnaws  and  never  leaves  a  poor  wretch  in  peace. 
"  What  on  earth  is  Uroa  scenting?"  It  was  Bjaaland 
who  made  this  remark,  on  one  of  these  last  days,  when 
I  was  going  by  the  side  of  his  sledge  and  talking  to 
him.     "  And  the  strange  thing  is  that  he's  scenting  to 

the  south.     It  can  never  be "     Mylius,  Ring,  and 

Suggen,  showed  the  same  interest  in  the  southerly  direc- 
tion; it  was  quite  extraordinary  to  see  how  they  raised 
their  heads,  with  every  sign  of  curiosity,  put  their  noses 
in  the  air,  and  sniffed  due  south.  One  would  really 
have  thought  there  was  something  remarkable  to  be 
found  there. 

From  88°  25'  S.  the  barometer  and  hypsometer 
indicated  slowly  but  surely  that  the  plateau  was  begin- 
ning to  descend  towards  the  other  side.  This  was  a 
pleasant  surprise  to  us;  we  had  thus  not  only  found 


THE  PLATEAU  DESCENDS  119 

the  very  summit  of  the  plateau,  but  also  the  slope  down 
on  the  far  side.  This  would  have  a  very  important 
bearing  for  obtaining  an  idea  of  the  construction  of  the 
whole  plateau.  On  December  9  observations  and  dead 
reckoning  agreed  within  a  mile.  The  same  result  again 
on  the  10th:  observation  2  kilometres  behind  reckoning. 
The  weather  and  going  remained  about  the  same  as  on 
the  preceding  days :  light  south-easterly  breeze,  tempera- 
ture - 18'4°  F.  The  snow  surface  was  loose,  but  ski 
and  sledges  glided  over  it  well.  On  the  11th,  the  same 
weather  conditions.  Temperature  - 13°  F.  Observa- 
tion and  reckoning  again  agreed  exactly.  Our  latitude 
was  89°  15'  S.  On  the  12th  we  reached  89°  30',reckoning 
1  kilometre  behind  observation.  Going  and  surface  as 
good  as  ever.  Weather  splendid — calm  with  sunshine. 
The  noon  observation  on  the  13th  gave  89°  37'  S. 
Reckoning  89°  38*5'  S.  We  halted  in  the  afternoon, 
after  going  eight  geographical  miles,  and  camped  in 
89°  45',  according  to  reckoning. 

The  weather  during  the  forenoon  had  been  just  as 
fine  as  before;  in  the  afternoon  we  had  some  snow- 
showers  from  the  south-east.  It  was  like  the  eve  of 
s«me  great  festival  that  night  in  the  tent.  One  could 
feel  that  a  great  event  was  at  hand.  Our  flag  was 
taken  out  again  and  lashed  to  the  same  two  ski-sticks 
as  before.  Then  it  was  rolled  up  and  laid  aside,  to  be 
ready  when  the  time  came.  I  was  awake  several  times 
during  the  night,  and  had  the  same  feeling  that  I  can 


120  AT  THE  POLE 

remember  as  a  little  boy  on  the  night  before  Christmas 
Eve — an  intense  expectation  of  what  was  going  to 
happen.  Otherwise  I  think  we  slept  just  as  well  that 
night  as  any  other. 

On  the  morning  of  December  14  the  weather  was  of 
the  finest,  just  as  if  it  had  been  made  for  arriving  at  the 
Pole.  I  am  not  quite  sure,  but  I  beheve  we  despatched 
our  breakfast  rather  more  quickly  than  usual  and  were  out 
of  the  tent  sooner,  though  I  must  admit  that  we  always 
accomplished  this  with  all  reasonable  haste.  We  went 
in  the  usual  order — the  forerunner,  Hanssen,  Wisting, 
Bjaaland,  and  the  reserve  forerunner.  By  noon  we  had 
reached  89 ""  53'  by  dead  reckoning,  and  made  ready  to 
take  the  rest  in  one  stage.  At  10  a.m.  a  light  breeze 
had  sprung  up  from  the  south-east,  and  it  had  clouded 
over,  so  that  we  got  no  noon  altitude;  but  the  clouds 
were  not  thick,  and  from  time  to  time  we  had  a  glimpse 
of  the  sun  through  them.  The  going  on  that  day  was 
rather  different  from  what  it  had  been;  sometimes  the 
ski  went  over  it  well,  but  at  others  it  was  pretty  bad. 
We  advanced  that  day  in  the  same  mechanical  way  as 
before;  not  much  was  said,  but  eyes  were  used  all  the 
more.  Hanssen's  neck  grew  twice  as  long  as  before 
in  his  endeavour  to  see  a  few  inches  farther.  I  had 
asked  liim  before  we  started  to  spy  out  ahead  for  all  he 
was  worth,  and  he  did  so  with  a  vengeance.  But,  how- 
ever keenly  he  stared,  he  could  not  descry  anything  but 
the  endless  flat  plain  ahead  of  us.  The  dogs  had  dropped 


AT    THE    SOUTH    POLE  :    OSCAR    WISTING   AND    HIS    TEAM    ARRIVE    AT    THE    GOAL. 


To  face  page  120,  Vul.  11. 


CHART    OF    THE 
IMMEDIATE    SURROUNDINGS 

OF    THE 

SOUTH    POLE 


KILOMETRES. 
SMILES. 


KING 


^ 


^FoUiehn  n.JE.im.^  t 


SOUTH/ POLE 


HA 


vifs 


PL/ATE  AU 


Lonj|."\Vesi  180  Long. "East  nf  (jrefinvici 


Cofn-ruyht  J^JZ  Ruald^irmind.serv . 


THE  END  OF  THE  JOURNEY        121 

their  scenting,  and  appeared  to  have  lost  their  interest 
in  the  regions  about  the  earth's  axis. 

At  three  in  the  afternoon  a  simultaneous  "  Halt !" 
rang  out  from  the  drivers.  They  had  carefully  examined 
their  sledge-meters,  and  they  all  showed  the  full  distance 
— our  Pole  by  reckoning.  The  goal  was  reached,  the 
journey  ended.  I  cannot  say — though  I  know  it  would 
sound  much  more  effective — that  the  object  of  my  life 
w^as  attained.  That  would  be  romancing  rather  too  bare- 
facedly. I  had  better  be  honest  and  admit  straight 
out  that  I  have  never  known  any  man  to  be  placed  in 
such  a  diametrically  opposite  position  to  the  goal  of 
his  desires  as  I  was  at  that  moment.  The  regions 
around  the  North  Pole — well,  yes,  the  North  Pole 
itself — had  attracted  me  from  cliildhood,  and  here  I 
was  at  the  South  Pole.  Can  anything  more  topsy- 
turvy be  imagined? 

We  reckoned  now  that  we  were  at  the  Pole.  Of 
course,  every  one  of  us  knew  that  we  were  not  standing 
on  the  absolute  spot;  it  would  be  an  impossibility  with 
the  time  and  the  instruments  at  our  disposal  to  ascertain 
that  exact  spot.  But  we  were  so  near  it  that  the  few 
miles  which  possibly  separated  us  from  it  could  not  be 
of  the  slightest  importance.  It  was  our  intention  to 
make  a  circle  round  this  camp,  with  a  radius  of  twelve 
and  a  half  miles  (20  kilometres),  and  to  be  satisfied 
with  that.  After  we  had  halted  we  collected  and  con- 
gratulated  each  other.     We  had  good  grounds   for 

VOL.  II.  34 


122  AT  THE  POLE 

mutual  respect  in  what  had  been  achieved,  and  I 
think  that  was  just  the  feehng  that  was  expressed  in 
the  firm  and  powerful  grasps  of  the  fist  that  were 
exchanged.  After  this  we  proceeded  to  the  greatest 
and  most  solemn  act  of  the  whole  journey — the  planting 
of  our  flag.  Pride  and  affection  shone  in  the  five  pairs 
of  eyes  that  gazed  upon  the  flag,  as  it  unfurled  itself  with 
a  sharp  crack,  and  waved  over  the  Pole.  I  had  deter- 
mined that  the  act  of  planting  it — the  historic  event — 
should  be  equally  divided  among  us  all.  It  was  not  for 
one  man  to  do  this;  it  was  for  all  who  had  staked  their 
lives  in  the  struggle,  and  held  together  through  thick 
and  thin.  This  was  the  only  way  in  which  I  could 
show  my  gratitude  to  my  comrades  in  this  desolate  spot. 
I  could  see  that  they  understood  and  accepted  it  in  the 
spirit  in  which  it  was  offered.  Five  weather-beaten, 
frost-bitten  fists  they  were  that  grasped  the  pole,  raised 
the  waving  flag  in  the  air,  and  planted  it  as  the  first  at 
the  geographical  South  Pole.  "  Thus  we  plant  thee, 
beloved  flag,  at  the  South  Pole,  and  give  to  the  plain 
on  which  it  lies  the  name  of  King  Haakon  VII.'s 
Plateau."  That  moment  will  certainly  be  remembered 
by  all  of  us  who  stood  there. 

One  gets  out  of  the  way  of  protracted  ceremonies  in 
those  regions — the  shorter  they  are  tlie  better.  Everyday 
life  began  again  at  once.  When  we  had  got  the  tent  up, 
Hanssen  set  about  slaughtering  Helge,  and  it  was  hard 
for  him  to  have  to  part  from  his  best  friend.     Helge 


REJOICINGS  123 

had  been  an  uncommonly  useful  and  good-natured  dog ; 
without  making  any  fuss  he  had  pulled  from  morning 
to  night,  and  had  been  a  shining  example  to  the  team. 
But  during  the  last  week  he  had  quite  fallen  away,  and 
on  our  arrival  at  the  Pole  there  was  only  a  shadow  of 
the  old  Helge  left.  He  was  only  a  drag  on  the  others, 
and  did  absolutely  no  work.  One  blow  on  the  skull, 
and  Helge  had  ceased  to  live.  "  What  is  death  to  one 
is  food  to  another,"  is  a  saying  that  can  scarcely  find 
a  better  apphcation  than  these  dog  meals.  Helge  was 
portioned  out  on  the  spot,  and  within  a  couple  of  hours 
there  was  nothing  left  of  him  but  his  teeth  and  the  tuft 
at  the  end  of  his  tail.  This  was  the  second  of  our 
eighteen  dogs  that  we  had  lost.  The  Major,  one  of 
Wisting's  fine  dogs,  left  us  in  88°  25'  S.,  and  never  re- 
turned. He  was  fearfully  worn  out,  and  must  have 
gone  away  to  die.  We  now  had  sixteen  dogs  left, 
and  these  we  intended  to  divide  into  two  equal  teams, 
leaving  Bjaaland's  sledge  behind. 

Of  course,  there  was  a  festivity  in  the  tent  that 
evening — not  that  champagne  corks  were  popping  and 
wine  flowing — no,  we  contented  ourselves  with  a  little 
piece  of  seal  meat  each,  and  it  tasted  well  and  did  us 
good.  There  was  no  other  sign  of  festival  indoors. 
Outside  we  heard  the  flag  flapping  in  the  breeze. 
Conversation  was  lively  in  the  tent  that  evening,  and 
we  talked  of  many  things.  Perhaps,  too,  our  thoughts 
sent  messages  home  of  what  we  had  done. 


124  AT  THE  POLE 

Everything  we  had  with  us  had  now  to  be  marked 
with  the  words  "  South  Pole  "  and  the  date,  to  serve 
afterwards  as  souvenirs.  Wisting  proved  to  be  a  first- 
class  engraver,  and  many  were  the  articles  he  had  to 
mark.  Tobacco — in  the  form  of  smoke — had  hitherto 
never  made  its  appearance  in  the  tent.  From  time  to 
time  I  had  seen  one  or  two  of  the  others  take  a  quid, 
but  now  these  things  were  to  be  altered.  I  had  brought 
with  me  an  old  briar  pipe,  which  bore  inscriptions  from 
many  places  in  the  Arctic  regions,  and  now  I  wanted  it 
marked  "  South  Pole."  When  I  produced  my  pipe  and 
was  about  to  mark  it,  I  received  an  unexpected  gift: 
Wisting  offered  me  tobacco  for  the  rest  of  the  journey. 
He  had  some  cakes  of  plug  in  his  kit-bag,  which  he 
would  prefer  to  see  me  smoke.  Can  anyone  grasp 
what  such  an  offer  meant  at  such  a  spot,  made  to  a 
man  who,  to  tell  the  truth,  is  very  fond  of  a  smoke 
after  meals?  There  are  not  many  who  can  understand 
it  fully.  I  accepted  the  offer,  jumping  with  joy,  and 
on  the  way  home  I  had  a  pipe  of  fresh,  fine-cut  plug 
every  evening.  Ah!  that  Wisting,  he  spoiled  me 
entirely.  Not  only  did  he  give  me  tobacco,  but 
every  evening — and  I  must  confess  I  j^ielded  to  the 
temptation  after  a  while,  and  had  a  morning  smoke 
as  well  —  he  undertook  the  disagreeable  work  of 
cutting  the  plug  and  filling  my  pij)e  in  all  kinds  of 
weather. 

33ut  we  did  not  let  our  talk  make  us  forget  other 


ENCIRCLING  THE  POLE  125 

things.  As  we  had  got  no  noon  altitude,  we  should 
have  to  try  and  take  one  at  midnight.  The  weather 
had  brightened  again,  and  it  looked  as  if  midnight 
would  be  a  good  time  for  the  observation.  We  there- 
fore crept  into  our  bags  to  get  a  little  nap  in  the  inter- 
vening hours.  In  good  time — soon  after  11  p.m. — we 
were  out  again,  and  ready  to  catch  the  sun ;  the  weather 
was  of  the  best,  and  the  opportunity  excellent.  We  four 
navigators  all  had  a  share  in  it,  as  usual,  and  stood 
watching  the  course  of  the  sun.  This  was  a  labour 
of  patience,  as  the  difference  of  altitude  was  now  very 
slight.  The  result  at  which  we  finally  arrived  was  of 
great  interest,  as  it  clearly  shows  how  unreliable  and 
valueless  a  single  observation  like  this  is  in  these 
regions.  At  12.30  a.m.  we  put  our  instruments  away, 
well  satisfied  with  our  work,  and  quite  convinced  that 
it  was  the  midnight  altitude  that  we  had  observed. 
The  calculations  which  were  carried  out  immediately 
afterwards  gave  us  89°  56'  S.  We  were  all  well  pleased 
with  this  result. 

The  arrangement  now  was  that  we  should  encircle 
this  camp  with  a  radius  of  about  twelve  and  a  half 
miles.  By  encircling  I  do  not,  of  course,  mean  that  we 
should  go  round  in  a  circle  with  this  radius;  that  would 
have  taken  us  days,  and  was  not  to  be  thought  of.  The 
encircling  was  accomplished  in  this  way:  Three  men 
went  out  in  three  different  directions,  two  at  right 
angles  to  the  course  we  had  been  steering,  and  one  in 


126  AT  THE  POLE 

continuation  of  that  course.  To  carry  out  this  work 
I  had  chosen  Wisting,  Hassel,  and  Bjaaland.  Having 
concluded  our  observations,  we  put  the  kettle  on  to 
give  ourselves  a  drop  of  chocolate;  the  pleasure  of 
standing  out  there  in  rather  light  attire  had  not  exactly 
put  warmth  into  our  bodies.  As  we  were  engaged  in 
swallowing  the  scalding  drink,  Bjaaland  suddenly  ob- 
served: "I'd  like  to  tackle  this  encircling  straight 
away.  We  shall  have  lots  of  time  to  sleep  when  we 
get  back."  Hassel  and  Wisting  were  quite  of  the  same 
opinion,  and  it  was  agreed  that  they  should  start  the 
work  immediately.  Here  we  have  yet  another  example 
of  the  good  spirit  that  prevailed  in  our  little  community. 
We  had  only  lately  come  in  from  our  day's  work — - 
a  march  of  about  eighteen  and  a  half  miles — and  now 
they  were  asking  to  be  allowed  to  go  on  another 
twenty-five  miles.  It  seemed  as  if  these  fellows  could 
never  be  tired.  We  therefore  turned  this  meal  into 
a  little  breakfast — that  is  to  say,  each  man  ate  what  he 
wanted  of  his  bread  ration,  and  then  they  began  to  get 
ready  for  the  work.  First,  three  small  bags  of  light 
windproof  stuff  were  made,  and  in  each  of  these  was 
placed  a  paper,  giving  the  position  of  our  camp.  In 
addition,  each  of  them  carried  a  large  square  flag  of  the 
same  dark  brown  material,  which  could  be  easily  seen 
at  a  distance.  As  flag-poles  we  elected  to  use  our  spare 
sledge-runners,  which  were  both  long — 12  feet — and 
strong,  and  which  we  were  going  to  take  ofl'  here  in  any 


A  RISKY  WALK  127 

case,  to  lighten  the  sledges  as  much  as  possible  for  the 
return  journey. 

Thus  equipped,  and  with  thirty  biscuits  as  an  extra 
ration,  the  three  men  started  off  in  the  directions  laid 
down.  Their  march  was  by  no  means  free  from  danger, 
and  does  great  honour  to  those  who  undertook  it,  not 
merely  without  raising  the  smallest  objection,  but  with 
the  greatest  keenness.  Let  us  consider  for  a  moment 
the  risk  they  ran.  Our  tent  on  the  boundless  plain, 
without  marks  of  any  kind,  may  very  well  be  compared 
with  a  needle  in  a  haystack.  From  this  the  three  men 
were  to  steer  out  for  a  distance  of  twelve  and  a  half 
miles.  Compasses  would  have  been  good  things  to  take 
on  such  a  walk,  but  our  sledge-compasses  were  too 
heavy  and  unsuitable  for  carrying.  They  therefore  had 
to  go  without.  They  had  the  sun  to  go  by,  certainly, 
when  they  started,  but  who  could  say  how  long  it  would 
last?  The  weather  was  then  fine  enough,  but  it  was 
impossible  to  guarantee  that  no  sudden  change  would 
take  place.  If  by  bad  luck  the  sun  should  be  hidden, 
then  their  own  tracks  might  help  them.  But  to  trust 
to  tracks  in  these  regions  is  a  dangerous  thing.  Before 
you  know  where  you  are  the  whole  plain  may  be  one  mass 
of  driving  snow,  obliterating  all  tracks  as  soon  as  they 
are  made.  With  the  rapid  changes  of  weather  we  had  so 
often  experienced,  such  a  thing  was  not  impossible. 
That  these  three  risked  their  lives  that  morning,  when 
they  left  the  tent  at  2.30,  there  can  be  no  doubt  at  all, 


128  AT  THE  POLE 

and  they  all  three  knew  it  very  well.  But  if  anyone 
thinks  that  on  this  account  they  took  a  solemn  farewell 
of  us  who  stayed  behind,  he  is  much  mistaken.  Not  a 
bit;  they  all  vanished  in  their  different  directions  amid 
laughter  and  chaff. 

The  first  thing-  we  did — Hanssen  and  I — was  to  set 
about  arranging  a  lot  of  trifling  matters;  there  was 
something  to  be  done  here,  something  there,  and  above 
all  we  had  to  be  ready  for  the  series  of  observations  we 
were  to  carry  out  together,  so  as  to  get  as  accurate  a 
determination  of  our  position  as  possible.  The  first 
observation  told  us  at  once  how  necessary  this  was.  For 
it  turned  out  that  this,  instead  of  giving  us  a  greater 
altitude  than  the  midnight  observation,  gave  us  a  smaller 
one,  and  it  was  then  clear  that  we  had  gone  out  of  the 
meridian  we  thought  we  were  following.  Now  the  first 
thing  to  be  done  was  to  get  our  north  and  south  line 
and  latitude  determined,  so  that  we  could  find  our  posi- 
tion once  more.  Luckily  for  us,  the  weather  looked  as 
if  it  would  hold.  We  measured  the  sun's  altitude  at 
every  hour  from  6  a.m.  to  7  p.m.,  and  from  these  obser- 
vations found,  with  some  degree  of  certainty,  our  latitude 
and  the  direction  of  the  meridian. 

By  nine  in  the  morning  we  began  to  expect  the  return 
of  our  comrades;  according  to  our  calculation  they 
should  then  have  covered  the  distance — twenty-five 
miles.  It  was  not  till  ten  o'clock  that  Hanssen  made 
out  the  first  black  dot  on  the  horizon,  and  not  long  after 


THE  LAST  MILES  129 

the  second  and  third  appeared.  We  both  gave  a  sigh 
of  reHef  as  they  came  on;  almost  simultaneously  the 
three  arrived  at  the  tent.  We  told  them  the  result  of 
our  observations  up  to  that  time;  it  looked  as  if  our 
camp  was  in  about  89°  54'  30"  S.,  and  that  with  our 
encirclino-  we  had  therefore  included  the  actual  Pole. 
With  this  result  we  might  very  well  have  been  content, 
but  as  the  weather  was  so  good  and  gave  the  impression 
that  it  would  continue  so,  and  our  store  of  provisions 
proved  on  examination  to  be  very  ample,  we  decided  to 
go  on  for  the  remaining  ten  kilometres  ( five  and  a  half 
geographical  miles) ,  and  get  our  position  determined  as 
near  to  the  Pole  as  possible.  Meanwhile  the  three 
wanderers  turned  in — not  so  much  because  they  were 
tired,  as  because  it  was  the  right  thing  to  do — and 
Hanssen  and  I  continued  the  series  of  observations. 

In  the  afternoon  we  again  went  very  carefully  through 
our  provision  supply  before  discussing  the  future.  The 
result  was  that  we  had  food  enough  for  ourselves  and 
the  dogs  for  eighteen  days.  The  surviving  sixteen  dogs 
were  divided  into  two  teams  of  eight  each,  and  the 
contents  of  Bjaaland's  sledge  were  shared  between 
Hanssen's  and  Wisting's.  The  abandoned  sledge  was 
set  upright  in  the  snow,  and  proved  to  be  a  splendid 
mark.  The  sledge-meter  was  screwed  to  the  sledge, 
and  we  left  it  there ;  our  other  two  were  quite  sufficient 
for  the  return  journey;  they  had  all  shown  themselves 
very  accurate.    A  couple  of  empty  provision  cases  were 


130  AT  THE  POLE 

also  left  behind.  I  wrote  in  pencil  on  a  piece  of  case 
the  information  that  our  tent — "  Polheim  " — would  be 
found  five  and  a  half  geographical  miles  north-west 
quarter  west  by  compass  from  the  sledge.  Having  put 
all  these  things  in  order  the  same  day,  we  turned  in, 
very  well  satisfied. 

Early  next  morning,  December  16,  we  were  on  our 
feet  again.  Bjaaland,  who  had  now  left  the  company 
of  the  drivers  and  been  received  with  jubilation  into 
that  of  the  forerunners,  was  immediately  entrusted  with 
the  honourable  task  of  leading  the  expedition  forward 
to  the  Pole  itself.  I  assigned  this  duty,  which  we  all 
regarded  as  a  distinction,  to  him  as  a  mark  of  gratitude 
to  the  gallant  Telemarkers  for  their  pre-eminent  work 
in  the  advancement  of  ski  sport.  The  leader  that  day 
had  to  keep  as  straight  as  a  line,  and  if  possible  to  follow 
the  direction  of  our  meridian.  A  little  way  after 
Bjaaland  came  Hassel,then  Hanssen,  then  Wisting,and 
I  followed  a  good  way  behind.  I  could  thus  check  the 
direction  of  the  march  very  accurately,  and  see  that  no 
great  deviation  was  made.  Bjaaland  on  this  occasion 
showed  himself  a  matchless  forerunner;  he  went  per- 
fectly straight  the  whole  time.  Not  once  did  he  incline 
to  one  side  or  the  other,  and  when  we  arrived  at  the 
end  of  the  distance,  we  could  still  clearly  see  the  sledge 
we  had  set  up  and  take  its  bearing.  This  showed  it  to 
be  absolutely  in  the  right  direction. 

It  was   11   a.m.   when  we  reached   our  destination. 


1&9 

A   PAGE    FROM    THE    OBSERVATION    BOOK,    DECEMBER    17,    1911. 

To/acepaye  130,  Vol.  II. 


THE  FINAL  OBSERVATIONS  131 

While  some  of  us  were  putting  up  the  tent,  others 
began  to  get  everything  ready  for  the  coming  observa- 
tions. A  sohd  snow  pedestal  was  put  up,  on  which  the 
artificial  horizon  was  to  be  placed,  and  a  smaller  one 
to  rest  the  sextant  on  when  it  was  not  in  use.  At 
11.30  a.m.  the  first  observation  was  taken.  We  divided 
ourselves  into  two  parties — Hanssen  and  I  in  one,  Hassel 
and  Wisting  in  the  other.  While  one  party  slept,  the 
other  took  the  observations,  and  the  watches  were  of  six 
hours  each.  The  weather  was  altogether  grand,  though 
the  sky  was  not  perfectly  bright  the  whole  time.  A 
very  light,  fine,  vaporous  curtain  would  spread  across 
the  sky  from  time  to  time,  and  then  quickly  disappear 
again.  This  film  of  cloud  was  not  thick  enough  to  hide 
the  sun,  which  we  could  see  the  whole  time,  but  the 
atmosphere  seemed  to  be  disturbed.  The  effect  of  this 
was  that  the  sun  appeared  not  to  change  its  altitude  for 
several  hours,  until  it  suddenly  made  a  jump. 

Observations  were  now  taken  every  hour  through  the 
whole  twenty-four.  It  was  very  strange  to  turn  in  at 
6  p.m.,  and  then  on  turning  out  again  at  midnight  to 
find  the  sun  apparently  still  at  the  same  altitude,  and 
then  once  more  at  6  a.m.  to  see  it  still  no  higher.  The 
altitude  had  changed,  of  course,  but  so  slightly  that  it 
was  imperceptible  with  the  naked  eye.  To  us  it  ap- 
peared as  though  the  sun  made  the  circuit  of  the  heavens 
at  exactly  the  same  altitude.  The  times  of  day  that  I 
have  given  here  are  calculated  according  to  the  meridian 


132  AT  THE  POLE 

of  Framlieim;  we  continued  to  reckon  our  time  from 
this.  The  observations  soon  told  us  that  we  were  not 
on  the  absolute  Pole,  but  as  close  to  it  as  we  could  hope 
to  get  with  our  instruments.  The  observations,  which 
have  been  submitted  to  Mr.  Anton  Alexander,  will  be 
published,  and  the  result  given  later  in  this  book. 

On  December  17  at  noon  we  had  completed  our 
observations,  and  it  is  certain  that  we  had  done  all  that 
could  be  done.  In  order  if  possible  to  come  a  few  inches 
nearer  to  the  actual  Pole,  Hanssen  and  Bjaaland  went 
out  four  geographical  miles  (seven  kilometres)  in  the 
direction  of  the  newly  found  meridian. 

Bjaaland  astonished  me  at  dinner  that  day.  Speeches 
had  not  hitherto  been  a  feature  of  this  journey,  but  now 
Bjaaland  evidently  thought  the  time  had  come,  and  sur- 
prised us  all  with  a  really  fine  oration.  My  amazement 
reached  its  cuhnination  when,  at  the  conclusion  of  his 
speech,  he  produced  a  cigar-case  full  of  cigars  and  offered 
it  round.  A  cigar  at  the  Pole!  What  do  you  say  to 
that  ?  But  it  did  not  end  there.  When  the  cigars  had 
gone  round,  there  were  still  four  left.  I  was  quite 
touclied  when  he  handed  the  case  and  cigars  to  me  with 
the  words:  "  Keep  this  to  remind  you  of  the  Pole."  I 
have  taken  good  care  of  the  case,  and  shall  preserve  it 
as  one  of  the  many  happy  signs  of  my  comi'ades'  devo- 
tion on  this  journey.  The  cigars  I  shared  out  after- 
wards, on  Christmas  Eve,  and  they  gave  us  a  visible 
mark  of  that  occasion. 


MESSAGES  AT  POLHEIM  133 

When  this  festival  dinner  at  the  Pole  was  ended,  we 
began  our  preparations  for  departure.  First  we  set  up 
the  little  tent  we  had  brought  with  us  in  case  we  should 
be  compelled  to  divide  into  two  parties.  It  had  been 
made  by  our  able  sailmaker,  Ronne,  and  was  of  very 
thin  windproof  gabardine.  Its  drab  colour  made  it 
easily  visible  against  the  white  surface.  Another  pole 
was  lashed  to  the  tent-pole,  making  its  total  height 
about  13  feet.  On  the  top  of  this  a  little  Norwegian 
flag  was  lashed  fast,  and  underneath  it  a  pennant,  on 
which  "  Fram  "  was  painted.  The  tent  was  well  secured 
with  guy-ropes  on  all  sides.  Inside  the  tent,  in  a  little 
bag,  I  left  a  letter,  addressed  to  H.M.  the  King,  giving 
information  of  what  he  had .  accomplished.  The  way 
home  was  a  long  one,  and  so  many  things  might  happen 
to  make  it  impossible  for  us  to  give  an  account  of  our 
expedition.  Besides  this  letter,  I  wrote  a  short  epistle 
to  Captain  Scott,  who,  I  assumed,  would  be  the  first  to 
find  the  tent.  Other  things  we  left  there  were  a  sextant 
with  a  glass  horizon,  a  hypsometer  case,  three  reindeer- 
skin  foot-bags,  some  kamiks  and  mits. 

When  everything  had  been  laid  inside,  we  went  into 
the  tent,  one  by  one,  to  write  our  names  on  a  tablet  we 
had  fastened  to  the  tent-pole.  On  this  occasion  we 
received  the  congratulations  of  our  companions  on  the 
successful  result,  for  the  following  messages  were  written 
on  a  couple  of  strips  of  leather,  sewed  to  the  tent: 
"  Good  luck,"  and  "  Welcome  to  90°."     These  good 


134  AT  THE  POLE 

wishes,  which  we  suddenly  discovered,  put  us  in  very 
good  spirits.  They  were  signed  by  Beck  and  Ronne. 
They  had  good  faith  in  us.  When  we  had  finished  this 
we  came  out,  and  the  tent-door  was  securely  laced 
together,  so  that  there  was  no  danger  of  the  wind  getting 
a  hold  on  that  side. 

And  so  good-bye  to  Polheim.  It  was  a  solemn 
moment  when  we  bared  our  heads  and  bade  farew^ell  to 
our  home  and  our  flag.  And  then  the  travelling  tent 
was  taken  down  and  the  sledges  packed.  Now  the 
homeward  journey  was  to  begin — homeward,  step  by 
step,  mile  after  mile,  until  the  w^hole  distance  was 
accomplished.  We  drove  at  once  into  our  old  tracks 
and  followed  them.  Many  were  the  times  we  turned  to 
send  a  last  look  to  Polheim.  The  vaporous,  white  air 
set  in  again,  and  it  was  not  long  before  the  last  of 
Polheim,  our  little  flag,  disappeared  from  view. 


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If^l^ 


CHAPTER   XIII 

THE   RETURN   TO   FRAMHEIM 

The  going  was  splendid  and  all  were  in  good  spirits,  so 
we  went  along  at  a  great  pace.  One  would  almost  have 
thought  the  dogs  knew  they  were  homeward  bound. 
A  mild,  summer-like  wind,  with  a  temperature  of 
-22°  F.,  was  our  last  greeting  from  the  Pole. 

When  we  came  to  our  last  camp,  where  the  sledge 
was  left,  we  stopped  and  took  a  few  things  with  us. 
From  this  point  we  came  into  the  line  of  beacons. 
Our  tracks  had  already  become  very  indistinct,  but, 
thanks  to  his  excellent  sight,  Bjaaland  kept  in  them  quite 
well.  The  beacons,  however,  served  their  purpose  so 
satisfactorily  that  the  tracks  were  almost  superfluous. 
Although  these  beacons  were  not  more  than  about 
3  feet  high,  they  were  extremely  conspicuous  on  the 
level  surface.  When  the  sun  was  on  them,  they  shone 
like  electric  lighthouses;  and  when  the  sun  was  on  the 
other  side,  they  looked  so  dark  in  the  shadow  that  one 
would  have  taken  them  for  black  rocks.  We  intended 
in  future  to  travel  at  night ;  the  advantages  of  this  were 
many  and  great.    In  the  first  place,  we  should  have  the 

135 


136       THE  RETURN  TO  FRAMHEIM 

sun  behind  us,  which  meant  a  good  deal  to  our  eyes. 
Going  against  the  sun  on  a  snow  surface  like  this  tells  fear- 
fully on  the  eyes,  even  if  one  has  good  snow-goggles ;  but 
with  the  sun  at  one's  back  it  is  only  play.  Another  great 
advantage — which  we  did  not  reap  till  later — was  that  it 
gave  us  the  warmest  part  of  the  twenty-four  hours  in 
the  tent,  during  which  time  we  had  an  opportunity  of 
drying  wet  clothes,  and  so  on.  This  last  advantage  was, 
however,  a  doubtful  one,  as  we  shall  see  in  due  course. 

It  was  a  great  comfort  to  turn  our  backs  to  the  south. 
The  wind,  which  had  nearly  always  been  in  this  quarter, 
had  often  been  very  painful  to  our  cracked  faces;  now 
we  should  always  have  it  at  our  backs,  and  it  would 
help  us  on  our  way,  besides  giving  our  faces  time  to 
heal.  Another  thing  we  were  longing  for  was  to  come 
down  to  the  Barrier  again,  so  that  we  could  breathe 
freely.  Up  here  we  were  seldom  able  to  draw  a  good 
long  breath ;  if  we  only  had  to  say  "  Yes,"  we  had  to 
do  it  in  two  instalments.  The  asthmatic  condition  in 
which  we  found  ourselves  during  our  six  wrecks'  stay  on 
the  plateau  was  anything  but  pleasant.  We  had  fixed 
fifteen  geographical  miles  (seventeen  and  three-eighths 
statute  miles)  as  a  suitable  day's  march  on  the  homeward 
journey.  We  had,  of  course,  many  advantages  now  as 
compared  with  the  southward  journey,  which,  would 
have  enabled  us  to  do  longer  marches  than  this ;  but  we 
were  afraid  of  overworking  the  dogs,  and  possibly  using 
them  up  before  we  had  gone  very  far,  if  we  attempted 


LASSE'S  FATE  137 

too  great  a  distance  daily.  It  soon  proved,  however, 
that  we  had  underestimated  our  dogs'  powers;  it  only 
took  us  five  hours  to  cover  the  appointed  distance,  and 
our  rest  was  therefore  a  long  one. 

On  December  19  we  killed  the  first  dog  on  the  home- 
ward trip.  This  was  Lasse,  my  own  favourite  dog. 
He  had  worn  himself  out  completely,  and  was  no  longer 
worth  anything.  He  was  divided  into  fifteen  portions, 
as  nearly  equal  as  possible,  and  given  to  his  companions. 
They  had  now  learnt  to  set  great  store  by  fresh  meat, 
and  it  is  certain  that  the  extra  feeds,  like  this  one,  that 
took  place  from  time  to  time  on  the  way  home,  had  no 
small  share  in  the  remarkably  successful  result.  They 
seemed  to  benefit  by  these  meals  of  fresh  meat  for  several 
days  afterwards,  and  worked  much  more  easily. 

December  20  began  with  bitter  weather,  a  breeze 
from  the  south-east,  grey  and  thick.  We  lost  the  trail, 
and  for  some  time  had  to  go  by  compass.  But  as  usual 
it  suddenly  cleared,  and  once  more  the  plain  lay  before 
us,  light  and  warm.  Yes,  too  warm  it  was.  We  had 
to  take  off  everything — nearly — and  still  the  sweat 
poured  off  us.  It  was  not  for  long  that  we  were 
uncertain  of  the  way:  our  excellent  beacons  did  us 
brilliant  service,  and  one  after  another  they  came  up  on 
the  horizon,  flashed  and  shone,  and  drew  us  on  to  our 
all-important  depot  in  88°  25'  S.  We  were  now  going 
slightly  uphill,  but  so  slightly  that  it  was  unnoticeable. 

The  hypsometer  and  barometer,  however,  were  not  to  be 

VOL.  II.  35 


138        THE  RETURN  TO  FRAMHEIM 

deceived,  and  both  fell  in  precisely  the  same  degree  as 
they  had  risen  before.  Even  if  we  had  not  exactly 
noticed  the  rise,  the  feeling  of  it  was  present.  It  may 
perhajis  be  called  imagination,  but  I  certainly  thought  I 
could  notice  the  rise  by  my  breathing. 

Our  appetite  had  increased  alarmingly  during  the  last 
few  days.  It  appeared  that  we  ski-runners  evinced  a 
far  greater  voracity  than  the  drivers.  There  were  days 
— only  a  few  days,  be  it  said — when  I  believe  any  of 
us  three — Bjaaland,  Hassel,  and  myself — would  have 
swallowed  pebbles  without  winking.  The  drivers  never 
showed  such  signs  of  starvation.  It  has  occurred  to  me 
that  this  may  possibly  have  been  due  to  their  being  able 
to  lean  on  the  sledges  as  they  went  along,  and  thus 
have  a  rest  and  support  which  we  had  to  do  without. 
It  seems  little  enough  simply  to  rest  one's  hand  on  a 
sledge  on  the  march,  but  in  the  long  run,  day  after  day, 
it  may  perhaps  make  itself  felt.  Fortunately  we  were 
so  well  supplied  that  when  this  sensation  of  hunger 
came  over  us,  we  could  increase  our  daily  rations.  On 
leaving  the  Pole  we  added  to  our  pemmican  ration, 
with  the  result  that  our  wild-beast  appetites  soon  gave 
way  and  shrank  to  an  ordinary  good,  everyday  twist. 
Our  daily  programme  on  entering  upon  the  return 
journey  was  so  arranged  that  we  began  to  get  breakfast 
ready  at  6  p.m.,  and  by  8  p.m.  we  were  usually  quite 
ready  to  start  the  day's  march.  An  hour  or  so  after 
midnight  the   fifteen  geographical  miles  were   accom- 


PER  BREAKS  DOWN  139 

plished,  and  we  could  once  more  put  up  our  tent,  cook 
our  food,  and  seek  our  rest.  But  this  rest  soon  became 
so  insufferably  long.  And  then  there  was  the  fearful 
heat — considering  the  circumstances — which  often  made 
us  get  out  of  our  sleeping-bags  and  lie  with  nothing 
over  us.  These  rests  of  twelve,  fourteen,  sometimes 
as  much  as  sixteen  hours,  were  what  most  tried  our 
patience  during  the  early  part  of  the  return  journey. 
We  could  see  so  well  that  all  this  rest  was  unnecessary, 
but  still  we  kept  it  up  as  long  as  we  were  on  the  high 
ground.  Our  conversation  at  this  time  used  to  turn 
very  often  on  the  best  way  of  filKng  up  these  long, 
unnecessary  waits. 

That  day — December  20 — Per — good,  faithful,  con- 
scientious Per — broke  down  utterly  and  had  to  be  taken 
on  the  sledge  the  last  part  of  the  way.  On  arrival  at 
the  camping-ground  he  had  his  reward.  A  httle  blow 
of  the  back  of  the  axe  was  enough  for  him;  without 
making  a  sound  the  worn-out  animal  collapsed.  In 
liim  Wisting  lost  one  of  his  best  dogs.  He  was  a 
curious  animal — always  went  about  quietly  and  peace- 
ably, and  never  took  part  in  the  others'  battles;  from 
his  looks  and  behaviour  one  would  have  judged  him, 
quite  mistakenly,  to  be  a  queer  sort  of  beast  who  was 
good  for  nothing.  But  when  he  was  in  harness  he 
showed  what  he  could  do.  Without  needing  any 
shouts  or  cuts  of  the  whip,  he  put  himself  into  it  from 
morning  to  night,  and  was  priceless  as  a  draught  dog. 


140       THE  RETURN  TO  FRAMHEIM 

But,  like  others  of  the  same  character,  he  could  not  keep 
it  going  any  longer;  he  collapsed,  was  killed  and  eaten. 

Christmas  Eve  was  rapidly  approaching.  For  us  it 
could  not  be  particularly  festive,  but  we  should  have  to 
try  to  make  as  much  of  it  as  circumstances  would 
permit.  We  ought,  therefore,  to  reach  our  depot  that 
evening,  so  as  to  keep  Christmas  with  a  dish  of  porridge. 
The  night  before  Christmas  Eve  we  slaughtered  Svart- 
flekken.  There  was  no  mourning  on  this  occasion: 
Svartflekken  was  one  of  Hassel's  dogs,  and  had  always 
been  a  reprobate.  I  find  the  following  in  my  diary, 
written  the  same  evening:  "  Slaughtered  Svartflekken 
this  evening.  He  would  not  do  any  more,  although 
there  was  not  much  wrong  with  his  looks.  Bad 
character.  If  a  man,  he  would  have  ended  in  penal 
servitude."  He  was  comparatively  fat,  and  was  con- 
sumed with  evident  satisfaction. 

Christmas  Eve  came ;  the  weather  was  rather  change- 
able— now  overcast,  now  clear — when  we  set  out  at 
8  p.m.  the  night  before.  We  had  not  far  to  go  before 
reaching  our  depot.  At  12  midnight  we  arrived  there 
in  the  most  glorious  weather,  cahn  and  warm.  Now 
we  had  the  whole  of  Christmas  Eve  before  us,  and  could 
enjoy  it  at  our  ease.  Our  depot  was  at  once  taken 
down  and  divided  between  the  two  sledges.  All 
crumbs  of  biscuit  were  carefully  collected  by  Wisting, 
the  cook  for  the  day,  and  put  into  a  bag.  This  w^as 
taken  into  the  tent  and  vigorously  beaten  and  kneaded ; 


CHRISTMAS  EVE  141 

the  result  was  pulverized  biscuit.  With  this  product 
and  a  sausage  of  dried  milk,  Wisting  succeeded  in 
making  a  capital  dish  of  Christmas  porridge.  I  doubt 
whether  anyone  at  home  enjoyed  his  Christmas  dinner 
so  much  as  we  did  that  morning  in  the  tent.  One  of 
Bjaaland's  cigars  to  follow  brought  a  festival  spirit  over 
the  whole  camp. 

Another  thing  we  had  to  rejoice  about  that  day  was 
that  we  had  again  reached  the  summit  of  the  plateau, 
and  after  two  or  three  more  days'  march  would  begin  to 
go  downhill,  finally  reaching  the  Barrier  and  our  old 
haunts.  Our  daily  march  had  hitherto  been  interrupted 
by  one  or  two  halts;  we  stopped  to  rest  both  the  dogs 
and  ourselves.  On  Christmas  Eve  we  instituted  a  new 
order  of  things,  and  did  the  whole  distance — fifteen 
geographical  miles — without  a  stop.  We  liked  this 
arrangement  best,  after  all,  and  it  seemed  as  if  the 
dogs  did  the  same.  As  a  rule  it  was  hard  to  begin  the 
march  again  after  the  rest;  one  got  rather  stiff — lazy, 
too,  perhaps — and  had  to  become  supple  again. 

On  the  26th  we  passed  88°  S.,  going  well.  The 
surface  appeared  to  have  been  exposed  to  powerful 
sunshine  since  we  left  it,  as  it  had  become  quite 
polished.  Going  over  these  polished  levels  was  like 
crossing  smooth  ice,  but  with  the  important  difference 
that  here  the  dogs  had  a.  good  foothold.  This  time  we 
sighted  high  land  even  in  88°,  and  it  had  great  surprises 
in  store  for  us.     It  was  clear  that  this  was  the  same 


142       THE  RETURN  TO  FRA3IHEIM 

mighty  range  running  to  the  south-east  as  we  had  seen 
before,  but  this  time  it  stretched  considerably  farther  to 
the  south.  The  weather  was  radiantly  clear,  and  we 
could  see  by  the  land  that  the  range  of  vision  was  very 
great.  Summit  after  summit  the  range  extended  to 
the  south-east,  until  it  gradually  disappeared;  but  to 
judge  from  the  atmosphere,  it  was  continued  beyond 
our  range  of  vision  in  the  same  direction.  That  this 
chain  traverses  the  Antarctic  continent  I  therefore 
consider  beyond  a  doubt.  Here  we  had  a  very  good 
example  of  how  deceptive  the  atmosphere  is  in  these 
regions.  On  a  day  that  appeared  perfectly  clear  we 
had  lost  sight  of  the  mountains  in  87°,  and  now  we  saw 
them  as  far  as  the  eye  could  reach  in  88°.  That  we  were 
astonished  is  a  mild  expression.  We  looked  and  looked, 
entirely  unable  to  recognize  our  position;  little  did  we 
guess  that  the  huge  mountain-mass  that  stood  up  so 
high  and  clear  on  the  horizon  was  ]Mount  Thorvald 
Nilsen.  How  utterly  different  it  had  looked  in  the 
mistj^  air  when  we  said  good-bye  to  it.  It  is  amusing 
to  read  my  diary  of  this  time  and  see  how  persistently 
we  took  the  bearings  of  land  every  day,  and  thought  it 
was  new.  We  did  not  recognize  that  vast  mountain 
until  Mount  Helmer  Hanssen  began  to  stick  up  out  of 
the  plain. 

On  December  28  we  left  the  summit  of  the  plateau, 
and  began  the  descent.  Although  the  incline  was  not 
perceptible  to  the  naked  eye,  its  effect  could  easily  be 


GOING  WELL  143 

seen  in  the  dogs.  Wisting  now  used  a  sail  on  his 
sledge,  and  was  thus  able  to  keep  up  with  Hanssen.  If 
anyone  had  seen  the  procession  that  came  marching 
over  the  plateau  at  that  time,  he  would  hardly  have 
thought  we  had  been  out  for  seventy  days  at  a  stretch, 
for  we  came  at  a  swinging  pace.  We  always  had  the 
wind  at  our  backs,  with  sunshine  and  warmth  the  whole 
time.  There  was  never  a  thought  of  using  the  whip 
now;  the  dogs  were  bursting  with  health,  and  tugged 
at  their  harness  to  get  away.  It  was  a  hard  time  for 
our  worthy  forerunner;  he  often  had  to  spurt  as  much 
as  he  could  to  keep  clear  of  Hanssen's  dogs.  Wisting 
in  full  sail,  with  his  dogs  howling  for  joy,  came  close 
behind.  Hassel  had  his  work  cut  out  to  follow,  and, 
indeed,  I  had  the  same.  The  surface  was  absolutely 
polished,  and  for  long  stretches  at  a  time  we  could  push 
ourselves  along  with  our  sticks.  The  dogs  were  com- 
pletely changed  since  we  had  left  the  Pole;  strange  as 
it  may  sound,  it  is  nevertheless  true  that  they  were 
putting  on  flesh  day  by  day,  and  getting  quite  fat. 
I  believe  it  must  have  been  feeding  them  on  fresh 
meat  and  pemmican  together  that  did  this.  We  were 
again  able  to  increase  our  ration  of  pemmican  from 
December  28;  the  daily  ration  was  1  pound 
(450  grams)  per  man,  and  we  could  not  manage  more 
— at  least,  I  think  not. 

On  December  29  we  went  downhiU  more  and  more, 
and  it  was  indeed  tough  work  being  a  ski-runirer.    The 


144       THE  RETURN  TO  FRAMHEIM 

drivers  stood  so  jauntily  by  the  side  of  their  sledges, 
letting  themselves  be  carried  over  the  plain  at  a 
phenomenal  pace.  The  surface  consisted  of  sastrugi, 
alternating  with  smooth  stretches  like  ice.  Heaven 
help  me,  how  we  ski-runners  had  to  struggle  to  keep 
up!  It  was  all  very  well  for  Bjaaland;  he  had  flown 
faster  on  even  worse  ground.  But  for  Hassel  and  me 
it  was  different.  I  saw  Hassel  put  out,  now  an  arm, 
now  a  leg,  and  make  the  most  desperate  efforts  to  keep 
on  his  feet.  Fortunately  I  could  not  see  myself;  if  I 
had  been  able  to,  I  am  sure  I  should  have  been  in  fits 
of  laughter.  Early  that  day  Mount  Helmer  Hanssen 
appeared.  The  ground  now  went  in  great  undulations 
— a  thing  we  had  not  noticed  in  the  mist  when  we  were 
going  south.  So  high  were  these  undulations  that  they 
suddenly  hid  the  view  from  us.  The  first  we  saw  of 
Mount  Hanssen  was  from  the  top  of  one  of  these  big 
waves;  it  then  looked  like  the  top  of  a  pressure  hum- 
mock that  was  just  sticking  up  above  the  surface.  At 
first  we  did  not  understand  at  all  what  it  was;  it  was 
not  till  the  next  day  that  we  really  grasped  it,  when 
the  pointed  blocks  of  ice  covering  the  top  of  the 
mountain  came  into  view.  As  I  have  said,  it  was 
only  then  that  we  made  sure  of  being  on  the  right 
course;  all  the  rest  of  the  land  that  we  saw  was  so 
entirely  strange  to  us.  We  recognized  absolutely 
nothing. 

On  the  30th  we  passed  87°  S.,  and  were  thus  rapidly 


ON  THE  DEVIL'S  GLACIER  145 

nearing  the  Devil's  Ballroom  and  Glacier.  The  next 
day  was  brilliantly  fine — temperature  -  2'2°  F. — with 
a  good  breeze  right  aft.  To  our  great  joy,  we  got  sight 
of  the  land  aroimd  the  Butcher's  Shop.  It  was  still  a 
long  way  off,  of  course,  but  was  miraged  up  in  the 
warm,  sunny  air.  We  were  extraordinarily  lucky  on 
our  homeward  trip;  we  escaped  the  Devil's  Ballroom 
altogether. 

On  January  1  we  ought,  according  to  our  reckoning, 
to  reach  the  Devil's  Glacier,  and  this  held  good.  We 
could  see  it  at  a  great  distance;  huge  hummocks  and 
ice-waves  towered  into  the  sky.  But  what  astonished 
us  was  that  between  these  disturbances  and  on  the  far 
side  of  them,  we  seemed  to  see  an  even,  unbroken  plain, 
entirely  unaffected  by  the  broken  surface.  Mounts 
Hassel,  Wisting,  and  Bjaaland,  lay  as  we  had  left  them; 
they  were  easy  to  recognize  when  we  came  a  little 
nearer  to  them.  Now  Mount  Helmer  Hanssen  again 
towered  high  into  the  air;  it  flashed  and  sparkled  like 
diamonds  as  it  lay  bathed  in  the  rays  of  the  morning 
sun.  We  assumed  that  we  had  come  nearer  to  this  range 
than  when  we  were  going  south,  and  that  this  was  the 
reason  of  our  finding  the  ground  so  changed.  When 
we  were  going  south,  it  certainly  looked  impassable 
between  us  and  the  mountains;  but  who  could  tell? 
Perhaps  in  the  middle  of  all  the  broken  ground  that 
we  then  saw  there  was  a  good  even  stretch,  and  that  we 
had  now  been  lucky  enough  to  stumble  upon  it.    But  it 


146       THE  RETURN  TO  FRAMHEIM 

was  once  more  the  atmosphere  that  deceived  us,  as  we 
found  out  on  the  following  day,  for  instead  of  being 
nearer  the  range  we  had  come  farther  out  from  it,  and 
this  was  the  reason  of  our  only  getting  a  little  strip  of 
this  undesirable  glacier. 

We  had  our  camp  that  evening  in  the  middle  of  a 
big,  filled-up  crevasse.  We  were  a  trifle  anxious  as  to 
what  kind  of  surface  we  should  find  farther  on;  that 
these  few  hummocks  and  old  crevasses  were  all  the 
glacier  had  to  offer  us  this  time,  was  more  than  we 
dared  to  hope.  But  the  2nd  came,  and  brought — 
thank  God! — no  disappointment.  With  incredible  luck 
we  had  slipped  past  all  those  ugly  and  dangerous  places, 
and  now,  before  we  knew  where  we  were,  we  found 
ourselves  safe  and  sound  on  the  plain  below  the  glacier. 
The  weather  was  not  first-rate  when  we  started  at  seven 
in  the  evening.  It  was  fairly  thick,  and  we  could  only 
just  distinguish  the  top  of  Mount  Bjaaland.  This  was 
bad,  as  we  were  now  in  the  neighbourhood  of  our  depot, 
and  would  have  liked  clear  weather  to  find  out  where 
it  lay;  but  instead  of  clearing,  as  we  hoped,  it  grew 
thicker  and  thicker,  and  when  we  had  gone  about  six 
and  three-quarter  miles,  it  was  so  bad  that  we  thought 
it  best  to  stop  and  wait  for  a  while.  We  had  all  the 
time  been  going  on  the  erroneous  assumption  that  we  had 
come  too  far  to  the  east — that  is,  too  near  the  mountains 
— and  under  the  circumstances — in  the  short  gleams  that 
had  come  from  time  to  time — we  had  not  been  able  to 


A  DEPOT  MISSED  147 

recognize  the  ground  below  the  glacier.  According  to 
our  idea,  we  were  on  the  east  of  the  depot.  The 
bearings,  which  had  been  taken  in  thick  air,  and  were 
now  to  guide  us  in  this  heavy  mist,  gave  no  result 
whatever.    There  was  no  depot  to  be  seen. 

We  had  just  swallowed  the  grateful  warm  pemmican 
when  the  sun  suddenly  showed  itself.  I  don't  think 
the  camp  was  ever  broken  and  the  sledges  packed  in 
such  a  short  time.  From  the  moment  we  jumped  out 
of  our  bags  till  the  sledges  were  ready,  it  only  took  us 
fifteen  minutes,  which  is  incredibly  quick.  "  What  on 
earth  is  that  shining  over  there  through  the  fog?"  The 
question  came  from  one  of  the  lads.  The  mist  had 
divided,  and  was  rolling  away  on  both  sides;  in  the 
western  bank  something  big  and  white  peeped  through 
— a  long  ridge  running  north  and  south.  Hurrah!  it's 
Helland  Hansen.  Can't  possibly  be  anything  else. 
Our  only  landmark  on  the  west.  We  all  shouted  with 
joy  on  meeting  this  old  acquaintance.  But  in  the 
direction  of  the  depot  the  fog  hung  thick.  We  held 
a  brief  consultation,  and  agreed  to  let  it  go,  to  steer  for 
the  Butcher's  and  put  on  the  pace.  We  had  food  enough, 
anyhow.  No  sooner  said  than  done,  and  we  started  off. 
It  rapidly  cleared,  and  then,  on  our  way  towards  Helland 
Hansen,  we  found  out  that  we  had  come,  not  too  far  to 
the  east,  but  too  far  to  the  west.  But  to  turn  round 
and  begin  to  search  for  our  depot  was  not  to  our  liking. 
Below  Mount  Helland  Hansen  we  came  up  on  a  fairly 


148      THE  RETURN  TO  FRAMHEIM 

high  ridge.  We  had  now  gone  our  fixed  distance,  and 
so  halted. 

Behind  us,  in  the  brightest,  clearest  weather,  lay  the 
glacier,  as  we  had  seen  it  for  the  first  time  on  our  way 
to  the  south:  break  after  break,  crevasse  after  crevasse. 
But  in  among  all  this  nastiness  there  ran  a  white,  un- 
broken line,  the  very  path  we  had  stood  and  looked  at 
a  few  weeks  back.  And  directly  below  that  white  stripe 
we  knew,  as  sure  as  anything  could  be,  that  our  depot 
lay.  We  stood  there  expressing  our  annoyance  rather 
forcibly  at  the  depot  having  escaped  us  so  easily,  and 
talking  of  how  jolly  it  would  have  been  to  have  picked 
up  all  our  depots  from  the  plain  we  had  strewed  them 
over.  Dead  tired  as  I  felt  that  evening,  I  had  not  the 
least  desire  to  go  back  the  fifteen  miles  that  separated 
us  from  it.  "  If  anybody  would  like  to  make  the  trip, 
he  shall  have  many  thanks."  They  all  wanted  to  make 
it — all  as  one  man.  There  was  no  lack  of  volunteers  in 
that  company.  I  chose  Hanssen  and  Bjaaland.  They 
took  nearly  everything  off  the  sledge,  and  went  away 
with  it  empty. 

It  was  then  five  m  the  morning.  At  three  in  the 
afternoon  they  came  back  to  the  tent,  Bjaaland  running 
in  front,  Hanssen  driving  the  sledge.  That  was  a  notable 
feat,  both  for  men  and  dogs.  Hanssen,  Bjaaland,  and 
that  team  had  covered  about  fifty  miles  that  day,  at  an 
average  rate  of  three  to  three  and  a  half  miles  an  hour. 
They  had  found  the  depot  without  much  search.    Their 


THE  SUPPLIES  RECOVERED         149 

greatest  difficulty  had  been  in  the  undulating  surface; 
for  long  stretches  at  a  time  they  were  in  the  hollows 
between  the  waves,  which  shut  in  their  view  entirely. 
Ridge  succeeded  ridge,  endlessly.  We  had  taken  care 
that  everytliing  was  ready  for  their  return — above  all 
great  quantities  of  water.  Water,  water  was  the  first 
thing,  and  generally  the  last,  that  was  in  request.  When 
their  thirst  was  a  little  quenched,  great  interest  was 
shown  in  the  pemmican.  While  these  two  were  being 
well  looked  after,  the  depot  they  had  brought  in  was 
divided  between  the  two  sledges,  and  in  a  short  time  all 
was  ready  for  our  departure.  Meanwhile,  the  weather 
had  been  getting  finer  and  finer,  and  before  us  lay  the 
mountains,  sharp  and  clear.  We  thought  we  recognized 
Fridtjof  Nansen  and  Don  Pedro  Christophersen,  and 
took  good  bearings  of  them  in  case  the  fog  should 
return.  With  most  of  us  the  ideas  of  day  and  night 
began  to  get  rather  mixed.  "  Six  o'clock,"  someone 
would  answer,  when  asked  the  time.  "  Yes,  in  the 
morning,"  remarks  the  other.  "No;  what  are  you 
talking  about?"  answers  the  first  one  again;  "  it's  even- 
ing, of  course."  The  date  was  hopeless;  it  was  a  good 
thing  if  we  remembered  the  year.  Only  when  writing 
in  our  diaries  and  observation  books  did  we  come  across 
such  things  as  dates;  while  at  work  we  had  not  the 
remotest  idea  of  them. 

Splendid  weather  it  was  when  we  turned  out  on  the 
morning  of  January  3.    We  had  now  agreed  to  go  as 


150       THE  RETURN  TO  FRAMHEIM 

it  suited  us,  and  take  no  notice  of  day  or  night;  for 
some  time  past  we  had  all  been  sick  of  the  long  hours 
of  rest,  and  wanted  to  break  them  up  at  any  price.  As 
I  have  said,  the  weather  could  not  have  been  finer: 
brilliantly  clear  and  a  dead  calm.  The  temperature 
of  -  2'2°  F.  felt  altogether  like  summer  in  this  bright, 
still  air.  Before  we  began  our  march  all  unnecessary 
clothes  were  taken  off  and  put  on  the  sledges.  It 
almost  looked  as  if  everything  would  be  considered 
superfluous,  and  the  costume  in  which  we  finally  started 
would  no  doubt  have  been  regarded  as  somewhat  un- 
seemly in  our  latitudes.  We  smiled  and  congratulated 
ourselves  that  at  present  no  ladies  had  reached  the 
Antarctic  regions,  or  they  might  have  objected  to  our 
extremely  comfortable  and  serviceable  costume.  The 
high  land  now  stood  out  still  more  sharply.  It  was  very 
interesting  to  see  in  these  conditions  the  country  we 
had  gone  through  on  the  southward  trip  in  the  thickest 
blizzard.  We  had"  then  been  going  along  the  foot  of 
this  immense  mountain  chain  without  a  suspicion  of 
how  near  we  were  to  it,  or  how  colossal  it  was.  The 
ground  was  fortunately  quite  undisturbed  in  this  part. 
I  say  fortunately,  as  Heaven  knows  what  would  have 
happened  to  us  if  we  had  been  obliged  to  cross  a  crevassed 
surface  in  such  weather  as  we  then  had.  Perhaps  we 
should  liave  managed  it — perhaps  not. 

The  journey  before  us  was  a  stiff'  one,  as  the  Butcher's 
lay  2,680  feet  higher  than  the  place  where  we  were. 


SEARCH  FOR  THE  BUTCHER'S   151 

We  had  been  expecting  to  stumble  upon  one  of  our 
beacons  before  long,  but  this  did  not  happen  until  we 
had  gone  twelve  and  a  half  miles.  Then  one  of  them 
suddenly  came  in  sight,  and  was  greeted  with  joy.  We 
knew  well  enough  that  we  were  on  the  right  track,  but 
an  old  acquaintance  like  this  was  very  welcome  all  the 
same.  The  sun  had  evidently  been  at  work  up  here 
while  we  were  in  the  south,  as  some  of  the  beacons 
were  quite  bent  over,  and  great  icicles  told  us  clearly 
enough  how  powerful  the  sunshine  had  been.  After 
a  march  of  about  twenty-five  miles  we  halted  at  the 
beacon  we  had  built  right  under  the  hill,  where  we  had 
been  forced  to  stop  by  thick  weather  on  November  25. 

January  4  was  one  of  the  days  to  which  we  looked 
forward  with  anxiety,  as  we  were  then  due  at  our  depot 
at  the  Butcher's,  and  had  to  find  it.  This  depot,  which 
consisted  of  the  finest,  fresh  dogs'  flesh,  was  of  immense 
importance  to  us.  Not  only  had  our  animals  got  into 
the  way  of  preferring  this  food  to  pemmican,  but,  what 
was  of  still  greater  importance,  it  had  an  extremely 
good  effect  on  the  dogs'  state  of  health.  No  doubt  our 
pemmican  was  good  enough — indeed,  it  could  not  have 
been  better — but  a  variation  of  diet  is  a  great  considera- 
tion, and  seems,  according  to  my  experience,  to  mean 
even  more  to  the  dogs  than  to  the  men  on  a  long  journey 
like  this.  On  former  occasions  I  have  seen  dogs  refuse 
pemmican,  presumably  because  they  were  tired  of  it, 
having  no  variety;  the  result  was  that  the  dogs  grew 


152        THE  RETURN  TO  FRAJVIHEIM 

thin  and  weak,  although  we  had  food  enough.  The 
pemmican  I  am  referring  to  on  that  occasion  was  made 
for  human  use,  so  that  their  distaste  cannot  have  been 
due  to  the  quality. 

It  was  1.15  a.m.  when  we  set  out.  We  had  not  had 
a  long  sleep,  but  it  was  very  important  to  avail  ourselves 
of  this  fine,  clear  weather  while  it  lasted;  we  knew  by 
experience  that  up  here  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
Butcher's  the  weather  was  not  to  be  depended  upon. 
From  the  outward  journey  we  knew  that  the  distance 
from  the  beacon  where  our  camp  was  to  the  depot  at  the 
Butcher's  was  thirteen  and  a  half  miles.  We  had  not 
put  up  more  than  two  beacons  on  this  stretch,  but  the 
ground  was  of  such  a  nature  that  we  thought  we  could 
not  go  wrong.  That  it  was  not  so  easy  to  find  the  way, 
in  spite  of  the  beacons,  we  were  soon  to  discover.  In 
the  fine,  clear  weather,  and  with  Hanssen's  sharp  eyes, 
we  picked  up  both  our  beacons.  JNIeanwhile  we  were 
astonished  at  the  appearance  of  the  mountains.  As 
I  have  already  mentioned,  we  thought  the  weather  was 
perfectly  clear  when  we  reached  the  Butcher's  for  the 
first  time,  on  November  20.  I  then  took  a  bearing 
from  the  tent  of  the  way  we  had  come  up  on  to  the 
plateau  between  the  mountains,  and  carefully  recorded 
it.  After  passing  our  last  beacon,  when  we  were 
beginning  to  approach  the  Butcher's — as  we  reckoned — 
we  were  greatly  surprised  at  the  aspect  of  our  surround- 
ings.     Last    time — on    November    20 — we    had    seen 


THE  BROKEN  SKI  153 

mountains  on  the  west  and  north,  but  a  long  way  off. 
Now  the  whole  of  that  part  of  the  horizon  seemed  to  be 
filled  with  colossal  mountain  masses,  which  were  right 
over  us.  What  in  the  world  was  the  meaning  of  this? 
Was  it  witchcraft?  I  am  sure  I  began  to  think  so  for 
a  moment.  I  would  readily  have  taken  my  most  solemn 
oath  that  I  had  never  seen  that  landscape  before  in  my 
life.  We  had  now  gone  the  full  distance,  and  according 
to  the  beacons  we  had  passed,  we  ought  to  be  on  the 
spot.  This  was  very  strange;  in  the  direction  in  which 
I  had  taken  the  bearing  of  our  ascent,  we  now  only  saw 
the  side  of  a  perfectly  unknown  mountain,  sticking  up 
from  the  plain.  There  could  be  absolutely  no  way  down 
in  that  precipitous  wall.  Only  on  the  north-west  did 
the  ground  give  the  impression  of  allowing  a  descent; 
there  a  natural  depression  seemed  to  be  formed,  running 
down  towards  the  Barrier,  which  we  could  see  far,  far 
away. 

We  halted  and  discussed  the  situation.  "Hullo!" 
Hanssen  suddenly  exclaimed,  "somebody  has  been 
here  before."—"  Yes,"  broke  in  Wisting;  "  I'm  hanged 
if  that  isn't  my  broken  ski  that  I  stuck  up  by  the  depot." 
So  it  was  Wisting's  broken  ski  that  brought  us  out 
of  this  unpleasant  situation.  It  was  a  good  thing  he 
put  it  there— very  thoughtful,  in  any  case.  I  now 
examined  the  place  with  the  glasses,  and  by  the  side  of 
a  snow  mound,  which  proved  to  be  our  depot,  but 
might  easily  have  escaped  our  notice,  we  could  see  the 

VOL.   11.  3g 


154       THE  RETURN  TO  FRAMHEIM 

ski  sticking  up  out  of  the  snow.  We  cheerfully  set  our 
course  for  the  spot,  but  did  not  reach  it  until  we  had 
gone  three  miles. 

There  was  rejoicing  in  our  little  band  when  we  arrived 
and  saw  that  what  we  had  considered  the  most  important 
point  of  our  homeward  journey  had  been  reached.  It 
was  not  so  much  for  the  sake  of  the  food  it  contained 
that  we  considered  it  so  necessary  to  find  this  spot,  as 
for  discovering  the  way  down  to  the  Barrier  again.  And 
now  that  we  stood  there,  we  recognized  this  necessity 
more  than  ever.  For  although  we  now  knew,  from  our 
bearings,  exactly  where  the  descent  lay,  we  could  see 
nothing  of  it  at  all.  The  plateau  there  seemed  to  go 
right  up  to  the  mountain,  without  any  opening  towards 
the  lower  ground  beyond;  and  yet  the  compass  told  us 
that  such  an  opening  must  exist,  and  would  take  us 
down.  The  mountain,  on  which  we  had  thus  walked 
all  day  on  the  outward  journey,  without  knowing  any- 
thing of  it,  was  Mount  Fridtjof  Nansen.  Yes,  the 
difference  in  the  light  made  a  surprising  alteration  in 
the  appearance  of  things. 

The  first  thing  we  did  on  reaching  the  depot  was 
to  take  out  the  dogs'  carcasses  that  lay  there  and  cut 
them  into  big  lumps,  that  were  divided  among  the  dogs. 
They  looked  rather  surprised;  they  had  not  been 
accustomed  to  such  rations.  We  threw  three  carcasses 
on  to  the  sledges,  so  as  to  have  a  little  extra  food  for 
them  on  the  way  down.    The  Butcher's  was  not  a  very 


A  FAMILIAR  VIEW  155 

friendly  spot  this  time,  either.  True,  it  was  not  the 
same  awful  weather  as  on  our  first  visit,  but  it  was 
blowing  a  fresh  breeze  with  a  temperature  of  -  9"4°  F., 
which,  after  the  heat  of  the  last  few  days,  seemed 
to  go  to  one's  marrow,  and  did  not  invite  us  to 
stay  longer  than  was  absolutely  necessary.  Therefore, 
as  soon  as  we  had  finished  feeding  the  dogs  and  putting 
our  sledges  in  order,  we  set  out. 

Although  the  ground  had  not  given  us  the  impression 
of  sloping,  we  soon  found  out  that  it  did  so  when  we  got 
under  way.  It  was  not  only  downhill,  but  the  pace 
became  so  great  that  we  had  to  stop  and  put  brakes 
under  the  sledges.  As  we  advanced,  the  apparently 
unbroken  wall  opened  more  and  more,  and  showed  us  at 
last  our  old  familiar  ascent.  There  lay  Mount  Ole 
Engelstad,  snowclad  and  cold,  as  we  saw  it  the  first 
time.  As  we  rounded  it  we  came  on  to  the  severe, 
steep  slope,  where,  on  the  way  south,  I  had  so  much 
admired  the  work  done  by  my  companions  and  the  dogs 
that  day.  But  now  I  had  an  even  better  opportunity  of 
seeing  how  steep  this  ascent  really  had  been.  Many  were 
the  brakes  we  had  to  put  on  before  we  could  reduce 
the  speed  to  a  moderate  pace,  but  even  so  we  came 
down  rapidly,  and  soon  the  first  part  of  the  descent 
lay  behind  us.  So  as  not  to  be  exposed  to  possible 
gusts  from  the  plain,  we  went  round  Mount  Engelstad 
and  camped  under  the  lee  of  it,  well  content  with  the 
day's  work.    The  snow  lay  here  as  on  our  first  visit,  deep 


156        THE  KETURX  TO  FRAMHEIM 

and  loose,  and  it  was  difficult  to  find  anything  like 
a  good  place  for  the  tent.  We  could  soon  feel  that  we 
had  descended  a  couple  of  thousand  feet  and  come  down 
among  the  mountains.  It  was  still,  absolutely  still,  and 
the  sun  broiled  us  as  on  a  day  of  high  summer  at  home. 
I  thought,  too,  that  I  could  notice  a  difference  in  my 
breathing;  it  seemed  to  work  much  more  easily  and 
pleasantly — perhaps  it  was  only  imagination. 

At  one  o'clock  on  the  following  morning  we  were  out 
again.  The  sight  that  met  our  eyes  that  morning,  when 
we  came  out  of  the  tent,  was  one  of  those  that  will 
always  live  in  our  memories.  The  tent  stood  in  the 
narrow  gap  between  Fridtj  of  Nansen  andOleEngelstad. 
The  sun,  which  now  stood  in  the  south,  was  completely 
hidden  by  the  latter  mountain,  and  our  camp  was  thus 
in  the  deepest  shadow ;  but  right  against  us  on  the  other 
side  the  Nansen  mountain  raised  its  splendid  ice-clad 
summit  high  towards  heaven,  gleaming  and  sparkling  in 
the  rays  of  the  midnight  sun.  The  shining  white  passed 
gradually,  very  gradually,  into  pale  blue,  then  deeper 
and  deeper  blue,  until  the  shadow  swallowed  it  up. 
But  down  below,  right  on  the  Heiberg  Glacier,  its  ice- 
covered  side  was  exposed — dark  and  solemn  the  moun- 
tain mass  stood  out.  Mount  Engelstad  lay  in  shadow, 
but  on  its  summit  rested  a  beautiful  light  little  cirrus 
cloud,  red  with  an  edge  of  gold.  Down  over  its  side 
the  blocks  of  ice  lay  scattered  pell-mell.  And  farther 
down  on  the  east  rose  Don  Pedro  Christophersen,  partly 


m 

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53 


"S. 


ON  THE  HEIBERG  GLACIER         157 

in  shadow,  partly  gleaming  in  the  sun — a  marvellously 
beautiful  sight.  And  all  was  so  still;  one  almost  feared 
to  disturb  the  incomparable  splendour  of  the  scene. 

We  now  knew  the  ground  well  enough  to  be  able  to  go 
straight  ahead  without  any  detours.  The  huge  avalanches 
were  more  frequent  than  on  the  outward  journey.  One 
mass  of  snow  after  another  plunged  down;  Don  Pedro 
was  getting  rid  of  his  winter  coat.  The  going  was 
precisely  the  same — loose,  fairly  deep  snow.  We  went 
quite  easily  over  it,  however,  and  it  was  all  downhill. 
On  the  ridge  where  the  descent  to  the  glacier  began 
we  halted  to  make  our  preparations.  Brakes  were  put 
under  the  sledges,  and  our  two  ski-sticks  were  fastened 
together  to  make  one  strong  one;  we  should  have  to 
be  able  to  stop  instantly  if  surprised  by  a  crevasse  as  we 
were  going.  We  ski-i*unners  went  in  front.  The  going 
was  ideal  here  on  the  steep  slope,  just  enough  loose 
snow  to  give  one  good  steering  on  ski.  We  went 
whizzing  down,  and  it  was  not  many  minutes  before  we 
were  on  the  Heiberg  Glacier.  For  the  drivers  it  was 
not  quite  such  plain  sailing:  they  followed  our  tracks, 
but  had  to  be  extremely  careful  on  the  steep  fall. 

We  camped  that  evening  on  the  selfsame  spot  where 
we  had  had  our  tent  on  November  18,  at  about  3,100  feet 
above  the  sea.  From  here  one  could  see  the  course  of 
the  Axel  Heiberg  Glacier  right  down  to  its  junction 
with  the  Barrier.  It  looked  fine  and  even,  and  we 
decided  to  follow  it  instead  of  climbing  over  the  moun- 


158        THE  RETURN  TO  FRAMHEIM 

tain,  as  we  had  done  on  the  way  south.  Perhaps  the 
distance  would  be  somewhat  longer,  but  probably  we 
should  make  a  considerable  saving  of  time.  We  had 
now  agreed  upon  a  new  arrangement  of  our  time;  the 
long  spells  of  rest  were  becoming  almost  unbearable. 
Another  very  important  side  of  the  question  was  that, 
by  a  reasonable  arrangement,  we  should  be  able  to  save 
a  lot  of  time,  and  reach  home  several  days  sooner  than 
we  had  reckoned.  After  a  great  deal  of  talk  on  one 
side  and  on  the  other,  we  agreed  to  arrange  matters 
thus:  we  were  to  do  our  fifteen  geographical  miles,  or 
twenty-eight  kilometres,  and  then  have  a  sleep  of  six 
hours,  turn  out  again  and  do  fifteen  miles  more,  and  so 
on.  In  this  way  we  should  accomplish  a  very  good 
average  distance  on  our  day's  march.  We  kept  to  this 
arrangement  for  the  rest  of  the  journey,  and  thus  saved 
a  good  many  days. 

Our  progress  down  the  Heiberg  Glacier  did  not 
encounter  any  obstructions;  only  at  the  transition  from 
the  glacier  to  the  Barrier  were  there  a  few  crevasses 
that  had  to  be  circumvented.  At  7  a.m.  on  January  6 
we  halted  at  the  angle  of  land  that  forms  the  entrance 
to  the  Heiberg  Glacier,  and  thence  extends  northward. 
We  had  not  yet  recognized  any  of  the  land  we  lay 
under,  but  that  was  quite  natural,  as  we  now  saw  it 
from  the  opposite  side.  We  knew,  though,  that  we 
were  not  far  away  from  our  main  depot  in  85°  5'  S. 
On  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day  we  were  off  again. 


AT  THE  MAIN  DEPOT  159 

From  a  little  ridge  we  crossed  immediately  after  start- 
ing, Bjaaland  thought  he  could  see  the  depot  down  on 
the  Barrier,  and  it  was  not  very  long  before  we  came  in 
sight  of  Mount  Betty  and  our  way  up.  And  now  we 
could  make  sure  with  the  glasses  that  it  really  was  our 
depot  that  we  saw — the  same  that  Bjaaland  thought  he 
had  seen  before.  We  therefore  set  our  course  straight 
for  it,  and  in  a  few  minutes  we  were  once  more  on  the 
Barrier — January  6,  11  p.m. — after  a  stay  of  fifty-one 
days  on  land.  It  was  on  November  17  that  we  had 
begun  the  ascent. 

We  reached  the  depot,  and  found  everything  in 
order.  The  heat  here  must  have  been  very  powerful; 
our  lofty,  solid  depot  was  melted  by  the  sun  into  a 
rather  low  mound  of  snow.  The  pemmican  rations 
that  had  been  exposed  to  the  direct  action  of  the  sun's 
rays  had  assumed  the  strangest  forms,  and,  of  course, 
they  had  become  rancid.  We  got  the  sledges  ready  at 
once,  taking  all  the  provisions  out  of  the  depot  and 
loading  them.  We  left  behind  some  of  the  old  clothes 
we  had  been  wearing  all  the  way  from  here  to  the  Pole 
and  back.  When  we  had  completed  all  this  repacking 
and  had  everything  ready,  two  of  us  went  over  to 
Mount  Betty,  and  collected  as  many  different  speci- 
mens of  rock  as  we  could  lay  our  hands  on.  At  the 
same  time  we  built  a  great  cairn,  and  left  there  a  can 
of  17  litres  of  paraffin,  two  packets  of  matches — contain- 
ing twenty  boxes — and  an  account  of  our  expedition. 


160       THE  RETURN  TO  FRAMHEIM 

Possibly  someone  may  find  a  use  for  these  things  in  the 
future. 

We  had  to  kill  Frith j  of,  one  of  Bjaaland's  dogs,  at 
this  camp.  He  had  latterly  been  showing  marked  signs 
of  shortness  of  breath,  and  finally  this  became  so  pain- 
ful to  the  animal  that  we  decided  to  put  an  end  to  him. 
Thus  brave  Frith  j  of  ended  his  career.  On  cutting  him 
ojien  it  appeared  that  his  lungs  were  quite  shrivelled 
up ;  nevertheless,  the  remains  disappeared  pretty  quickly 
into  his  companions'  stomachs.  What  they  had  lost 
in  quantity  did  not  apparently  affect  their  quality. 
Nigger,  one  of  Hassel's  dogs,  had  been  destroyed  on 
the  way  down  from  the  plateau.  We  thus  reached  this 
point  again  with  twelve  dogs,  as  we  had  reckoned  on 
doing,  and  left  it  with  eleven.  I  see  in  my  diary  the 
following  remark:  "  The  dogs  look  just  as  well  as  when 
we  left  Framheim."  On  leaving  the  place  a  few  hours 
later  we  had  provisions  for  thirty-five  days  on  the 
sledges.  Besides  this,  of  course,  we  had  a  depot  at 
every  degree  of  latitude  up  to  80°. 

It  looked  as  though  we  had  found  our  depot  at  the 
right  moment,  for  when  we  came  out  to  continue  our 
journey  the  whole  Barrier  was  in  a  blizzard.  A  gale 
was  blowing  from  the  south,  with  a  sky  completely 
clouded  over;  falling  snow  and  drift  united  in  a  de- 
lightful dance,  and  made  it  difficult  to  see.  The  lucky 
thing  was  that  now  we  had  the  wind  with  us,  and  thus 
escaped  getting  it  all  in  our  eyes,  as  we  had  been  accus- 


ON  THE  BARRIER  AGAIN  161 

tomed  to.  The  big  crevasse,  which,  as  we  knew,  lay 
right  across  the  line  of  our  route,  made  us  go  very  care- 
fully. To  avoid  any  risk,  Bjaaland  and  Hassel,  who 
went  in  advance,  fastened  an  alpine  rope  between  them. 
The  snow  was  very  deep  and  loose,  and  the  going  very 
heavy.  Fortunately,  we  were  warned  in  time  of  our 
approach  to  the  expected  cracks  by  the  appearance  of 
some  bare  ice  ridges.  These  told  us  clearly  enough 
that  disturbances  had  taken  place  here,  and  that  even 
greater  ones  might  be  expected,  probably  near  at  hand. 
At  that  moment  the  thick  curtain  of  cloud  was  torn 
asunder,  and  the  sun  pierced  the  whirling  mass  of  snow. 
Instantly  Hanssen  shouted:  "  Stop,  Bjaaland!"  He 
was  just  on  the  edge  of  the  yawning  crevasse.  Bjaaland 
himself  has  splendid  sight,  but  his  excellent  snow- 
goggles — his  own  patent — entirely  prevented  his  seeing. 
Well,  Bjaaland  would  not  have  been  in  any  serious 
danger  if  he  had  fallen  into  the  crevasse,  as  he  was 
roped  to  Hassel,  but  it  would  have  been  confoundedly 
unpleasant  all  the  same. 

As  I  have  said  before,  I  assume  that  these  great  dis- 
turbances here  mark  the  boundary  between  the  Barrier 
and  the  land.  This  time,  curiously  enough,  they  seemed 
also  to  form  a  boundary  between  good  and  bad  weather, 
for  on  the  far  side  of  them — to  the  north — ^the  Barrier 
lay  bathed  in  sunshine.  On  the  south  the  blizzard 
raged  worse  than  ever.  Mount  Betty  was  the  last  to 
send  us  its  farewell.     South  Victoria  Land  had  gone 


162       THE  RETURN  TO  FRA^IHEIM 

into  hiding,  and  did  not  show  itself  again.  As  soon  as 
we  came  into  the  sunshine,  we  ran  upon  one  of  our 
beacons;  our  course  lay  straight  towards  it.  That  was 
not  bad  steering  in  the  dark.  At  9  p.m.  we  reached 
the  depot  in  85°  S.  Now  we  could  begin  to  be  liberal 
with  the  dogs'  food,  too;  they  had  double  pemmican 
rations,  besides  as  many  oatmeal  biscuits  as  they  would 
eat.  We  had  such  masses  of  biscuits  now  that  we 
could  positively  throw  them  about.  Of  course,  we 
might  have  left  a  large  part  of  these  provisions  behind ; 
but  there  was  a  great  satisfaction  in  being  so  well  sup- 
plied with  food,  and  the  dogs  did  not  seem  to  mind  the 
little  extra  weight  in  the  least.  As  long  as  things  went 
so  capitally  as  they  were  going — that  is,  with  men  and 
dogs  exactly  keeping  pace  with  one  another — we  could 
ask  for  nothing  better.  But  the  weather  that  had 
cheered  us  was  not  of  long  duration.  "  Same  beastly 
w^eather,"  my  diary  says  of  the  next  stage.  The  wind 
had  shifted  to  the  north-west,  with  overcast,  thick 
weather,  and  very  troublesome  drifting  snow.  In  spite 
of  these  unfavourable  conditions,  we  passed  beacon 
after  beacon,  and  at  the  end  of  our  march  had  picked 
up  all  the  beacons  we  had  erected  on  this  distance  of 
seventeen  miles  and  three-eighths.  But,  as  before,  we 
owed  this  to  Hanssen's  good  eyes. 

On  our  way  southward  we  had  taken  a  good  deal  of 
seal  meat  and  had  divided  it  among  the  depots  we  built 
on  the  Barrier  in  such  a  way  that  we  were  now  able  to 


UNPLEASANTLY  WARM  163 

eat  fresh  meat  every  day.  This  had  not  been  done 
without  an  object;  if  we  should  be  visited  with  scurvy, 
this  fresh  meat  would  be  invaluable.  As  we  were — 
sound  and  healthy  as  we  had  never  been  before — the 
seal-beef  was  a  pleasant  distraction  in  our  menu,  nothing 
more.  The  temperature  had  risen  greatly  since  we 
came  down  on  to  the  Barrier,  and  kept  steady  at  about 
+  14°  F.  We  were  so  warm  in  our  sleeping-bags 
that  we  had  to  turn  them  with  the  hair  out.  That 
was  better;  we  breathed  more  freely  and  felt  happier. 
"  Just  like  going  into  an  ice-cellar,"  somebody  remarked. 
The  same  feeling  as  when  on  a  really  warm  summer  day 
one  comes  out  of  the  hot  sun  into  cool  shade. 

January  9. — "  Same  beastly  weather;  snow,  snow, 
snow,  nothing  but  snow.  Is  there  no  end  to  it? 
Thick  too,  so  that  we  have  not  been  able  to  see 
ten  yards  ahead.  Temperature  +176°  F.  Thawing 
everywhere  on  the  sledges.  Everything  getting  wet. 
Have  not  found  a  single  beacon  in  this  blind  man's 
weather.  The  snow  was  very  deep  to  begin  with  and 
the  going  exceedingly  heavy,  but  in  spite  of  this  the 
dogs  managed  their  sledges  very  well."  That  evening 
the  weather  improved,  fortunately,  and  became  com- 
paratively clear  by  the  time  we  resumed  our  journey 
at  10  p.m.  Not  long  after  we  sighted  one  of  our 
beacons.  It  lay  to  the  west,  about  200  yards  away. 
We  were  thus  not  far  out  of  our  course;  we  turned 
aside  and  went  up  to  it,  as  it  was  interesting  to  see 


164       THE  RETURN  TO  FRA^IHEIM 

whether  our  reckoning  was  in  order.  The  beacon  was 
somewhat  damaged  by  sunshine  and  storms,  but  we 
found  the  paper  left  in  it,  which  told  us  that  this  beacon 
was  erected  on  November  14,  in  84°  26'  S.  It  also 
told  us  what  course  to  steer  by  compass  to  reach  the 
next  beacon,  which  lay  five  kilometres  from  this  one. 

As  we  were  leaving  this  old  friend  and  setting  our 
course  as  it  advised,  to  our  unspeakable  astonishment  two 
great  birds — skua  gulls — suddenly  came  flying  straight 
towards  us.  They  circled  round  us  once  or  twice  and 
then  settled  on  the  beacon.  Can  anyone  who  reads 
these  lines  form  an  idea  of  the  efi'ect  tliis  had  upon  us? 
It  is  hardly  likely.  They  brought  us  a  message  from 
the  living  world  into  this  realm  of  death — a  message 
of  all  that  was  dear  to  us.  I  think  the  same  thoughts 
filled  us  all.  They  did  not  allow  themselves  a  long 
rest,  these  first  messengers  from  another  world;  they 
sat  still  a  while,  no  doubt  wondering  who  we  were, 
then  rose  aloft  and  flew  on  to  the  south.  JSIysterious 
creatures!  they  were  now  exactly  half-way  between 
Framheim  and  the  Pole,  and  yet  they  were  going 
farther  inland.  Were  they  going  over  to  the  other 
side? 

Our  march  ended  this  time  at  one  of  our  beacons, 
in  84°  15'.  It  felt  so  good  and  safe  to  lie  beside  one  of 
these;  it  always  gave  us  a  sure  starting-point  for  the 
following  stage.  We  were  up  at  4  a.m.  and  left  the 
place  a  few  hours  later,  with  the  result  that  the  day's 


SKUA  GULLS  165 

march  brought  us  thirty-four  miles  nearer  Framheim. 
With  our  present  arrangement,  we  had  these  long-day 
marches  every  other  day.  Our  dogs  need  no  better 
testimonial  than  this — one  day  seventeen  miles,  the  next 
day  thirty-four,  and  fresh  all  the  way  home.  The  two 
birds,  agreeably  as  their  first  appearance  had  affected 
me,  led  my  thoughts  after  a  while  in  another  direction, 
which  was  anything  but  agreeable.  It  occurred  to  me 
that  these  two  might  only  be  representatives  of  a  larger 
collection  of  these  voracious  birds,  and  that  the  remainder 
might  now  be  occupied  in  consuming  all  the  fresh  meat 
we  had  so  laboriously  transported  with  us  and  spread 
all  over  the  plain  in  our  depots.  It  is  incredible  what 
a  flock  of  these  birds  of  prey  can  get  rid  of;  it  would 
not  matter  if  the  meat  were  frozen  as  hard  as  iron,  they 
would  have  managed  it,  even  if  it  had  been  a  good  deal 
harder  than  iron.  Of  the  seals'  carcasses  we  had  lying 
in  80°,  I  saw  in  my  thoughts  nothing  but  the  bones. 
Of  the  various  dogs  we  had  killed  on  our  way  south 
and  laid  on  the  tops  of  beacons  I  did  not  see  even  so 
much  as  that.  Well,  it  was  possible  that  my  thoughts 
had  begun  to  assume  too  dark  a  hue ;  perhaps  the  reality 
would  be  brighter. 

Weather  and  going  began  by  degrees  to  right  them- 
selves; it  looked  as  if  things  would  improve  in  propor- 
tion to  our  distance  from  land.  Finally,  both  became 
perfect;  the  sun  shone  from  a  cloudless  sky,  and  the 
sledges  ran  on  the  fine,  even  surface  with  all  the  ease 


166        THE  RETURN  TO  FRAMHEIM 

and  speed  that  could  be  desired.  Bjaaland,  who  had 
occupied  the  position  of  forerunner  all  the  way  from 
the  Pole,  performed  his  duties  admirably;  but  the  old 
saying  that  nobody  is  perfect  applied  even  to  him. 
None  of  us — no  matter  who  it  may  be — can  keep  in  a 
straight  line,  when  he  has  no  marks  to  follow.  All 
the  more  difficult  is  this  when,  as  so  often  happened 
with  us,  one  has  to  go  blindly.  Most  of  us,  I  suppose, 
would  swerve  now  to  one  side,  now  to  the  other,  and 
possibly  end,  after  all  this  groping,  by  keeping  pretty 
well  to  the  line.  Not  so  with  Bjaaland;  he  was  a 
right-hand  man.  I  can  see  him  now;  Hanssen  has 
given  him  the  direction  by  compass,  and  Bjaaland 
turns  round,  points  his  ski  in  the  line  indicated  and 
sets  off  with  decision.  His  movements  clearly  show 
that  he  has  made  up  his  mind,  cost  what  it  may,  to 
keep  in  the  right  direction.  He  sends  his  ski  firmly 
along,  so  that  the  snow  spurts  from  them,  and  looks 
straight  before  him.  But  the  result  is  the  same;  if 
Hanssen  had  let  Bjaaland  go  on  without  any  correction, 
in  the  course  of  an  hour  or  so  the  latter  would  probably 
liave  described  a  beautiful  circle  and  brought  himself 
back  to  the  spot  from  which  he  had  started.  Perhaps, 
after  all,  this  was  not  a  fault  to  complain  of,  since  we 
always  knew  with  absolute  certaintj^  that,  when  we  had 
got  out  of  the  line  of  beacons,  we  were  to  the  right  of 
it  and  had  to  search  for  the  beacons  to  the  west.  Tliis 
conclusion  proved  very  useful  to  us  more  than  once, 


TRACES  OF  THE  RUNAWAYS        167 

and  we  gradually  became  so  familiar  with  Bjaaland's 
right-handed  tendencies  that  we  actually  counted  on 
them. 

On  January  13,  according  to  our  reckoning,  we  ought 
to  reach  the  depot  in  83°  S.  This  was  the  last  of  our 
depots  that  was  not  marked  at  right  angles  to  the  route, 
and  therefore  the  last  critical  point.  The  day  was  not 
altogether  suited  for  finding  the  needle  in  the  haystack. 
It  was  calm  with  a  thick  fog,  so  thick  that  we  could 
only  see  a  few  yards  in  front  of  us.  We  did  not  see 
a  single  beacon  on  the  whole  march.  At  4  p.m.  we 
had  completed  the  distance,  according  to  the  sledge- 
meters,  and  reckoned  that  we  ought  to  be  in  83°  S.,  by 
the  depot;  but  there  was  nothing  to  be  seen.  We 
decided,  therefore,  to  set  our  tent  and  wait  till  it 
cleared.  While  we  were  at  work  with  this,  there  was 
a  rift  in  the  thick  mass  of  fog,  and  there,  not  many 
yards  away — to  the  west,  of  course — lay  our  depot. 
We  quickly  took  the  tent  down  again,  packed  it  on 
the  sledge,  and  drove  up  to  our  food  mound,  which 
proved  to  be  quite  in  order.  There  was  no  sign  of  the 
birds  having  paid  it  a  visit.  But  what  was  that?  Fresh, 
well-marked  dog-tracks  in  the  newly-fallen  snow.  We 
soon  saw  that  they  must  be  the  tracks  of  the  runaways 
that  we  had  lost  here  on  the  way  south.  Judging  by 
appearances,  they  must  have  lain  under  the  lee  of  the 
depot  for  a  considerable  time;  two  deep  hollows  in  the 
snow  told  us  that  plainly.     And  evidently  they  must 


168        THE  RETURN  TO  FRAMHEIM 

have  had  enough  food,  but  where  on  earth  had  they  got 
it  from?  The  depot  was  absolutely  untouched,  in  spite 
of  the  fact  that  the  lumps  of  pemmican  lay  exposed  to 
the  light  of  day  and  were  very  easy  to  get  at;  besides 
which,  the  snow  on  the  dejjot  was  not  so  hard  as  to 
prevent  the  dogs  pulling  it  down  and  eating  up  all  the 
food.  Meanwhile  the  dogs  had  left  the  place  again,  as 
shown  by  the  fresh  trail,  which  pointed  to  the  north. 
We  examined  the  tracks  very  closely,  and  agreed  that 
they  were  not  more  than  two  days  old.  They  went 
northward,  and  we  followed  them  from  time  to  time  on 
our  next  stage.  At  the  beacon  in  82°  45',  where  we 
halted,  we  saw  them  still  going  to  the  north.  In  82°  24' 
the  trail  began  to  be  much  confused,  and  ended  by 
pointing  due  west.  That  was  the  last  we  saw  of  the 
tracks;  but  we  had  not  done  with  these  dogs,  or  rather 
with  their  deeds.  We  stopped  at  the  beacon  in  82°  20'. 
Else,  who  had  been  laid  on  the  top  of  it,  had  fallen 
down  and  lay  by  the  side;  the  sun  had  thawed  away 
the  lower  part  of  the  beacon.  So  the  roving  dogs  had 
not  been  here;  so  much  was  certain,  for  otherwise  we 
should  not  have  found  Else  as  we  did.  We  camped  at 
the  end  of  that  stage  by  the  beacon  in  82°  15',  and  shared 
out  Else's  body.  Although  she  had  been  lying  in  the 
strong  sunshine,  the  flesh  was  quite  good,  when  we  had 
scraped  away  a  little  mouldiness.  It  smelt  rather  old, 
perhaps,  but  our  dogs  were  not  fastidious  when  it  was 
a  question  of  meat. 


A  PLUNDERED  DEPOT  169 

On  January  16  we  arrived  at  the  depot  in  82°  S.  We 

could  see  from  a  long  way  off  that  the  order  in  which 

we  had  left   it  no  longer  prevailed.     When  we  came 

up  to  it,  we  saw  at  once  what  had  happened.     The 

innumerable  dog-tracks   that   had   trampled   the   snow 

quite  hard  round   the  depot    declared    plainly  enough 

that  the  runaways  had  spent  a  good  deal  of  time  here. 

Several  of  the  cases  belonging  to  the  depot  had  fallen 

down,  presumably  from  the  same  cause  as  Else,  and  the 

rascals  had  succeeded  in  breaking  into  one  of  them.    Of 

the   biscuits    and    pemmican    which    it    had    contained, 

nothing,  of  course,  was  left ;  but  that  made  no  difference 

to  us  now,   as  we  had   food   in   abundance.      The  two 

dogs'  carcasses  that  we  had  placed  on  the  top  of  the 

depot — Uranus   and  Jaala — were  gone,    not   even   the 

teeth  were   to   be   seen.      Yet   they  had   left  the  teeth 

of  Lucy,  whom  they  had  eaten  in  82°  3'.    Jaala's  eight 

puppies  were  still  lying  on  the  top  of  a  case;  curiously 

enough,  they  had  not  fallen  down.    In  addition  to  all 

the  rest,  the  beasts  had  devoured  some  ski-bindings  and 

things  of  that  sort.    It  was  no  loss  to  us,  as  it  happened ; 

but  who  could  tell  which  way  these  creatures  had  gone? 

If  they  had  succeeded  in  finding  the  depot  in  80°  S.,  they 

would  probably  by  this  time  have  finished  our  supply  of 

seal  meat  there.     Of  course  it  would  be  regrettable  if 

this  had  happened,  although  it  would  entail  no  danger 

either  to  ourselves  or  our  animals.     If  we  got  as  far 

as  80°,  we  should  come  through  all  right.    For  the  time 
VOL.  II.  37 


170       THE  RETURN  TO  FRAJMHEIM 

being,  we  had  to  console  ourselves  with  the  fact  that 
we  could  see  no  continuation  of  the  trail  northward. 

We  permitted  ourselves  a  little  feast  here  in  82°. 
The  "  chocolate  pudding "  that  Wisting  served  as 
dessert  is  still  fresh  in  my  memory;  we  all  agreed 
that  it  came  nearer  perfection  than  anything  it  had 
hitherto  fallen  to  our  lot  to  taste.  I  may  disclose  the 
receipt:  biscuit-crumbs,  dried  milk  and  chocolate  are 
put  into  a  kettle  of  boiling  water.  What  happens  after- 
wards, I  don't  know;  for  further  information  apply  to 
Wisting.  Between  82°  and  81°  we  came  into  our  old 
marks  of  the  second  depot  journey;  on  that  trip  we  had 
marked  this  distance  with  splinters  of  packing-case  at 
every  geographical  mile.  That  was  in  March,  1911, 
and  now  we  were  following  these  splinters  in  the  second 
half  of  January,  1912.  Apparently  they  stood  exactly 
as  they  had  been  put  in.  This  marldng  stopped  in 
81°  33'  S.,  with  two  pieces  of  case  on  a  snow  pedestal. 
The  pedestal  was  still  intact  and  good. 

I  shall  let  my  diary  describe  what  we  saw  on 
January  18:  "Unusually  fine  weather  to-day.  Light 
south-south-west  breeze,  which  in  the  course  of  our  march 
cleared  the  whole  sky.  In  81°  20'  we  came  abreast  of 
our  old  big  pressure  ridges.  We  now  saw  far  more 
of  them  tlian  ever  before.  They  extended  as  far  as  the 
eye  could  see,  running  north-east  to  south-west,  in  ridges 
and  peaks.  Great  was  our  surprise  when,  a  short  time 
after,  we  made  out  high,  bare  land  in  the  same  direction, 


CARMEN  LAND  171 

and  not  long  after  that  two  lofty,  white  summits  to  the 
south-east,  probably  in  about  82°  S.  It  could  be  seen 
by  the  look  of  the  sky  that  the  land  extended  from 
north-east  to  south-west.  This  must  be  the  same  land 
that  we  saw  lose  itself  in  the  horizon  in  about  84°  S., 
when  we  stood  at  a  height  of  about  4,000  feet  and 
looked  out  over  the  Barrier,  during  our  ascent.  We 
now  have  sufficient  indications  to  enable  us  without 
hesitation  to  draw  this  land  as  continuous — Carmen 
Land.  The  surface  against  the  land  is  violently  dis- 
turbed— crevasses  and  pressure  ridges,  waves  and  valleys, 
in  all  directions.  We  shall  no  doubt  feel  the  effect  of  it 
to-morrow."  Although  what  we  have  seen  apparently 
justifies  us  in  concluding  that  Carmen  Land  extends 
from  86°  S.  to  this  position  —  about  81°  30'  S.— 
and  possibly  farther  to  the  north-east,  I  have  not 
ventured  to  lay  it  down  thus  on  the  map.  I  have  con- 
tented myself  with  giving  the  name  of  Carmen  Land  to 
the  land  between  86°  and  84°,  and  have  called  the  rest 
"  Appearance  of  Land."  It  will  be  a  profitable  task  for 
an  explorer  to  investigate  this  district  more  closely. 

As  we  had  expected,  on  our  next  stage  we  were  made 
to  feel  the  effect  of  the  disturbances.  Three  times  we 
had  now  gone  over  this  stretch  of  the  Barrier  without 
having  really  clear  weather.  This  time  we  had  it,  and 
were  able  to  see  what  it  actually  looked  like.  The 
irregularities  began  in  81°  12'  S.,  and  did  not  extend 
very  far  from  north  to  south — possibly  about  five  kilo- 


172        THE  RETURN  TO  FRAINIHEIM 

metres  (three  and  a  quarter  miles).  How  far  they 
extended  from  east  to  west  it  is  difficult  to  say,  but  at 
any  rate  as  far  as  the  ej^e  could  reach.  Immense  pieces 
of  the  surface  had  fallen  away  and  opened  up  the  most 
horrible  yawning  gulfs,  big  enough  to  swallow  many 
caravans  of  the  size  of  ours.  From  these  open  holes, 
ugly  wide  cracks  ran  out  in  all  directions ;  besides  which, 
mounds  and  haycocks  were  everjnvhere  to  be  seen. 
Perhaps  the  most  remarkable  thing  of  all  was  that  we 
had  passed  over  here  unharmed.  We  went  across  as 
light-footedly  as  possible,  and  at  top  speed.  Hanssen 
went  halfway  into  a  crevasse,  but  luckily  got  out  of  it 
again  without  difficulty. 

The  depot  in  81°  S.  was  in  perfect  order;  no  dog- 
tracks  to  be  seen  there.  Our  hopes  that  the  depot  in 
80°  S.  would  be  intact  rose  considerably.  In  80°  45'  S. 
lay  the  first  dog  we  had  killed — Bone.  He  was 
particularly'-  fat,  and  was  immensely  appreciated.  The 
dogs  no  longer  cared  very  much  for  pemmican.  On 
January  21  we  passed  our  last  beacon,  which  stood  in 
80°  23'  S.  Glad  as  we  were  to  leave  it  behind,  I  cannot 
deny  that  it  was  with  a  certain  feeling  of  melancholy 
that  we  saw  it  vanish.  We  had  grown  so  fond  of  our 
beacons,  and  whenever  we  met  them  we  greeted  them  as 
old  friends.  JNIany  and  great  were  the  services  these 
silent  watchers  did  us  on  our  long  and  lonely  way. 

On  the  same  day  we  reached  our  big  depot  in  80°  S., 
and  now  we  considered  that  we  were  back.    We  could 


AT  HOME  AGAIN  173 

see  at  once  that  others  had  been  at  the  depot  since  we 
had  left  it,  and  we  found  a  message  from  Lieutenant 
Prestrud,  the  leader  of  the  eastern  party,  saying  that  he, 
with  Stubberud  and  Johansen,  had  passed  here  on 
November  12,  with  two  sledges,  sixteen  dogs,  and 
supplies  for  thirty  days.  Everything  thus  appeared  to 
be  in  the  best  of  order.  Immediately  on  arriving  at  the 
depot  we  let  the  dogs  loose,  and  they  made  a  dash  for 
the  heap  of  seal's  flesh,  which  had  been  attacked  neither 
by  birds  nor  dogs  in  our  absence.  It  was  not  so  much 
for  the  sake  of  eating  that  our  dogs  made  their  way  to 
the  meat  mound,  as  for  the  sake  of  fighting.  Now  they 
really  had  something  to  fight  about.  They  went  round 
the  seals'  carcasses  a  few  times,  looked  askance  at  the 
food  and  at  each  other,  and  then  flung  themselves  into 
the  wildest  scrimmage.  When  this  had  been  duly 
brought  to  a  conclusion,  they  went  away  and  lay  round 
their  sledges.  The  depot  in  80°  S,  is  still  large,  well 
supplied  and  well  marked,  so  it  is  not  impossible  that  it 
may  be  found  useful  later. 

The  journey  from  80°  S.  to  Framheim  has  been  so 
often  described  that  there  is  nothing  new  to  say  about 
it.  On  January  25,  at  4  a.m.,  we  reached  our  good  little 
house  again,  with  two  sledges  and  eleven  dogs;  men 
and  animals  all  hale  and  hearty.  We  stood  and  waited 
for  each  other  outside  the  door  in  the  early  morning; 
our  appearance  must  be  made  all  together.  It  was  so 
still  and  quiet — they  must  be  all  asleep.    We  came  in. 


174       THE  RETURN  TO  FRAMHEIM 

Stubberud  started  up  in  his  bunk  and  glared  at  us; 
no  doubt  he  took  us  for  ghosts.  One  after  another 
they  woke  up  —  not  grasping  what  was  happening. 
Then  there  was  a  hearty  welcome  home  on  all  sides. 
"  Where's  the  Fram?"  was  of  course  our  first  question. 
Our  joy  was  great  when  we  heard  all  was  well.  "  And 
what  about  the  Pole?  Have  you  been  there?" — "  Yes, 
of  course;  otherwise  you  would  hardly  have  seen  us 
again.'*  Then  the  coffee  kettle  was  put  on,  and  the 
perfume  of  *'  hot  cakes  "  rose  as  in  old  days.  We  agreed 
that  it  was  good  outside,  but  still  better  at  home. 
Ninety-nine  days  the  trip  had  taken.  Distance  about 
1,860  miles. 

The  Fram  had  come  in  to  the  Barrier  on  January  8, 
after  a  three  months'  voyage  from  Buenos  Aires;  all 
were  well  on  board.  Meanwhile,  bad  weather  had  forced 
her  to  put  out  again.  On  the  following  day  the  look- 
out man  reported  that  the  Fram  was  approaching. 
There  was  life  in  the  camp ;  on  with  furs  and  out  with 
the  dogs.  They  should  see  that  our  dogs  were  not  worn 
out  yet.  We  heard  the  engine  panting  and  grunting, 
saw  the  crow's-nest  appear  over  the  edge  of  the  Barrier, 
and  at  last  she  glided  in,  sure  and  steadj''.  It  was  with 
a  joyful  heart  I  went  on  board  and  greeted  all  these 
gallant  men,  who  had  brought  the  Fram  to  her  destina- 
tion through  so  many  fatigues  and  perils,  and  had 
accomplished  so  much  excellent  work  on  the  way. 
They  all  looked  pleased  and  happy,  but  nobody  asked 


FRAMHEIM,    ON    THE    RETURN    OF    THE    POLAR   PARTY. 


LINDSTKOM    IN    THE    KITCHEN. 


Toface  pa(je  174,  Vol.  II. 


ON  BOARD  THE  "  FRAM  "  175 

about  the  Pole.  At  last  it  slipped  out  of  Gjertsen: 
"  Have  you  been  there?"  Joy  is  a  poor  name  for  the 
feeling  that  beamed  in  my  comrades'  faces;  it  was 
something  more. 

I  shut  myself  up  in  the  chart-house  with  Captain 
Nilsen,  who  gave  me  my  mail  and  all  the  news.  Three 
names  stood  high  above  the  rest,  when  I  was  able  to 
understand  all  that  had  happened — the  names  of  the 
three  who  gave  me  their  support  when  it  was  most 
needed.  I  shall  always  remember  them  in  respectful 
gratitude — 

H.M.  The  King, 
Professor  Fridtjof  Nansen, 
Don  Pedro  Christophersen. 


CHAPTER   XIV 

NORTHWAUD 

Atter  two  days  of  bustle  in  getting  on  board  the  things 
we  were  to  take  with  us,  we  managed  to  be  ready  for 
sea  on  the  afternoon  of  January  30.  There  could 
scarcely  have  been  anything  at  that  moment  that 
rejoiced  us  more  than  just  that  fact,  that  we  were  able 
at  so  early  a  date  to  set  our  course  northward  and 
thus  take  the  first  step  on  the  way  to  that  world  which, 
as  we  knew,  would  soon  begin  to  expect  news  from  us, 
or  of  us.  And  yet,  I  wonder  whether  there  was  not 
a  little  feeling  of  melancholy  in  the  midst  of  all  our 
joy?  It  can  hardly  be  doubted  that  such  was  really 
the  case,  although  to  many  this  may  seem  a  fiat  con- 
tradiction. But  it  is  not  altogether  so  easy  to  part 
from  a  place  that  has  been  one's  home  for  any  length 
of  time,  even  though  this  home  lie  in  the  79th  degree 
of  latitude,  more  or  less  buried  in  snow  and  ice.  We 
human  beings  are  far  too  dependent  on  habit  to  be 
able  to  tear  ourselves  abruptly  from  the  surroundings 
with  which  we  have  been  obliged  to  be  familiar  for 
many  months.     That  outsiders  would  perhaps  pray  all 

176 


FAREWELL  TO  FRAMHEIM  177 

the  powers  of  goodness  to  preserve  them  from  such 
surroundings,  does  not  counteract  the  full  validity  of 
this  rule.  To  an  overwhelming  majority  of  our  fellow- 
men  Framheim  will  certainly  appear  as  one  of  those 
spots  on  our  planet  where  they  would  least  of  all  wish 
to  find  themselves — a  God-forsaken,  out-of-the-way 
hole  that  could  offer  nothing  but  the  very  climax  of 
desolation,  discomfort,  and  boredom.  To  us  nine, 
who  stood  on  the  gangway  ready  to  leave  this  place, 
things  appeared  somewhat  differently.  That  strong 
little  house,  that  now  lay  entirely  hidden  beneath 
the  snow  behind  Mount  Nelson,  had  for  a  whole  year 
been  our  home,  and  a  thoroughly  good  and  comfortable 
home  it  was,  where  after  so  many  a  hard  day's  work 
we  had  found  all  the  rest  and  quiet  we  wanted.  Through 
the  whole  Antarctic  winter — and  it  is  a  winter — those 
four  walls  had  protected  us  so  well  that  many  a  poor 
wretch  in  milder  latitudes  would  have  envied  us  with 
all  his  heart,  if  he  could  have  seen  us.  In  conditions 
so  hard  that  every  form  of  life  flies  headlong  from 
them,  we  had  lived  on  at  Framheim  undisturbed  and 
untroubled,  and  lived,  be  it  said,  not  as  animals,  but 
as  civilized  human  beings,  who  had  always  within  their 
reach  most  of  the  good  things  that  are  found  in  a  well- 
ordered  home.  Darkness  and  cold  reigned  outside, 
and  the  blizzards  no  doubt  did  their  best  to  blot  out 
most  traces  of  our  activity,  but  these  enemies  never 
came  within  the  door  of  our  excellent  dwelling;  there 


178  NORTHWARD 

we  shared  quarters  with  light  and  warmth  and  comfort. 
What  wonder  was  it  that  this  spot  exercised  a  strong 
attraction  upon  each  of  us  at  the  moment  when  we 
were  to  turn  our  backs  upon  it  for  good?  Outside  the 
great  world  beckoned  to  us,  that  is  true;  and  it  might 
have  much  to  offer  us  that  we  had  had  to  forego  for  a 
long  time;  but  in  what  awaited  us  there  was  certainly 
a  great  deal  that  we  would  gladly  have  put  off  for  as 
long  as  possible.  When  everyday  life  came  with  its 
cares  and  worries,  it  might  well  happen  that  we  should 
look  back  with  regret  to  our  peaceful  and  untroubled 
existence  at  Framheim. 

However,  this  feeling  of  melancholy  was  hardlj^  so 
strong  that  we  could  not  all  get  over  it  comparatively 
quickly.  Judging  by  the  faces,  at  any  rate,  one  would 
have  thought  that  joy  was  the  most  predominant  mood. 
And  why  not?  It  was  no  use  dwelling  on  the  past, 
however  attractive  it  might  seem  just  then,  and  as  to 
the  future,  we  had  every  right  to  expect  the  best  of 
it.  Who  cared  to  think  of  coming  troubles?  No  one. 
Therefore  the  Fram  was  dressed  with  flags  from  stem  to 
stern,  and  therefore  faces  beamed  at  each  other  as  we  said 
good-bye  to  our  home  on  the  Barrier.  We  could  leave 
it  with  the  consciousness  that  the  object  of  our  year's 
stay  had  been  attained,  and,  after  all,  this  consciousness 
was  of  considerably  more  weight  than  the  thought  that 
we  had  been  so  happy  there.  One  thing  that  in  the 
course  of  our  two  years'  association  on  this  expedition 


< 
m 


o 

H 


NO  TIME  TO  LOSE  179 

contributed  enormously  to  making  time  pass  easily  and 
keeping  each  of  us  in  full  vigour  was  the  entire  absence 
of  what  I  may  call  "  dead  periods."  As  soon  as  one 
problem  was  solved,  another  instantly  appeared.  No 
sooner  was  one  goal  reached,  than  the  next  one  beckoned 
from  afar.  In  this  way  we  always  had  our  hands  full, 
and  when  that  is  the  case,  as  everyone  knows,  time 
flies  quickly.  One  often  hears  it  asked,  How  is  it 
possible  to  make  the  time  pass  on  such  a  trip?  My 
good  friends,  I  would  answer,  if  anything  caused  us 
worry,  it  was  the  thought  of  how  we  should  find  time 
enough  for  all  we  had  to  do.  Perhaps  to  many  this 
assertion  will  bear  the  stamp  of  improbability;  it  is, 
nevertheless,  absolutely  true.  Those  who  have  read 
this  narrative  through  will,  in  any  case,  have  received 
the  impression  that  unemployment  was  an  evil  that  was 
utterly  unknown  in  our  little  community. 

At  the  stage  where  we  now  found  ourselves,  with  the 
main  object  of  our  enterprise  achieved,  there  might  have 
been  reason  to  expect  a  certain  degree  of  relaxation  of 
interest.  This,  however,  was  not  the  case.  The  fact 
was  that  what  we  had  done  would  have  no  real  value 
until  it  was  brought  to  the  knowledge  of  mankind,  and 
this  conmiunication  had  to  be  made  with  as  little  loss  of 
time  as  possible.  If  anyone  was  interested  in  being  first 
in  the  market  it  was  certainly  ourselves.  The  prob- 
ability was,  no  doubt,  that  we  were  out  in  good  time; 
but,  in  spite  of  all,  it  was  only  a  probability.     On  the 


180  NORTHWARD 

other  hand,  it  was  absolutely  certain  that  we  had  a 
voyage  of  2,400  nautical  miles  to  Hobart,  which  had 
been  selected  as  our  first  port  of  call ;  and  it  was  almost 
equally  certain  that  this  voyage  would  be  both  slow 
and  troublesome.  A  year  before  our  trip  through  Ross 
Sea  had  turned  out  almost  like  a  pleasure  cruise,  but 
that  was  in  the  middle  of  summer.  Now  we  were  in 
February,  and  autumn  was  at  hand.  As  regards  the 
belt  of  drift-ice.  Captain  Nilsen  thought  that  would 
cause  us  no  delay  in  future.  He  had  discovered  a 
patent  and  infallible  way  of  getting  through!  This 
sounded  like  a  rather  bold  assertion,  but,  as  will  be  seen 
later,  he  was  as  good  as  his  word.  Our  worst  troubles 
would  be  up  in  the  westerhes,  where  we  should  this 
time  be  exposed  to  the  unpleasant  possibility  of  having 
to  beat.  The  difference  in  longitude  between  the  Bay 
of  Whales  and  Hobart  is  nearly  fifty  degrees.  If  we 
could  have  sailed  off  this  difference  in  longitude  in  the 
latitudes  where  we  then  were,  and  where  a  degree  of 
longitude  is  only  about  thirteen  nautical  miles,  it  would 
all  have  been  done  in  a  twinkling;  but  the  mighty 
mountain  ranges  of  North  Victoria  Land  were  a 
decisive  obstacle.  We  should  first  have  to  follow  a 
northerly  course  initil  we  had  rounded  the  Antarctic 
Continent's  northern  outpost.  Cape  Adare,  and  the 
Balleny  Islands  to  the  north  of  it.  Not  till  then  would 
the  way  be  open  for  us  to  work  to  the  west;  but  then 
we  should  be  in  a  region  where  in  all  probability  the 


BJAALAND    AS    TINKER. 


DOGS    LANDED    AT    HOBART    FOR    DR.    MAWSON  S    EXPEDITION. 


Tofaceparjc  ISO,  Vol.  II. 


THE  SURVIVING  DOGS  181 

wind  would  be  dead  against  us,  and  as  to  tacking  with 
the  Fram — no,  thank  you !  Every  single  man  on  board 
knew  enough  of  the  conditions  to  be  well  aware  of  what 
awaited  us,  and  it  is  equally  certain  that  the  thoughts 
of  all  were  centered  upon  how  we  might  conquer  our 
coming  difficulties  in  the  best  and  quickest  way.  It 
was  the  one  great,  common  object  that  still  bound,  and 
would  continue  to  bind,  us  all  together  in  our  joint 
efforts. 

Among  the  items  of  news  that  we  had  just  received 
from  the  outer  world  was  the  message  that  the  Aus- 
trahan  Antarctic  Expedition  under  Dr.  Douglas 
Mawson  would  be  glad  to  take  over  some  of  our  dogs, 
if  we  had  any  to  spare.  The  base  of  this  expedition 
was  Hobart,  and  as  far  as  that  went,  this  suited  us  very 
well.  It  chanced  that  we  were  able  to  do  our  esteemed 
colleague  this  small  service.  On  leaving  the  Barrier 
we  could  show  a  pack  of  thirty-nine  dogs,  many 
of  which  had  grown  up  during  our  year's  stay  there; 
about  half  had  survived  the  whole  trip  from  Norway, 
and  eleven  had  been  at  the  South  Pole.  It  had  been 
our  intention  only  to  keep  a  suitable  number  as  the 
progenitors  of  a  new  pack  for  the  approaching  voyage 
in  the  Arctic  Ocean,  but  Dr.  Mawson's  request  caused 
us  to  take  all  the  thirty-nine  on  board.  Of  these  dogs, 
if  nothing  unforeseen  happened,  we  should  be  able  to 
make  over  twenty-one  to  him.  When  the  last  load 
was  brought  down,  there  was  nothing  to  do  but  to  pull 


182  NORTHWARD 

the  dogs  over  the  side,  and  then  we  were  ready.  It 
was  quite  curious  to  see  how  several  of  the  old  veterans 
seemed  at  home  again  on  the  F ram's  deck.  Wisting's 
brave  dog,  the  old  Colonel,  with  his  two  adjutants, 
Suggen  and  Arne,  at  once  took  possession  of  the  places 
where  they  had  stood  for  so  many  a  long  day  on  the 
voyage  south — on  the  starboard  side  of  the  mainmast; 
the  two  twins,  Mylius  and  Ring,  Helmer  Hanssen's 
special  favourites,  began  their  games  away  in  the  corner 
of  the  fore-deck  to  port,  as  though  nothing  had  hap- 
pened. To  look  at  those  two  merry  rascals  no  one 
would  have  thought  they  had  trotted  at  the  head  of  the 
whole  caravan  both  to  and  from  the  Pole.  One  solitary 
dog  could  be  seen  stalking  about,  lonely  and  reserved, 
in  a  continual  uneasy  search.  This  w^as  the  boss  of 
Bjaaland's  team.  He  was  unaffected  by  any  advances; 
no  one  could  take  the  place  of  his  fallen  comrade  and 
friend,  Frith j  of,  who  had  long  ago  found  a  grave  in  the 
stomachs  of  his  companions  many  hundreds  of  miles 
across  the  Barrier. 

No  sooner  was  the  last  dog  helped  on  board,  and  the 
two  ice-anchors  released,  than  the  engine-room  telegraph 
rang,  and  the  engine  was  at  once  set  going  to  keep  us 
from  any  closer  contact  with  the  ice-foot  in  the  Bay  of 
Whales.  Our  farewell  to  this  snug  harbour  took  almost 
the  form  of  a  leap  from  one  world  to  another;  the  fog 
hung  over  us  as  thick  as  gruel,  concealing  all  the  sur- 
rounding outlines   behind  its  clammy   curtain,    as    we 


LEAVING  THE  BAY  183 

stood  out.  After  a  lapse  of  three  or  four  hours,  it 
Hfted  quite  suddenly,  but  astern  of  us  the  bank  of  fog 
still  stood  like  a  wall;  behind  it  the  panorama,  which 
we  knew  would  have  looked  wonderful  in  clear  weather, 
and  which  we  should  so  gladly  have  let  our  eyes  rest 
upon  as  long  as  we  could,  was  entirely  concealed. 

The  same  course  we  had  steered  when  coming  in 
a  year  before  could  safely  be  taken  in  the  opposite 
direction  now  we  were  going  out.  The  outlines  of  the 
bay  had  remained  absolutely  unchanged  during  the  year 
that  had  elapsed.  Even  the  most  projecting  point  of 
the  wall  on  the  west  side  of  the  bay,  Cape  Man's  Head, 
stood  serenely  in  its  old  place,  and  it  looked  as  if  it  was 
in  no  particular  hurry  to  remove  itself.  It  will  probably 
stay  where  it  is  for  many  a  long  day  yet,  for  if  any 
movement  of  the  ice  mass  is  taking  place  at  the  inner 
end  of  the  bay,  it  is  in  any  case  very  slight.  Only  in 
one  respect  did  the  condition  of  things  differ  somewhat 
this  year  from  the  preceding.  Whereas  in  1911  the 
greater  part  of  the  bay  was  free  of  sea-ice  as  early  as 
January  14,  in  1912  there  was  no  opening  until  about 
fourteen  days  later.  The  ice-sheet  had  stubbornly  held 
on  until  the  fresh  north-easterly  breeze,  that  appeared 
on  the  very  day  the  southern  party  returned,  had 
rapidly  provided  a  channel  of  open  water.  The  break- 
ing up  of  the  ice  could  not  possibly  have  taken  place 
at  a  more  convenient  moment;  the  breeze  in  question 
saved  us  a  great  deal,  both  of  time  and  trouble,  as  the 


184  NORTHWARD 

way  to  the  place  where  the  Fram  lay  before  the  ice 
broke  up  was  about  five  times  as  long  as  the  distance 
we  now  had  to  go.  This  difference  of  fourteen  days  in 
the  time  of  the  disappearance  of  the  ice  in  two  summers 
showed  us  how  lucky  we  had  been  to  choose  that  par- 
ticular year — 1911 — for  our  landing  here.  The  work 
which  we  carried  out  in  three  weeks  in  1911,  thanks  to 
the  early  breaking  up  of  the  ice,  would  certainly  have 
taken  us  double  the  time  in  1912,  and  would  have  caused 
us  far  more  difficulty  and  trouble. 

The  thick  fog  that,  as  I  have  said,  lay  over  the  Bay  of 
Whales  when  we  left  it,  prevented  us  also  from  seeing 
what  our  friends  the  Japanese  were  doing.  The  Kainan 
Maru  had  put  to  sea  in  company  with  the  Fram  during 
the  gale  of  January  27,  and  since  that  time  we  had  seen 
nothing  of  them.  Those  members  of  the  expedition 
who  had  been  left  behind  in  a  tent  on  the  edge  of  the 
Barrier  to  the  north  of  Framlieim  had  also  been  very 
retiring  of  late.  On  the  day  we  left  the  place,  one  of 
our  own  party  had  an  interview  with  two  of  the 
foreigners.  Prestrud  had  gone  to  fetch  the  flag  that 
had  been  set  up  on  Cape  Man's  Head  as  a  signal  to  the 
Fram  that  all  had  returned.  By  the  side  of  the  flag 
a  tent  had  been  put  up,  which  was  intended  as  a  shelter 
for  a  lookout  man,  in  case  the  Fram  had  been  delayed. 
When  Prestrud  came  up,  he  was  no  doubt  rather  sur- 
prised to  find  himself  face  to  face  with  two  sons  of 
Nippon,  who  were  engaged  in  inspecting  our  tent  and 


O 


E-i 
O 

<; 


a 

E-i 

O 

s 


THE  JAPANESE  VISITORS  185 

its  contents,  which,  however,  only  consisted  of  a  sleeping- 
bag  and  a  Primus.  The  Japanese  had  opened  the 
conversation  with  enthusiastic  phrases  about  "  nice  day  " 
and  "  plenty  ice  " ;  when  our  man  had  expressed  his 
absolute  agreement  on  these  indisputable  facts,  he  tried 
to  get  information  on  matters  of  more  special  interest. 
The  two  strangers  told  him  that  for  the  moment  they 
were  the  only  inhabitants  of  the  tent  out  on  the  edge  of 
the  Barrier.  Two  of  their  companions  had  gone  on 
a  tour  into  the  Barrier  to  make  meteorological  observa- 
tions, and  were  to  be  away  about  a  week.  The  Kainan 
Maru  had  gone  on  another  cruise  in  the  direction 
of  King  Edward  Land.  As  far  as  they  knew,  it 
was  intended  that  the  ship  should  be  back  before 
February  10,  and  that  all  the  members  of  the  expedition 
should  then  go  on  board  and  sail  to  the  north.  Prestrud 
had  invited  his  two  new  acquaintances  to  visit  us  at 
Framheim,  the  sooner  the  better;  they  delayed  their 
coming  too  long,  however,  for  us  to  be  able  to  wait  for 
them.  If  they  have  since  been  at  Framheim,  they  will 
at  any  rate  be  able  to  bear  witness  that  we  did  our  best 
to  make  things  comfortable  for  any  successors. 

When  the  fog  lifted,  we  found  ourselves  surrounded 
by  open  sea,  practically  free  from  ice,  on  all  sides.  A 
blue-black  sea,  with  a  heavy,  dark  sky  above  it,  is  not 
usually  reckoned  among  the  sights  that  delight  the  eye. 
To  our  organs  of  vision  it  was  a  real  relief  to  come  into 
surroundings  where  dark  colours  predominated.     For 

VOL.  II.  38 


186  NORTHWARD 

months  we  had  been  staring  at  a  dazzling  sea  of  vv^hite, 
where  artificial  means  had  constantly  to  be  employed  to 
protect  the  eyes  against  the  excessive  flood  of  light. 
As  a  rule,  it  was  even  necessary  to  limit  the  exposure  of 
the  pupils  to  a  mmimum,  and  to  draw  the  eyelids 
together.  Now  we  could  once  more  look  on  the  world 
with  open  eyes,  literally  "  without  winking  ";  even  such 
a  commonplace  thing  as  this  is  an  experience  in  one's 
life.  Ross  Sea  showed  itself  again  on  its  most  favour- 
able side.  A  cat's  paw  of  south-westerly  wind  enabled 
us  to  use  the  sails,  so  that  after  a  lapse  of  two  days  we 
were  already  about  two  hundred  miles  from  the  Barrier. 
Modest  as  this  distance  may  be  in  itself,  when  seen  on 
the  chart  it  looked  quite  imposing  in  our  eyes.  It  nmst 
be  remembered  that,  with  the  means  of  transport  we 
had  employed  on  land,  it  cost  us  many  a  hard  day's 
march  to  cover  a  distance  of  two  hundred  geographical 
miles. 

Nilsen  had  marked  on  the  chart  the  limits  of  the  belt 
of  drift-ice  during  the  three  passages  the  Fravi  had 
already  made.  The  supposition  that  an  available  open- 
ing is  always  to  be  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
150th  meridian  appears  to  be  confirmed.  The  slight 
changes  in  the  position  of  the  channel  were  only  caused, 
according  to  Nilsen's  experiences,  by  variations  in  the 
direction  of  the  wind.  He  had  found  that  it  always 
answered  his  purpose  to  turn  and  try  to  windward,  if 
the  pack  showed  signs  of  being  close.    This  mode  of 


THROUGH  THE  PACK  187 

procedure  naturally  had  the  effect  of  making  the  course 
somewhat  crooked,  but  to  make  up  for  this  it  had 
always  resulted  in  his  finding  open  water.  On  this  trip 
we  reached  the  edge  of  the  pack-ice  belt  three  days 
after  leaving  the  Barrier.  The  position  of  the  belt 
proved  to  be  very  nearly  the  same  as  on  previous 
passages.  After  we  had  held  our  course  for  some  hours, 
however,  the  ice  became  so  thick  that  it  looked  badly  for 
our  further  progress.  Now  was  the  time  to  try  Nilsen's 
method:  the  wind,  which,  by  the  way,  was  quite  light, 
came  about  due  west,  and  accordingly  the  helm  was  put 
to  starboard  and  the  bow  turned  to  the  west.  For  a 
good  while  we  even  steered  true  south,  but  it  proved 
that  this  fairly  long  turn  had  not  been  made  in  vain; 
after  we  had  worked  our  way  to  windward  for  a  few 
hours,  we  found  openings  in  numbers.  If  we  had  held 
our  course  as  we  began,  it  is  not  at  all  impossible  that 
we  should  have  been  delayed  for  a  long  time,  with 
a  free  passage  a  few  miles  away. 

After  having  accomplished  this  first  long  turn,  we 
escaped  having  to  make  any  more  in  future.  The  ice 
continued  slack,  and  on  February  6  the  rapidly  increas- 
ing swell  told  us  that  we  had  done  with  the  Antarctic 
drift-ice  for  good.  I  doubt  if  we  saw  a  single  seal  during 
our  passage  through  the  ice-belt  this  time;  and  if  we 
had  seen  any,  we  should  scarcely  have  allowed  the  time 
for  shooting  them.  There  was  plenty  of  good  food  both 
for  men  and  dogs  this  time,  without  our  ha\ang  recourse 


188  NORTHWARD 

to  seal-beef.  For  the  dogs  we  had  brought  all  our 
remaining  store  of  the  excellent  dogs'  pemmican,  and 
that  was  not  a  little.  Besides  this,  we  had  a  good  lot  of 
dried  fish.  They  had  fish  and  pemmican  on  alternate 
days.  On  this  diet  the  animals  kept  in  such  splendid 
condition  that,  when  on  arrival  at  Hobart  they  had  shed 
most  of  their  rough  winter  coats,  they  looked  as  if  they 
had  been  in  clover  for  a  year. 

For  the  nine  of  us  who  had  just  joined  the  ship,  our 
comrades  on  board  had  brought  all  the  way  from  Buenos 
Aires  several  fat  pigs,  that  were  now  li\'ing  in  luxury  in 
their  pen  on  the  after-deck;  in  addition  to  these,  three 
fine  sheep's  carcasses  hung  in  the  workroom.  It  need 
scarcely  be  said  that  we  were  fully  capable  of  appreciat- 
ing these  unexpected  luxuries.  Seal-beef,  no  doubt,  had 
done  excellent  service,  but  this  did  not  prevent  roast 
mutton  and  pork  being  a  welcome  change,  especially  as 
they  came  as  a  complete  surprise.  I  hardly  think  one 
of  us  had  counted  on  the  possibility  of  getting  fresh 
meat  before  we  were  back  again  in  civilization. 

On  her  arrival  at  the  Bay  of  Whales  there  were  eleven 
men  on  board  the  Fram,  all  included.  Instead  of 
Kutschin  and  Nodtvedt,who  had  gone  home  from  Buenos 
Aires  while  the  ship  was  there  in  the  autumn  of  1911, 
three  new  men  were  engaged — namely,  Halvorsen, 
Olsen  and  Steller;  the  two  first -named  were  from 
Bergen ;  Steller  was  a  German,  who  had  lived  for  several 
years  in  Norway,  and  talked  Norwegian  like  a  native. 


THE  NEW  HANDS  189 

All  three  were  remarkably  efficient  and  friendly  men;  it 
was  a  pleasure  to  have  any  deahngs  with  them.  I 
venture  to  think  that  they,  too,  found  themselves  at 
home  in  our  company;  they  were  really  only  engaged 
until  the  Fram  called  at  the  first  port,  but  they  stayed 
on  board  all  the  way  to  Buenos  Aires,  and  will  certainly 
go  with  us  farther  still. 

When  the  shore  party  came  on  board.  Lieutenant 
Prestrud  took  up  his  old  position  as  first  officer;  the 
others  began  duty  at  once.  All  told,  we  were  now  twenty 
men  on  board,  and  after  the  Fram  had  sailed  for  a  year 
rather  short-handed,  she  could  now  be  said  to  have  a 
full  crew  again.  On  this  voyage  we  had  no  special 
work  outside  the  usual  sea  routine,  and  so  long  as  the 
weather  was  fair,  we  had  thus  a  comparatively  quiet 
life  on  board.  But  the  hours  of  watch  on  deck  passed 
quickly  enough,  I  expect;  there  was  material  in  plenty 
for  many  a  long  chat  now.  If  we,  who  came  from  land, 
showed  a  high  degree  of  curiosity  about  what  had  been 
going  on  in  the  world,  the  sea-party  were  at  least  as 
eager  to  have  full  information  of  every  detail  of  our 
year-long  stay  on  the  Barrier.  One  must  almost  have 
experienced  something  similar  oneself  to  be  able  to  form 
an  idea  of  the  hail  of  questions  that  is  showered  upon 
one  on  such  an  occasion.  What  we  land-lubbers  had 
to  relate  has  been  given  in  outline  in  the  preceding 
chapters.  Of  the  news  we  heard  from  outside,  perhaps 
nothing  interested  us  so  much  as  the  story  of  how  the 


190  NORTHAVARD 

change  in  the  plan  of  the  expedition  had  been  received 
at  home  and  abroad. 

It  must  have  been  at  least  a  week  before  there  was 
any  noticeable  ebb  in  the  flood  of  questions  and  answers.' 
That  week  went  by  quickly ;  perhaps  more  quickly  than 
we  really  cared  for,  since  it  proved  that  the  Fram  was 
not  really  able  to  keep  pace  with  time.  The  weather 
remained  quite  well  behaved,  but  not  exactly  in  the 
way  we  wished.  We  had  reckoned  that  the  south- 
easterly and  easterly  winds,  so  frequent  around  Fram- 
heim,  would  also  show  themselves  out  in  Ross  Sea,  but 
they  entirely  forgot  to  do  so.  We  had  little  wind,  and 
when  there  was  any,  it  was,  as  a  rule,  a  slant  from  the 
north,  always  enough  to  delay  our  honest  old  ship.  It 
was  impossible  to  take  any  observations  for  the  first 
eight  days,  the  sky  was  continuously  overcast.  If  one 
occasionally  asked  the  skipper  about  her  position,  he 
usually  replied  that  the  only  thing  that  could  be  said  for 
certain  was  that  we  were  in  Ross  Sea.  On  February  7, 
however,  according  to  a  fairly  good  noon  observation, 
we  were  well  to  the  north  of  Cape  Adare,  and  therefore 
beyond  the  limits  of  the  Antarctic  Continent.  On  the 
way  northward  we  passed  Cape  Adare  at  a  distance 
hardly  greater  than  could  have  been  covered  with  a 
good  day's  sailing ;  but  our  desire  of  making  this  detour 
had  to  give  way  to  the  chief  consideration — northward, 
northward  as  quickly  as  possible. 

There  is  usually  plenty  of  wind  in  the  neighbourhood 


FESTIVITIES  191 

of  bold  promontories,  and  Cape  Adare  is  no  exception 
in  this  respect;  it  is  well  known  as  a  centre  of  bad 
weather.  Nor  did  we  slip  by  without  getting  a  taste 
of  this;  but  it  could  not  have  been  more  welcome,  as 
it  happened  that  the  wind  was  going  the  same  way  as 
ourselves.  Two  days  of  fresh  south-east  wind  took  us 
comparatively  quickly  past  the  Balleny  Islands,  and  on 
February  9  we  could  congratulate  ourselves  on  being 
well  out  of  the  south  frigid  zone.  It  was  with  joy  that 
we  had  crossed  the  Antarctic  Circle  over  a  year  ago, 
going  south;  perhaps  we  rejoiced  no  less  at  crossing  it 
this  time  in  the  opposite  direction. 

In  the  bustle  of  getting  away  from  our  winter- 
quarters  there  had  been  no  time  for  any  celebration 
of  the  fortunate  reunion  of  the  land  and  sea  parties. 
As  this  occasion  for  festivity  had  been  let  slip,  we  had 
to  look  out  for  another,  and  we  agreed  that  the  day 
of  our  passage  from  the  frigid  to  the  temperate  zone 
afforded  a  very  good  excuse.  The  pre-arranged  part 
of  the  programme  was  extremely  simple:  an  extra  cup 
of  coffee,  duly  accompanied  by  punch  and  cigars,  and 
some  music  on  the  gramophone.  Our  worthy  gramo- 
phone could  not  offer  anything  that  had  the  interest  of 
novelty  to  us  nine  who  had  wintered  at  Framheim:  we 
knew  the  whole  repertoire  pretty  well  by  heart;  but 
the  well-known  melodies  awakened  memories  of  many 
a  pleasant  Saturday  evening  around  the  toddy  table  in 
our  cosy  winter  home  down  at  the  head  of  the  Bay  of 


192  NORTHWARD 

Whales — memories  which  we  need  not  be  ashamed  of 
recaUing.  On  board  the  Fram  gramophone  music  had 
not  been  heard  since  Christmas  Eve,  1910,  and  the 
members  of  the  sea  party  were  glad  enough  to  encore 
more  than  one  number. 

Outside  the  limits  of  the  programme  we  were  treated 
to  an  extra  number  by  a  singer,  who  imitated  the 
gramophone  in  utilizing  a  big  megaphone,  to  make  up 
for  the  deficiencies  of  his  voice — according  to  his  own 
statement.  He  hid  behind  the  curtain  of  Captain 
Nilsen's  cabin,  and  through  the  megaphone  came  a 
ditty  intended  to  describe  life  on  the  Barrier  from  its 
humorous  side.  It  was  completely  successful,  and  we 
again  had  a  laugh  that  did  us  good.  Performances  of 
this  kind,  of  course,  only  have  a  value  to  those  who 
have  taken  part  in  or  are  acquainted  with  the  events 
to  which  they  refer.  In  case  any  outsider  may  be 
interested  in  seeing  what  our  entertainment  was  like, 
a  few  of  the  verses  are  given  here. 

It  must  be  remarked  that  the  author  composed  his 
production  in  the  supposition  that  we  should  be  able  to 
meet  by  Christmas,  and  he  therefore  proposed  that  for 
the  moment  we  should  imagine  ourselves  to  be  cele- 
brating that  festival.  We  made  no  difficulty  about 
acceding  to  his  request: 

Well,  here  we  are  assembled  to  jollity  once  more. 

Some  from  off  the  ocean  and  the  rest  from  off  the  shore. 

A  year  has  passed  since  last  we  met  and  all  are  safe  and  sound. 

Then  let  us  banish  all  our  cares  and  join  our  hands  all  round. 


"  IN  HIS  COUNTRY'S  CAUSE  "        193 

Christmas^  happy  Christmas !  let  us  pass  the  flowing  bowl, 
Fill  your  glasses  all,  and  let's  make  "  Sails  "  a  wee  bit  full. 
For  all  I'll  say  is  this — that  it's  in  his  country's  cause; 
If  he  staggers  just  a  little,  it  is  in  his  country's  cause. 

Now  you  sailor  boys  shall  hear  about  the  time  we  have  gone  through: 

The  winter — well,  it  wasn't  long,  we  had  so  much  to  do. 

There  was  digging  snow^  and  sleeping — you  can  bet  we're  good  at 

that — 
And  eating,  too — no  wonder  that  we're  all  a  little  fat. 
We  had  hot  cakes  for  our  breakfast  and  "  hermetik  "  each  day. 
Mutton  pies,  ragouts  and  curries,  for  that  is  Lindstrom's  way. 
But  all  I'll  say  is  this — that  'twas  in  our  country's  cause. 
If  we  stuffed  ourselves  with  dainties,  it  was  in  our  country's  cause. 

September  came  and  off  we  went — that  trip  was  pretty  tough; 

Our  compasses  all  went  on  strike,  they  thought  it  cold  enough. 

The  brandy  in  the  Captain's  flask  froze  to  a  lump  of  ice ; 

We  all  agreed,  both  men  and  dogs,  such  weather  wasn't  nice. 

So  back  we  went  to  Framheim  to  thaw  our  heels  and  toes ; 

It  could  not  be  quite  healthy  when  our  feet  and  fingers  froze. 

But  all  I  say  is  this — that  'twas  in  our  country's  cause. 

And  we  did  not  mind  a  frost-bite  when  'twas  in  our  country's  cause. 

The  sun  came  up  and  warmed  us  then  a  little  day  by  day ; 
Five  men  went  out  again  and  toiled  along  the  southern  way. 
This  time  they  conquered  snow  and  ice,  and  all  the  world  may  hear 
That  Norway's  flag  flies  at  the  Pole.     Now,  boys,  a  ringing  cheer 
For  him  who  led  them  forward  through  the  mountains  and  the  plain. 
Up  to  the  goal  they  aimed  at,  and  safely  back  again. 
But  all  I'll  say  is  this — that  'twas  in  his  country's  cause; 
If  he  went  through  and  won  the  Pole,  'twas  in  his  country's  cause. 

It  could  soon  be  noticed,  in  one  way  and  another, 
that  we  had  reached  latitudes  where  existence  took  a 
very  different  aspect  from  what  we  had  been  accus- 
tomed to  south  of  the  66th  parallel.      One  welcome 


194  NORTHWARD 

change  was  the  rise  in  temperature;  the  mercury  now 
climbed  well  above  freezing-point,  and  those  individuals 
on  board  who  were  still  more  or  less  clad  in  skins,  shed 
the  last  remnants  of  their  Polar  garb  for  a  lighter  and 
more  convenient  costume.  Those  who  waited  longest 
before  making  the  change  were  the  ones  who  belonged 
to  the  shore  party.  The  numerous  people  who  imagine 
that  a  long  stay  in  the  Polar  regions  makes  a  man  less 
susceptible  of  cold  than  other  mortals  are  completely 
mistaken.  The  direct  opposite  is  more  likely  to  be  the 
case.  A  man  who  stays  some  time  in  a  place  where 
the  everyday  temperature  is  down  in  the  fifties  below 
zero,  or  more  than  that,  will  not  trouble  himself  greatly 
about  the  cold,  so  long  as  he  has  good  and  serviceable 
skin  clothing.  Let  the  same  man,  rigged  out  in  civilized 
clothes,  be  suddenly  put  down  in  the  streets  of  Chris- 
tiania  on  a  winter  day,  with  thirty  or  thirty-five  degrees 
of  frost,  and  the  poor  fellow's  teeth  will  chatter  till  they 
fall  out  of  his  mouth.  The  fact  is,  that  on  a  Polar  trip 
one  defends  oneself  effectively  against  the  cold;  when 
one  comes  back,  and  has  to  go  about  with  the  protection 
afforded  by  an  overcoat,  a  stiff  collar,  and  a  hard  hat — 
well,  then  one  feels  it. 

A  less  welcome  consequence  of  the  difference  in 
latitude  was  the  darkening  of  the  nights.  It  may  be 
admitted  that  continual  daylight  would  be  unpleasant 
in  the  long  run  ashore,  but  aboard  ship  an  everlasting 
day  would  certainly  be  preferred,  if  such  a  thing  could 


DARKER  NIGHTS  195 

be  had.  Even  if  we  might  now  consider  that  we  had 
done  with  the  principal  mass  of  Antarctic  ice,  we  still 
had  to  reckon  with  its  disagreeable  outposts — the  ice- 
bergs. It  has  already  been  remarked  that  a  practised 
look-out  man  can  see  the  blink  of  one  of  the  larger 
bergs  a  long  way  off  in  the  dark,  but  when  it  is  a 
question  of  one  of  the  smaller  masses  of  ice,  of  which 
only  an  inconsiderable  part  rises  above  the  surface, 
there  is  no  such  brightness,  and  therefore  no  warning. 
A  little  lump  like  this  is  just  as  dangerous  as  a  big 
berg;  you  run  the  same  risks  in  a  possible  collision 
of  knocking  a  hole  in  the  bows  or  carrying  away  the 
rigging.  In  these  transitional  regions,  where  the  tem- 
perature of  the  water  is  always  very  low,  the  ther- 
mometer is  a  very  doubtful  guide. 

The  waters  in  which  we  were  sailing  are  not  yet 
so  well  known  as  to  exclude  the  possibility  of  meeting 
with  land.  Captain  Colbeck,  who  commanded  one  of 
the  relief  ships  sent  south  during  Scott's  first  expedi- 
tion, came  quite  unexpectedly  upon  a  little  island  to 
the  east  of  Cape  Adare;  this  island  was  afterwards 
named  after  Captain  Scott.  When  Captain  Colbeck 
made  his  discovery,  he  was  about  on  the  course  that 
has  usually  been  taken  by  ships  whose  destination  was 
within  the  limits  of  Ross  Sea.  There  is  still  a  possi- 
bility that  in  going  out  of  one's  course,  voluntarily  or 
involuntarily;  one  may  find  more  groups  of  islands  in 
that  part. 


196  NORTHWARD 

On  the  current  charts  of  the  South  Pacific  there  are 
marked  several  archipelagoes  and  islands,  the  position 
of  which  is  not  a  little  doubtful.  One  of  these — 
Emerald  Island — is  charted  as  lying  almost  directly  in 
the  course  we  had  to  follow  to  reach  Hobart.  Captain 
Davis,  who  took  Shackleton's  ship,  the  Nimrod,  home 
to  England  in  1909,  sailed,  however,  right  over  the 
point  where  Emerald  Island  should  be  found  according 
to  the  chart  without  seeing  anything  of  it.  If  it  exists 
at  all,  it  is,  at  any  rate,  incorrectly  charted.  In  order 
to  avoid  its  vicinity,  and  still  more  in  order  to  get  as  far 
as  possible  to  the  west  before  we  came  into  the  westerly 
belt  proper,  we  pressed  on  as  much  as  we  could  for 
one  hard  week,  or  perhaps  nearer  two;  but  a  continual 
north-west  wind  seemed  for  a  long  time  to  leave  us 
only  two  disagreeable  possibiHties,  either  of  drifting  to 
the  eastward,  or  of  finding  ourselves  dov/n  in  the  drift- 
ice  to  the  north  of  Wilkes  Land. 

Those  weeks  were  a  very  severe  trial  of  patience  to 
the  many  on  board  who  were  burning  with  eagerness 
to  get  ashore  with  our  news,  and  perhaps  to  hear  some 
in  return.  When  the  first  three  weeks  of  February 
were  past,  we  were  not  much  more  than  half-way ;  with 
anything  like  favourable  conditions  we  ought  to  have 
arrived  by  that  time.  The  optimists  always  consoled 
us  by  saying  that  sooner  or  later  there  would  be  a 
change  for  the  better,  and  at  last  it  came.  A  good 
spell  of  favourable  wind  took  us  at  a  bound  well  to  the 


SLOW  PROGRESS  197 

windward  both  of  the  doubtful  Emerald  Island  and  of 
the  authentic  JNIacquarie  group  to  the  north  of  it. 
It  may  be  mentioned  in  passing,  that  at  the  time  we 
went  by,  the  most  southerly  wireless  telegraphy  station 
in  the  world  was  located  on  one  of  the  Macquarie 
Islands.  The  installation  belonged  to  Dr.  Mawson's 
Antarctic  expedition.  Dr.  Mawson  also  took  with  him 
apparatus  for  installing  a  station  on  the  Antarctic  Con- 
tinent itself,  but,  so  far  as  is  known,  no  connection  was 
accomplished  the  first  year. 

During  this  fortunate  run  we  had  come  so  far  to  the 
west  that  our  course  to  Hobart  was  rapidly  approaching 
true  north.  On  the  other  hand,  we  should  have  liked 
to  be  able  to  take  advantage  of  the  prevailing  winds, 
— the  westerlies.  These  vary  little  from  one  year  to 
another,  and  we  found  them  much  the  same  as  we  had 
been  accustomed  to  before :  frequent,  stiff  breezes  from 
the  north-west,  which  generally  held  for  about  twelve 
hours,  and  then  veered  to  west  or  south-west.  So  long 
as  the  north-wester  was  blowing,  there  was  nothing  to 
do  but  to  He  to  with  shortened  sail;  when  the  change 
of  wind  came,  we  made  a  few  hours'  progress  in  the 
right  direction.  In  this  way  we  crept  step  by  step 
northward  to  our  destination.  It  was  slow  enough,  no 
doubt;  but  every  day  the  line  of  our  course  on  the 
chart  grew  a  Httle  longer,  and  towards  the  end  of 
February  the  distance  between  us  and  the  southern  point 
of  Tasmania  had  shrunk  to  very  modest  dimensions. 


198  NORTHWARD 

With  the  constant  heavy  westerly  swell,  the  Frarrij 
light  as  she  now  was,  surpassed  herself  in  rolling,  and 
that  is  indeed  saying  a  great  deal.  This  rolling  brought 
us  a  little  damage  to  the  rigging,  the  gaff  of  the  main- 
sail breaking;  however,  that  affair  did  not  stop  us  long. 
The  broken  spar  was  quickly  replaced  by  a  spare  gaff. 

Our  hopes  of  arriving  before  the  end  of  February 
came  to  naught,  and  a  quarter  of  March  went  by  before 
our  voyage  was  at  an  end. 

On  the  afternoon  of  March  4,  we  had  our  first  glimpse 
of  land ;  but,  as  the  weather  was  by  no  means  clear  and 
we  had  not  been  able  to  determine  our  longitude  with 
certainty  for  two  days,  we  were  uncertain  which  point 
of  Tasmania  we  had  before  us.  To  explain  the  situation, 
a  short  description  of  the  coast-line  is  necessary.  The 
southern  angle  of  Tasmania  runs  out  in  three  promon- 
tories; off  the  easternmost  of  these,  and  only  divided 
from  it  by  a  very  narrow  channel,  lies  a  steep  and 
apparently  inaccessible  island,  called  Tasman  Island. 
It  is,  however,  accessible,  for  on  the  top  of  it — 900  feet 
above  the  sea — stands  a  lighthouse.  The  middle  prom- 
ontory is  called  Tasman  Head,  and  between  this  and 
the  eastern  one  we  have  Storm  Bay,  which*  forms  the 
approach  to  Plobart;  there,  then,  lay  our  course.  The 
question  was,  which  of  the  three  heads  we  had  sighted. 
This  was  difficult,  or  rather  impossible,  to  decide,  so 
indistinct  was  the  outline  of  the  land  in  the  misty  air; 
it  was  also  entirely  unknown  to  us,  as  not  one  of  us  had 


AN  ANNOYING  DELAY  199 

ever  before  been  in  this  corner  of  the  world.  When 
darkness  came  on,  a  heavy  rain  set  in,  and  without 
being  able  to  see  anything  at  all,  we  lay  there  feeling 
our  way  all  night.  With  the  appearance  of  daylight 
a  fresh  south-west  wind  came  and  swept  away  most 
of  the  rain,  so  that  we  could  again  make  out  the  land. 
We  decided  that  what  we  saw  was  the  middle  promon- 
tory, Tasman  Head,  and  gaily  set  our  course  into 
Storm  Bay  —  as  we  thought.  With  the  rapidly 
strengthening  breeze  we  went  spinningly,  and  the 
possibility  of  reaching  Hobart  in  a  few  hours  began 
to  appear  as  a  dead  certainty.  With  this  comfortable 
feeling  we  had  just  sat  down  to  the  breakfast  table 
in  the  fore-saloon,  when  the  door  was  pulled  open  with 
what  seemed  unnecessary  violence,  and  the  face  of  the 
officer  of  the  watch  appeared  in  the  doorway.  "  We're 
on  the  wrong  side  of  the  head,"  was  the  sinister  message, 
and  the  face  disappeared.  Good-bye  to  our  pleasant 
plans,  good-bye  to  our  breakfast!  All  hands  went 
on  deck  at  once,  and  it  was  seen  only  too  well  that 
the  melancholy  information  was  correct.  We  had 
made  a  mistake  in  the  thick  rain.  The  wind,  that 
had  now  increased  to  a  stiff  breeze,  had  chased  the 
rain-clouds  from  the  tops  of  the  hills,  and  on  the  point 
we  had  taken  for  Tasman  Head,  we  now  saw  the 
lighthouse.  It  was  therefore  Tasman  Island,  and 
instead  of  being  in  Storm  Bay,  we  were  out  in  the 
open  Pacific,  far  to  leeward  of  the  infamous  headland. 


200  NORTHWARD 

There  was  nothing  to  be  done  but  to  beat  and  attempt 
to  work  our  way  back  to  windward,  although  we  knew 
it  would  be  practically  labour  in  vain.  The  breeze 
increased  to  a  gale,  and  instead  of  making  any  headway 
we  had  every  prospect  of  drifting  well  to  leeward; 
that  was  the  usual  result  of  trying  to  beat  with  the 
Fram.  Rather  annoyed  though  we  were,  we  set  to 
work  to  do  what  could  be  done,  and  with  every  square 
foot  of  canvas  set  the  Fram  pitched  on  her  way  close- 
hauled.  To  begin  with,  it  looked  as  if  we  held  our 
own  more  or  less,  but  as  the  distance  from  land  increased 
and  the  wind  got  more  force,  our  bearings  soon  showed 
us  that  we  were  going  the  way  the  hen  kicks.  About 
midday  we  went  about  and  stood  in  towards  land  again ; 
immediately  after  came  a  violent  squall  which  tore  the 
outer  jib  to  ribbons;  with  that  we  were  also  obliged 
to  take  in  the  mainsail,  otherwise  it  would  pretty 
soon  have  been  caught  aback,  and  there  would  have 
been  further  damage  to  the  rigging.  With  the  remain- 
ing sails  any  further  attempt  was  useless;  there  was 
nothing  left  but  to  get  as  close  under  the  lee  of  the 
land  as  we  could  and  try  with  the  help  of  the  engine 
to  hold  our  own  till  the  weather  moderated.  How 
it  blew  that  afternoon!  One  gust  after  another  came 
dancing  down  the  slopes  of  the  hills,  and  tore  at  the 
rigging  till  the  whole  vessel  shook.  The  feeling  on 
board  was,  as  might  be  expected,  somewhat  sultry, 
and  found  an  outlet  in  various  expression  the  reverse 


IN  STORM  BAY  201 

of  gentle.  Wind,  weather,  fate,  and  life  in  general 
were  inveighed  against,  but  this  availed  little.  The 
peninsula  that  separated  us  from  Storm  Bay  still  lay- 
there  firm  and  immovable,  and  the  gale  went  on  as  if 
it  was  in  no  hurry  to  let  us  get  round.  The  whole  day 
went  by,  and  the  greater  part  of  the  night,  without  any 
change  taking  place.  Not  till  the  morning  of  the  6th 
did  our  prospects  begin  to  improve.  The  wind  became 
lighter  and  went  more  to  the  south ;  that  was,  of  course, 
the  way  we  had  to  go,  but  by  hugging  the  shore,  where 
we  had  perfectly  smooth  water,  we  succeeded  in  working 
our  way  down  to  Tasman  Island  before  darkness  fell. 
The  night  brought  a  calm,  and  that  gave  us  our  chance. 
The  engine  worked  furiously,  and  a  shght  favourable 
current  contributed  to  set  us  on  our  way.  By  dawn 
on  the  7th  we  were  far  up  Storm  Bay  and  could  at  last 
consider  ourselves  masters  of  the  situation. 

It  was  a  sunny  day,  and  our  faces  shone  in  rivalry 
with  the  sun ;  all  trace  of  the  last  two  days'  annoyances 
had  vanished.  And  soon  the  Fram,  too,  began  to  shine. 
The  white  paint  on  deck  had  a  thorough  overhauling 
with  soap  and  water  in  strong  solution.  The  Ripolin 
was  again  as  fresh  as  when  new.  When  this  had  been 
seen  to,  the  outward  appearance  of  the  men  also  began 
to  undergo  a  striking  change.  The  Iceland  jackets  and 
*'  blanket  costumes  "  from  Horten  gave  way  to  "  shore 
clothes  "  of  the  most  varied  cut,  hauled  out  after  a  two 

years'  rest;  razors  and  scissors  had  made  a  rich  harvest, 
VOL.  II.  39 


202  NORTHWARD 

and  sailmakerRonne's  fashionable  Burberry  caps  figured 
on  most  heads.  Even  Lindstrom,  who  up  to  date  had 
held  the  position  among  the  land  party  of  being  its 
heaviest,  fattest,  and  blackest  member,  showed  unmis- 
takable signs  of  having  been  in  close  contact  with 
water. 

Meanwhile  we  were  nearing  a  pilot  station,  and  a 
bustling  little  motor  launch  s^vung  alongside.  "  Want 
a  pilot,  captain?"  One  positively  started  at  the  sound 
of  the  first  new  human  voice.  Communication  ^vith  the 
outer  world  was  again  established.  The  pilot — a  brisk, 
good-humoured  old  man — looked  about  liim  in  surprise 
when  he  came  up  on  to  our  deck.  "  I  should  never 
have  imagined  things  were  so  clean  and  bright  on  board 
a  Polar  ship,"  he  said ;  "  nor  should  I  have  thought  from 
the  look  of  you  that  you  had  come  from  Antarctica. 
You  look  as  if  you  had  had  nothing  but  a  good  time." 
We  could  assure  him  of  that,  but  as  to  the  rest,  it  was 
not  our  intention  just  yet  to  allow  ourselves  to  be 
pumped,  and  the  old  man  could  see  that.  He  had  no 
objection  to  our  pumping  him,  though  he  had  no  very 
great  store  of  news  to  give  us.  He  had  heard  nothing 
of  the  Terra  Nova;  on  the  other  hand,  he  was  able  to 
tell  us  that  Dr.  Mawson's  ship,  the  Aurora,  commanded 
by  Captain  Davis,  might  be  expected  at  Hobart  any  day. 
They  had  been  looking  out  for  the  Fram  since  the 
beginning  of  February,  and  had  given  us  up  long  ago. 
That  was  a  surprise,  anyhow. 


ARRIVAL  AT  HOBART  203 

Our  guest  evidently  had  no  desire  to  make  the 
acquaintance  of  our  cuisine;  at  any  rate,  he  very 
energetically  declined  our  invitation  to  breakfast.  Pre- 
sumably he  was  afraid  of  being  treated  to  dog's  flesh 
or  similar  original  dishes.  On  the  other  hand,  he 
showed  great  appreciation  of  our  Norwegian  tobacco. 
He  had  his  handbag  pretty  nearly  full  when  he  left  us. 

Hobart  Town  lies  on  the  bank  of  the  Derwent  River, 
which  runs  into  Storm  Bay.  The  surroundings  are 
beautiful,  and  the  soil  evidently  extremely  fertile;  but 
woods  and  fields  were  almost  burnt  up  on  our  arrival ;  a 
prolonged  drought  had  prevailed,  and  made  an  end  of  all 
green  things.  To  our  eyes  it  was,  however,  an  unmixed 
delight  to  look  upon  meadows  and  woods,  even  if  their 
colours  were  not  absolutely  fresh.  We  were  not  very 
difficult  to  please  on  that  score. 

The  harbour  of  Hobart  is  an  almost  ideal  one,  large 
and  remarkably  well  protected.  As  we  approached  the 
town,  the  usual  procession  of  harbour-master,  doctor, 
and  Custom-house  officers  came  aboard.  The  doctor 
soon  saw  that  there  was  no  work  for  his  department,  and 
the  Custom-house  officers  were  easily  convinced  that  we 
had  no  contraband  goods.  The  anchor  was  dropped, 
and  we  were  free  to  land.  I  took  my  cablegrams,  and 
accompanied  the  harbour-master  ashore. 


CHAPTER   XV 

THE  EASTERN    SI.EDGE   JOURNEY 
By   Lieutenant    K.   Prestrud 

On  October  20,  1911,  the  southern  party  started  on 
their  long  journey.  The  departure  took  place  without 
much  ceremony,  and  with  the  smallest  possible  expendi- 
ture of  words.  A  hearty  grasp  of  the  hand  serves  the 
purpose  quite  as  well  on  such  occasions.  I  accompanied 
them  to  the  place  we  called  the  starting-point,  on  the 
south  side  of  the  bay.  After  a  final  "  Good  luck  "  to 
our  Chief  and  comrades — as  sincere  a  wish  as  I  have  ever 
bestowed  upon  anyone — I  cinematographed  the  caravan, 
and  very  soon  after  it  was  out  of  sight.  Those  fellows 
went  southward  at  a  great  pace,  Helmer  Hanssen's 
quick-footed  team  leading  as  usual. 

There  I  stood,  utterly  alone,  and  I  cannot  deny  that  I 
was  a  prey  to  somewhat  mixed  feelings.  When  should 
we  see  those  five  again,  who  had  just  disappeared  from 
view  on  the  boundless  plain,  and  in  what  conditions? 
What  sort  of  a  report  would  they  bring  of  the  result? 
There  was  plenty  of  room  for  guesses  here,  and  abundant 

204 


LIEUTENANT    PRESTRUD. 


To  face  page  204,  Vol.  II. 


LEFT  IN  CHARGE  205 

opportunity  for  weighing  every  possibility,  good  and 
bad ;  but  there  was  very  little  to  be  gained  by  indulging 
in  speculations  of  that  sort.  The  immediate  facts  first 
claimed  attention.  One  fact,  amongst  others,  was 
that  Framheim  was  a  good  three  miles  away;  another 
was  that  the  cinematograph  apparatus  weighed  a  good 
many  pounds;  and  a  third  that  Lindstrom  would  be 
mightily  put  out  if  I  arrived  too  late  for  dinner.  Our 
chef  insisted  on  a  high  standard  of  punctuality  in  the 
matter  of  meal-times.  Homeward,  then,  at  the  best 
speed  possible.  The  speed,  however,  was  not  particularly 
good,  and  I  began  to  prepare  for  the  consequences  of  a 
long  delay.  On  the  other  side  of  the  bay  I  could  just 
make  out  a  little  black  speck,  that  seemed  to  be  in 
motion  towards  me.  I  thought  at  first  it  was  a  seal, 
but,  fortunately,  it  turned  out  to  be  Jorgen  Stubberud 
with  six  dogs  and  a  sledge.  This  was  quite  encouraging: 
in  the  first  place,  I  should  get  rid  of  my  unmanageable 
burden,  and  in  the  second  I  might  expect  to  get  on 
faster.  Stubberud's  team  consisted,  however,  of  four 
intractable  puppies,  besides  Puss  and  another  courser  of 
similar  breed ;  the  result  was  that  our  pace  was  a  modest 
one  and  our  course  anything  but  straight,  so  that  we 
arrived  at  Framheim  two  hours  after  the  time  appointed 
for  dinner.  Those  who  know  anything  of  Master 
Lindstrom  and  his  disposition  will  easily  be  able  from 
this  explanation  to  form  an  idea  of  his  state  of  mind  at 
the  moment  when  we  entered  the  door.     Yes,  he  was 


206   THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

undoubtedly  angrj%  but  we  were  at  least  equally  hungry ; 
and  if  anything  can  soften  the  heart  of  a  Norwegian 
caterer,  it  is  a  ravenous  appetite  in  those  he  has  to  feed, 
provided,  of  course,  that  he  have  enough  to  offer  them, 
and  Lindstrom's  supplies  were  practically  unlimited. 

I  remember  that  dinner  well :  at  the  same  table  where 
eight  of  us  had  sat  for  so  many  months,  there  were  now 
only  three  left — Johansen,  Stubberud,  and  I.  We  had 
more  room,  it  is  true,  but  that  gain  was  a  poor  satisfac- 
tion. We  missed  those  who  had  gone  very  badly,  and 
our  thoughts  were  always  following  them.  The  first 
thing  we  discussed  on  this  occasion  was  how  many  miles 
they  might  be  expected  to  do  that  day:  nor  was  this 
the  last  dispute  we  had  on  the  same  theme.  During 
the  weeks  and  months  that  followed,  it  was  constantly  to 
the  fore,  and  gave  plenty  of  material  for  conversation 
when  we  had  exhausted  our  own  concerns.  As  regards 
these  latter,  my  instructions  were : 

1.  To  go  to  King  Edward  VII.  Land,  and  there  carry 
out  what  exploration  time  and  circumstances  might 
permit. 

2.  To  survey  and  map  the  Bay  of  Whales  and  its 
immediate  surroundings. 

3.  As  far  as  possible  to  keep  the  station  at  Framheim 
in  order,  in  case  we  might  have  to  spend  another  winter 
there. 

As  regards  time,  my  orders  were  to  be  back  at 
Framheim  before  we  could  reasonably  expect  the  arrival 


THE  INSTRUCTIONS  207 

of  the  Fram.  This  was,  and  would  necessarily  remain, 
somewhat  uncertain.  No  doubt  we  all  had  a  great  idea 
of  the  Fram's  capacity  for  keeping  time,  and  Lieutenant 
Nilsen  had  announced  his  intention  of  being  back  by 
Christmas  or  the  New  Year;  but  nevertheless  a  year  is 
a  long  time,  and  there  are  many  miles  in  a  trip  round 
the  world.  If  we  assumed  that  no  mishap  had  occurred 
to  the  Fram,  and  that  she  had  left  Buenos  Aires  at  the 
time  fixed  in  the  plan — October  1,  1911 — she  would  in 
all  probability  be  able  to  arrive  at  the  Bay  of  Whales 
about  the  middle  of  January,  1912.  On  the  basis  of 
this  calculation  we  decided,  if  possible,  to  get  the  sledge 
journey  to  King  Edward  Land  done  before  Christmas, 
while  the  surveying  work  around  the  bay  would  have  to 
be  postponed  to  the  first  half  of  January,  1912.  I 
thought,  however,  seeing  the  advantages  of  working 
while  the  bay  was  still  frozen  over,  that  it  would  pay  to 
devote  a  few  days — immediately  following  the  departure 
of  the  southern  party — to  the  preparatory  work  of 
measuring.  But  this  did  not  pay  at  all.  We  had 
reckoned  without  the  weather,  and  in  consequence  were 
well  taken  in.  When  one  thinks  over  it  afterwards, 
it  seems  reasonable  enough  that  the  final  victory  of  mild 
weather  over  the  remains  of  the  Antarctic  winter  cannot 
be  accomplished  without  serious  disturbances  of  the 
atmospheric  conditions.  The  expulsion  of  one  evil  has 
to  be  effected  by  the  help  of  another ;  and  the  weather 
was  bad  with  a  vengeance.    During  the  two  weeks  that 


208    THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

followed  October  20  there  were  only  three  or  four  days 
that  offered  any  chance  of  working  with  the  theodolite 
and  plane-table.  We  managed  to  get  a  base-line 
measured,  1,000  metres  long,  and  to  lay  out  the  greater 
part  of  the  east  side  of  the  bay,  as  well  as  the  most 
prominent  points  round  the  camp ;  but  one  had  positively 
to  snatch  one's  opportunities  by  stealth,  and  every  excur- 
sion ended  regularly  in  bringing  the  instrimients  home 
well  covered  with  snow. 

If  the  bad  weather  thus  put  hindrances  in  the  way  of 
the  work  we  were  anxious  to  do,  it  made  up  for  it 
by  providing  us  with  a  lot  of  extra  work  which  we  could 
very  well  have  done  without.  There  was  incessant 
shovelling  of  snow  to  keep  any  sort  of  passage  open 
to  the  four  dog-tents  that  were  left  standing,  as  well  as 
to  our  own  underground  dwelling,  over  which  the  snow 
covering  had  been  growing  constantly  higher.  The 
fairly  high  wall  that  we  had  originally  built  on  the  east 
side  of  the  entrance  door  was  now  entirely  buried  in  the 
snow-drift.  It  had  given  us  good  protection;  now  the 
drift  had  unimpeded  access,  and  the  opening,  like  the 
descent  into  a  cellar,  that  led  down  to  the  door,  was 
filled  up  in  the  course  of  a  few  hours  when  the  wind  was 
in  the  right  quarter.  Lindstrom  shook  his  head  when 
we  sometimes  asked  him  how  he  would  get  on  bv 
himself  if  the  weather  continued  in  this  way.  "  So  long 
as  there's  nothing  but  snow  in  the  way,  I'll  manage  to 
get  out,"  said  he.    One  day  he  came  and  told  us  that  he 


MOVING  COAL  209 

could  no  longer  get  at  the  coal,  and  on  further  investiga- 
tion it  looked  rather  difficult.  The  roof  of  the  place 
where  the  coal  was  stored  had  yielded  to  the  pressure  of 
the  mass  of  snow,  and  the  whole  edifice  had  collapsed. 
There  was  nothing  to  be  done  but  to  set  to  work  at 
once,  and  after  a  great  deal  of  hard  labour  we  got  the 
remainder  of  the  precious  fuel  moved  into  the  long  snow 
tunnel  that  led  from  the  house  to  the  coal-store.  With 
that  our  "  black  diamonds  "  were  in  safety  for  the  time 
being.  This  job  made  us  about  as  black  as  the 
*'  diamonds."  When  we  came  in  the  cook,  as  it  happened, 
had  just  been  doing  a  big  wash  on  his  own  account — a 
comparatively  rare  event — and  there  was  surprise  on 
both  sides.  The  cook  was  as  much  taken  aback  at 
seeing  us  so  black  as  we  were  at  seeing  him  so  clean. 

All  the  snow-shovelling  that  resulted  from  the  con- 
tinued bad  weather,  in  conjunction  with  the  necessary 
preparations  for  the  sledge  journey,  gave  us  plenty  of 
occupation,  but  I  will  venture  to  say  that  none  of  us 
would  care  to  go  through  those  days  again.  We  were 
delayed  in  our  real  work,  and  delay,  which  is  impleasant 
enough  in  any  circumstances,  was  all  the  more  un- 
welcome down  here,  where  time  is  so  precious.  As 
we  only  had  two  sledges  on  which  to  transport  supplies 
for  three  men  and  sixteen  dogs,  besides  all  our  outfit, 
and  as  on  our  trip  we  should  have  no  depots  to  fall 
back  on,  the  duration  of  the  journey  could  not  be 
extended  much  beyond  six  weeks.     In  order  to  be  back 


210    THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

again  by  Christmas,  we  had,  therefore,  to  leave  before 
the  middle  of  November.  It  would  do  no  harm,  how- 
ever, to  be  off  before  this,  and  as  soon  as  November 
arrived  we  took  the  first  opportunity  of  disappearing. 

On  account  of  getting  on  the  right  course,  we  pre- 
ferred that  the  start  should  take  place  in  clear  weather. 
The  fact  was  that  we  were  obliged  to  go  round  by  the 
depot  in  80°  S.  As  King  Edward  Land  lies  to  the 
east,  or  rather  north-east,  of  Framheim,  this  was  a  con- 
siderable detour;  it  had  to  be  made,  because  in  Sep- 
tember we  had  left  at  this  depot  all  the  packed  sledging 
provisions,  a  good  deal  of  our  personal  equipment,  and, 
finally,  some  of  the  necessary  instruments. 

On  the  way  to  the  depot,  about  thirty  geographical 
miles  south  of  Framheim,  we  had  the  nasty  crevassed 
surface  that  had  been  met  with  for  the  first  time  on  the 
third  depot  journey  in  the  autumn  of  1911 — in  the 
month  of  April.  At  that  time  we  came  upon  it  alto- 
gether unawares,  and  it  was  somewhat  remarkable  that 
we  escaped  from  it  with  the  loss  of  two  dogs.  This 
broken  surface  lay  in  a  depression  about  a  mile  to  the 
west  of  the  route  originally  marked  out;  but,  however 
it  may  have  been,  it  seems  ever  since  that  time  to  have 
exercised  an  irresistible  attraction.  On  our  first  attempt 
to  go  south,  in  September,  1911,  we  came  right  into 
the  middle  of  it,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  it  was  then 
perfectly  clear.  I  afterwards  heard  that  in  spite  of  all 
their  efforts,  the  southern    party,    on   their   last    trip. 


THE  ANTARCTIC  SEAL  211 

landed  in  this  dangerous  region,  and  that  one  man  had 
a  very  narrow  escape  of  falling  in  with  sledge  and  dogs. 
I  had  no  wish  to  expose  myself  to  the  risk  of  such 
accidents  —  at  any  rate,  while  we  were  on  familiar 
ground.  That  would  have  been  a  bad  beginning  to  my 
first  independent  piece  of  work  as  a  Polar  explorer. 
A  day  or  two  of  fine  weather  to  begin  with  would 
enable  us  to  follow  the  line  originally  marked  out,  and 
thus  keep  safe  ground  under  our  feet  until  the  ugly 
place  was  passed. 

In  the  opening  days  of  November  the  weather  con- 
ditions began  to  improve  somewhat;  in  any  case,  there 
was  not  the  continual  driving  snow.  Lindstrom  asked 
us  before  we  left  to  bring  up  a  sufficient  quantity  of 
seals,  to  save  him  that  work  as  long  as  possible.  The 
supply  we  had  had  during  the  winter  was  almost  ex- 
hausted; there  was  only  a  certain  amount  of  blubber 
left.  We  thought  it  only  fair  to  accede  to  his  wish, 
as  it  is  an  awkward  business  to  transport  those  heavy 
beasts  alone,  especially  when  one  has  only  a  pack  of 
unbroken  puppies  to  drive.  We  afterwards  heard  that 
Lindstrom  had  some  amusing  experiences  with  them 
during  the  time  he  was  left  alone. 

Leaving  the  transport  out  of  the  question,  this  seal- 
hunting  is  a  very  tame  sport.  An  old  Arctic  hand  or 
an  Eskimo  would  certainly  be  astounded  to  see  the 
placid  calm  with  which  the  Antarctic  seal  allows  itself 
to  be  shot  and  cut  up.     To  them  Antarctica  would 


212     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

appear  as  a  fairyland  made  real,  a  land  flowing  with 
milk  and  honey,  where  seals  are  to  he  found  in  quanti- 
ties, and  the  difficulty  of  getting  at  them  is  reduced  to 
nil.  The  fact  is  that  these  animals  have  once  for  all 
acquired  the  conviction  that  they  are  beyond  the  reach 
of  any  danger  so  long  as  they  keep  on  land  or  on  the 
ice.  There  they  have  never  been  attacked,  and  they 
are  quite  incapable  of  grasping  the  possibihty  of  attack. 
Their  natural  enemies  are  in  the  water,  and  these 
enemies  are  not  to  be  trifled  with;  that  can  clearly  be 
seen  from  the  gaping  wounds  that  are  often  found  on 
the  seals'  bodies.  To  avoid  the  attacks  of  these 
enemies  the  seals  have  only  to  get  on  to  the  ice,  where 
for  generations  they  have  been  accustomed  to  bask  in 
the  sun  undisturbed,  without  other  neighbours  than 
the,  to  them,  perfectly  harmless  penguins  and  skua 
gulls. 

The  sudden  appearance  of  a  man  on  the  scene  will 
therefore  at  first  have  very  little  effect  on  an  Antarctic 
seal.  One  can  go  right  up  to  it  without  its  doing  any- 
thing but  staring  with  eyes  that  reflect  a  perfectly  hope- 
less failure  to  comprehend  the  seriousness  of  the  situation. 
It  is  only  when  one  touches  them  with  a  ski-pole  or 
something  of  the  sort  that  they  begin  to  fear  danger. 
If  the  stirring-up  is  continued  in  a  rather  more  pointed 
fashion,  the  seal  soon  shows  the  most  manifest  signs  of 
terror.  It  groans,  roars,  and  at  the  same  time  makes 
an  attempt  to  get  away  from  its  unwelcome  visitor; 


H 
H 

a 

O 

H 

<; 

H 
M 

a 

25 


o 

o 

z 

<1 


^ 

»< 


^ 


BABY  SEALS  APPEAR  213 

but  it  seldom  removes  itself  many  yards  at  a  time,  for 
the  motions  of  the  seal  are  just  as  clumsy  and  slow  on 
land  as  they  are  active  and  swift  in  the  water.  When 
it  has  crawled  with  great  pains  to  a  little  distance,  there 
is  no  sign  that  the  interruption  has  made  any  lasting 
impression  on  it.  It  looks  more  as  if  it  took  it  all  as  an 
unpleasant  dream  or  nightmare,  which  it  would  be  best 
to  sleep  off  as  soon  as  possible.  If  one  shoots  a  single 
seal,  this  may  happen  without  those  lying  round  so 
much  as  raising  their  heads.  Indeed,  we  could  open 
and  cut  up  a  seal  right  before  the  noses  of  its  com- 
panions without  this  making  the  slightest  impression  on 
them. 

About  the  beginning  of  November  the  seals  began  to 
have  their  young.  So  far  as  we  could  make  out,  the 
females  kept  out  of  the  water  for  several  days  without 
taking  any  food,  until  the  young  one  was  big  enough  to 
be  able  to  go  to  sea ;  otherwise,  it  did  not  seem  that  the 
mothers  cared  very  much  for  their  little  ones.  Some,  it 
is  true,  made  a  sort  of  attempt  to  protect  their  offspring 
if  they  were  disturbed,  but  the  majority  simply  left 
their  young  ones  in  the  lurch. 

As  far  as  we  were  concerned,  we  left  the  females  and 
their  young  as  much  as  possible  in  peace.  We  killed 
two  or  three  new-born  seals  to  get  the  skins  for  our 
collection.  It  was  another  matter  with  the  dogs. 
With  them  seal-hunting  was  far  too  favourite  a  sport 
for  the  opportunity  to  be  neglected.     Against  a  full- 


214     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

grown  seal,  however,  they  could  do  nothing;  its  body 
offered  no  particularly  vulnerable  spots,  and  the  thick, 
tight-fitting  skin  was  too  much  even  for  dogs'  teeth. 
The  utmost  the  rascals  could  accomplish  w^as  to  annoy 
and  torment  the  object  of  their  attack.  It  was  quite 
another  matter  when  the  young  ones  began  to  arrive. 
Among  this  small  game  the  enterprising  hunters  could 
easily  satisfy  their  inborn  craving  for  murder,  for  the 
scoundrels  only  killed  for  the  sake  of  killing ;  they  were 
not  at  all  hungry,  as  they  had  as  much  food  as  they 
liked.  Of  course,  we  did  all  we  could  to  put  a  stop 
to  this  state  of  things,  and  so  long  as  there  were  several 
of  us  at  the  hut,  we  saw  that  the  whole  pack  was  tied 
up;  but  when  Lindstrom  was  left  by  himself,  he  could 
not  manage  to  hold  them  fast.  His  tents  were  alto- 
gether snowed  under  in  the  weather  that  prevailed  on 
the  seaboard  in  December.  There  were  not  many  dogs 
left  in  his  charge,  but  I  am  afraid  those  few  wrought 
great  havoc  among  the  young  seals  out  on  the  ice  of 
the  bay.  The  poor  mothers  could  hardly  have  done 
anything  against  a  lot  of  dogs,  even  if  they  had  been 
more  courageous.  Their  enemies  were  too  active.  For 
them  it  was  the  work  of  a  moment  to  snatch  the  young 
one  from  the  side  of  its  mother,  and  then  they  were  able 
to  take  the  poor  thing's  life  undisturbed. 

Unfortunately,  there  were  no  sea  -  leopards  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Framheim.  These,  which  are  far 
quicker  in   their  movements   than   the  Weddell   seal, 


2; 
o 


a 

I— ( 

»> 

a 

a 

cq 
P 

03 


THE  START  215 

and  are,  moreover,  furnished  with  a  formidable  set  of 
teeth,  would  certainly  have  made  the  four-footed  seal- 
hunters  more  careful  in  their  behaviour. 

After  we  had  brought  up  to  the  house  enough  seals' 
carcasses  to  keep  the  ten  or  twelve  dogs  that  would 
be  left  supplied  for  a  good  while,  and  had  cut  up  a 
sufficient  quantity  for  our  own  use  on  the  way  to  80°  S., 
we  took  the  first  opportunity  of  getting  away.  Before 
I  pass  on  to  give  an  account  of  our  trip,  I  wish  to  say 
a  few  words  about  my  companions — Johansen  and 
Stubberud.  It  goes  without  saying  that  it  gave  me, 
as  a  beginner,  a  great  feeling  of  security  to  have  with 
me  such  a  man  as  Johansen,  who  possessed  many  years' 
experience  of  all  that  pertains  to  sledging  expeditions; 
and  as  regards  Stubberud,  I  could  not  have  wished  for 
a  better  travelling  companion  than  him  either — a  first- 
rate  fellow,  steady  and  efficient  in  word  and  deed.  As 
it  turned  out,  we  were  not  to  encounter  very  many 
difficulties,  but  one  never  escapes  scot-free  on  a  sledge 
journey  in  these  regions.  I  owe  my  comrades  thanks 
for  the  way  in  which  they  both  did  their  best  to  smooth 
our  path. 

Johansen  and  Stubberud  drove  their  dog-teams;  I 
myself  acted  as  "  forerunner."  The  drivers  had  seven 
dogs  apiece.  We  took  so  many,  because  we  were  not 
quite  sure  of  what  the  animals  we  had  were  fit  for.  As 
was  right  and  proper,  the  southern  party  had  picked 
out  the  best.    Among  those  at  our  disposal  there  were 


216     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

several  that  had  previously  shown  signs  of  being  rather 
quickly  tired.  True,  this  happened  under  very  severe 
conditions.  As  it  turned  out,  our  dogs  exceeded  all 
our  expectations  in  the  easier  conditions  of  work  that 
prevailed  during  the  summer.  On  the  first  part  of  the 
way — as  far  as  the  depot  in  80°  S. — the  loads  were  quite 
modest.  Besides  the  tent,  the  sleeping-bags,  our  personal 
outfit,  and  instruments,  we  only  had  provisions  for  eight 
days — seals'  flesh  for  the  dogs,  and  tinned  food  for  our- 
selves. Our  real  supplies  were  to  be  taken  from  the 
depot,  where  tliere  was  enough  of  everything. 

On  November  8  we  left  Framheim,  where  in  future 
Lindstrom  was  to  reside  as  monarch  of  all  he  surveyed. 
The  weather  was  as  fine  as  could  be  wished.  I  was  out 
with  the  cinematograph  apparatus,  in  order  if  possible 
to  immortalize  the  start.  To  complete  the  series  of 
pictures,  Lindstrom  was  to  take  the  forerunner,  who 
was  now,  be  it  said,  a  good  way  behind  those  he  was 
supposed  to  be  leading.  With  all  possible  emphasis 
I  enjoined  Lindstrom  only  to  give  the  crank  five  or  six 
turns,  and  then  started  off  to  catch  up  the  drivers. 
When  I  had  nearly  reached  the  provision  store  I  pulled 
up,  struck  by  a  sudden  apprehension.  Yes,  I  was  right : 
on  looking  back  I  discovered  that  incorrigible  person 
still  hard  at  work  with  the  crank,  as  though  he  were 
going  to  be  paid  a  pound  for  every  yard  of  film  sliowing 
the  back  view  of  tlie  forerunner.  By  making  threaten- 
ing gestures  with  a  ski-pole  I  stopped  the  too  persistent 


ON  THE  BARRIER  SURFACE         217 

cinematograph,  and  then  went  on  to  join  Stubberud, 
who  was  only  a  few  yards  ahead.  Johansen  had  disap- 
peared hke  a  meteor.  The  last  I  saw  of  him  was  the 
soles  of  his  boots,  as  he  quite  unexpectedly  made  an 
elegant  backward  somersault  off  the  sledge  when  it  was 
passing  over  a  little  unevenness  by  the  provision  store. 
The  dogs,  of  course,  made  off  at  full  speed,  and  Johansen 
after  them  like  the  wind.  We  all  met  again  safe  and 
sound  at  the  ascent  to  the  Barrier.  Here  a  proper 
order  of  march  was  formed,  and  we  proceeded 
southward. 

The  Barrier  greeted  us  with  a  fresh  south  wind,  that 
now  and  then  made  an  attempt  to  freeze  the  tip  of 
one's  nose;  it  did  not  succeed  in  this,  but  it  delayed 
us  a  little.  It  does  not  take  a  great  deal  of  wind  on 
this  level  plain  to  diminish  the  rate  of  one's  progress. 
But  the  sun  shone  too  gaily  that  day  to  allow  a  trifle  of 
wind  to  interfere  very  much  with  our  enjoyment  of  life. 
The  surface  was  so  firm  that  there  was  hardly  a  sign  of 
drift-snow.  As  it  was  perfectly  clear,  the  mark-flags 
could  be  followed  the  whole  time,  thus  assuring  us  that, 
at  any  rate,  the  first  day's  march  would  be  accomplished 
without  any  deviation  from  the  right  track. 

At  five  o'clock  we  camped,  and  when  we  had  fed  the 
dogs  and  come  into  the  tent  we  could  feel  how  much 
easier  and  pleasanter  everything  was  at  this  season  than 
on  the  former  journeys  in  autumn  and  spring.  We 
could  move  freely    in    a    convenient    costume;    if    we 

VOL.  II.  40 


218    THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

wished,  there  was  nothing  to  prevent  our  performing 
all  the  work  of  the  camp  with  bare  hands  and  still  pre- 
serving our  finger-tips  unharmed.  As  I  had  no  dog- 
team  to  look  after,  I  midertook  the  duty  of  attending 
to  our  own  needs ;  that  is  to  say,  I  acted  as  cook.  This 
occupation  also  was  considerably  easier  now  than  it  had 
been  when  the  temperature  was  below  -  60°  F.  At 
that  time  it  took  half  an  hour  to  turn  the  snow  in  the 
cooker  into  water;  now  it  was  done  in  ten  minutes, 
and  the  cook  ran  no  risk  whatever  of  getting  his  fingers 
frozen  in  the  process. 

Ever  since  we  landed  on  the  Barrier  in  January,  1911, 
we  had  been  expecting  to  hear  a  violent  cannonade  as 
the  result  of  the  movement  of  the  mass  of  ice.  We 
had  now  lived  a  whole  winter  at  Framlieim  without 
having  observed,  as  far  as  I  know,  the  slightest  sign 
of  a  sound.  This  was  one  of  many  indications  that 
the  ice  round  our  winter-quarters  was  not  in  motion 
at  all. 

No  one,  I  believe,  had  noticed  anything  of  the  ex- 
pected noise  on  the  sledge  journeys  either,  but  at  the 
place  where  we  camped  on  the  night  of  November  8  we 
did  hear  it.  There  was  a  report  about  once  in  two 
minutes,  not  exactly  loud,  but  still,  there  it  was.  It 
sounded  just  as  if  there  was  a  whole  battery  of  small 
guns  in  action  down  in  the  depths  below  us.  A  few 
hundred  j^ards  to  the  west  of  the  camp  there  were  a 
number  of  small  hummocks,  which  might  indicate  the 


NOISES  IN  THE  ICE  219 

presence  of  crevasses,  but  otherwise  the  surface  looked 
safe  enough.  The  small  guns  kept  up  a  lively  crackle 
all  through  the  night,  and  combined  with  a  good  deal  of 
uproar  among  the  dogs  to  shorten  our  sleep.  But  the 
first  night  of  a  sledge  journey  is  almost  always  a  bad  one. 
Stubberud  declared  that  he  could  not  close  his  eyes  on 
account  of  "  that  filthy  row."  He  probably  expected  the 
ice  to  open  and  swallow  him  up  every  time  he  heard  it. 
The  surface,  however,  held  securely,  and  we  turned  out  to 
the  finest  day  one  could  wish  to  see.  It  did  not  require 
any  very  great  strength  of  mind  to  get  out  of  one's 
sleeping-bag  now.  The  stockings  that  had  been  hung 
up  in  the  evening  could  be  put  on  again  as  dry  as  a 
bone;  the  sun  had  seen  to  that.  Our  ski  boots  were  as 
soft  as  ever;  there  was  not  a  sign  of  frost  on  them.  It 
is  quite  curious  to  see  the  behaviour  of  the  dogs  when 
the  first  head  appears  through  the  tent-door  in  the 
morning.  They  greet  their  lord  and  master  with  the 
most  unmistakable  signs  of  joy,  although,  of  course, 
they  must  know  that  his  arrival  will  be  followed  by 
many  hours  of  toil,  with,  perhaps,  a  few  doses  of  the 
whip  thrown  in;  but  from  the  moment  he  begins  to 
handle  the  sledge,  the  dogs  look  as  if  they  had  no  desire 
in  the  world  but  to  get  into  the  harness  as  soon  as 
possible  and  start  away.  On  days  like  this  their  troubles 
would  be  few;  with  the  light  load  and  good  going  we 
had  no  difficulty  in  covering  nineteen  geographical 
miles   in   eight  hours.     Johansen's   team   was   on   my 


220     THE  EASTERX  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

heels  the  whole  time,  and  Stubberud's  animals  followed 
faithfully  behind.  From  time  to  time  we  saw  sledge- 
tracks  quite  plainly;  we  also  kept  the  mark-flags  in 
sight  all  day.  In  the  temperatures  we  now  had  to  deal 
with  our  costume  was  comparatively  light — certainly 
much  lighter  than  most  people  imagined;  for  there  is 
a  kind  of  summer  even  in  Antarctica,  although  the 
daily  readings  of  the  thermometer  at  this  season  would 
perhaps  rather  remind  our  friends  at  home  of  what  they 
are  accustomed  to  regard  as  winter. 

In  imdertaking  a  sledge  journey  down  there  in 
autumn  or  spring,  the  most  extraordinary  precautions 
have  to  be  taken  to  protect  oneself  against  the  cold. 
Skin  clothing  is  then  the  only  thing  that  is  of  any  use ; 
but  at  this  time  of  year,  when  the  sun  is  above  the 
horizon  for  the  whole  twenty-four  hours,  one  can  go  for 
a  long  time  without  being  more  heavily  clad  than  a 
liunberman  working  in  the  woods.  During  the  march 
our  clothing  was  usually  the  following:  two  sets  of 
woollen  underclothes,  of  which  that  nearest  the  skin 
was  quite  thin.  Outside  the  shirt  we  wore  either  an 
ordinary  waistcoat  or  a  comparatively  light  knitted 
woollen  jersey.  Outside  all  came  our  excellent  Bur- 
berry clothes — trousers  and  jacket.  When  it  was  calm, 
with  full  sunshine,  the  Burberry  jacket  was  too  warm; 
we  could  then  go  all  day  in  our  shirt-sleeves.  To  be 
provided  for  emergencies,  we  all  had  our  thinnest 
reindeer-skin    clothes    with     us;    but,    so     far     as     I 


COSTUME  AND  SLEEPING-BAGS     221 

know,  these  were  never  used,  except  as  pillows  or 
mattresses. 

The  subject  of  sleeping-bags  has  no  doubt  been 
thoroughly  threshed  out  on  every  Polar  expedition.  I 
do  not  know  how  many  times  we  discussed  this  question, 
nor  can  I  remember  the  number  of  more  or  less  success- 
ful patents  that  were  the  fruit  of  these  discussions.  In 
any  case,  one  thing  is  certain,  that  the  adherents  of  one- 
man  bags  were  in  an  overwhelming  majority,  and  no 
doubt  rightly.  As  regards  two-man  bags,  it  cannot  be 
denied  that  they  enable  their  occupants  to  keep  warm 
longer;  but  it  is  always  difficult  to  find  room  for  two 
big  men  in  one  sack,  and  if  the  sack  is  to  be  used 
for  sleeping  in,  and  one  of  the  big  men  takes  to  snoring 
into  the  other's  ear,  the  situation  may  become  quite 
unendurable.  In  the  temperatures  we  had  on  the 
summer  journeys  there  was  no  difficulty  in  keeping 
warm  enough  with  the  one-man  bags,  and  they  were 
used  by  all  of  us. 

On  the  first  southern  journey,  in  September,  Johansen 
and  I  used  a  double  bag  between  us ;  in  the  intense  cold 
that  prevailed  at  that  time  we  managed  to  get  through 
the  night  without  freezing ;  but  if  the  weather  is  so  cold 
that  one  cannot  keep  warmth  in  one's  body  in  good, 
roomy  one-man  bags,  then  it  is  altogether  unfit  for 
sledging  journeys. 

November  10. — Immediately  after  the  start  this 
morning    we    tried    how    we  could  get  on  without    a 


222    THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

forerunner.  As  long  as  we  were  in  the  line  of  flags  this 
answered  very  well ;  the  dogs  galloped  from  one  flag  to 
another,  while  I  was  able  to  adopt  the  easy  method 
of  hanging  on  to  Stubberud's  sledge.  About  midday 
we  were  abreast  of  the  depression  already  mentioned, 
where,  on  the  third  depot  journey  last  autumn,  we  ran 
into  a  regular  net  of  crevasses.  This  time  we  were  aware 
of  the  danger,  and  kept  to  the  left;  but  at  the  last 
moment  the  leading  team  ran  out  to  the  wrong  side,  and 
we  cut  cross  the  eastern  part  of  the  dangerous  zone. 
Fortunately  it  was  taken  at  full  gallop.  It  is  quite 
possible  that  I  inwardly  wished  we  were  all  a  few  pounds 
lighter,  as  our  little  caravan  raced  across  those  thin  snow 
bridges,  through  which  could  be  seen  the  blue  colour  of 
the  ugly  gulfs  below.  But  after  the  lapse  of  a  few  long 
minutes  we  could  congratulate  ourselves  on  getting  over 
with  our  full  numbers. 

Not  for  anything  would  I  have  gone  that  mile  without 
ski  on  my  feet ;  it  would  practically  have  meant  falling 
in  and  going  out.  It  is,  perhaps,  saying  a  good  deal 
to  claim  that  with  ski  on,  one  is  absolutely  secured 
against  the  danger  these  crevasses  present ;  if  misfortunes 
are  abroad,  anything  may  happen.  But  it  would  require 
a  very  considerable  amount  of  bad  luck  for  man  and  ski 
to  fall  through. 

November  11. — In  weather  like  this,  going  on  the 
march  is  like  going  to  a  dance:  tent,  sleeping-bags,  and 
clothes  keep  soft  and  dry  as  a  bone.     The  thermometer 


CAMP    ON    THE    BARRIER  ;     EASTERN    EXPEDITION. 


^ 

f 

♦ 

A    HROKEN-OFF    lAl'K    ON    THE    liARP.IEK 


To  face  page  223,  Voi.  II. 


EASY  TEMPERATURES  223 

is  about  -  4°  F.  A  fellow-man  suddenly  put  down  in 
our  midst  from  civilized  surroundings  would  possibly 
shake  his  head  at  so  many  degrees  of  frost,  but  it  must 
be  remembered  that  we  have  long  ago  abandoned  the 
ordinary  ideas  of  civilized  people  as  to  what  is  endurable 
in  the  way  of  temperature.  We  are  enthusiastic  about 
the  spring-like  weather,  especially  when  we  remember 
what  it  was  like  down  here  two  months  ago,  when  the 
thermometer  showed  -  76°  F.,  and  the  rime  hung  an  inch 
thick  inside  the  tent,  ready  to  drop  on  everything  and 
everybody  at  the  slightest  movement.  Now  there  is  no 
rime  to  be  seen ;  the  sun  clears  it  away.  For  now  there 
is  a  sun;  not  the  feeble  imitation  of  one  that  stuck  its 
red  face  above  the  northern  horizon  in  August,  but  our 
good  old  acquaintance  of  lower  latitudes,  with  his  wealth 
of  light  and  warmth. 

After  two  hours'  march  we  came  in  sight,  at  ten  o'clock 
in  the  morning,  of  the  two  snow-huts  that  were  built 
on  the  last  trip.  We  made  straight  for  them,  thinking 
we  might  possibly  find  some  trace  of  the  southern  party. 
So  we  did,  though  in  a  very  different  way  from  what  we 
expected.  We  were,  perhaps,  about  a  mile  off  when  we 
all  three  suddenly  halted  and  stared  at  the  huts.  "  There 
are  men,"  said  Stubberud.  At  any  rate  there  was  some- 
thing black  that  moved,  and  after  confused  thoughts  of 
Japanese,  Englishmen,  and  the  like  had  flashed  through 
our  minds,  we  at  last  got  out  the  glasses.  It  w^as  not 
men,  but  a  dog.    Well,  the  presence  of  a  live  dog  here. 


224     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

seventy-five  miles  up  the  Barrier,  was  in  itself  a  remark- 
able thing.  It  must,  of  course,  be  one  of  the  southern 
party's  dogs,  but  how  the  runaway  had  kept  himself  alive 
all  that  time  was  for  the  present  a  mystery.  On  coming 
to  closer  quarters  we  soon  found  that  it  was  one  of 
Hassel's  dogs,  Peary  by  name.  He  was  a  little  shy 
to  begin  with,  but  when  he  heard  his  name  he  quickly 
understood  that  we  were  friends  come  on  a  visit,  and  no 
longer  hesitated  to  approach  us.  He  was  fat  and  round, 
and  evidently  pleased  to  see  us  again.  The  hermit  had 
lived  on  the  lamentable  remains  of  poor  Sara,  whom  we 
had  been  obliged  to  kill  here  in  September.  Sara's  lean 
and  frozen  body  did  not  seem  particularly  adapted  for 
making  anyone  fat,  and  yet  our  newly-found  friend 
Peary  looked  as  if  he  had  been  feasting  for  weeks. 
Possibly  he  had  begun  by  devouring  Neptune,  another 
of  his  companions,  who  had  also  given  the  southern  party 
the  slip  on  the  way  to  the  depot  in  80°  S.  However  this 
may  be,  Peary's  rest  cure  came  to  an  abrupt  conclusion. 
Stubberud  took  him  and  put  liim  in  his  team. 

We  had  thought  of  reaching  the  depot  before  the 
close  of  the  day,  and  this  we  could  easily  have  done 
if  the  good  going  had  continued;  but  during  the  after- 
noon the  surface  became  so  loose  that  the  dogs  sank  in 
up  to  their  chests,  and  when — at  about  six  in  the  even- 
ing— the  sledge-meter  showed  twenty-one  geographical 
miles,  the  animals  were  so  done  up  that  it  was  no  use 
going  on. 


AT  THE  DEPOT  225 

At  eleven  o'clock  the  next  morning — Sunday,  Novem- 
ber 12 — we  reached  the  depot.  Captain  Amundsen  had 
promised  to  leave  a  brief  report  when  the  southern 
party  left  here,  and  the  first  thing  we  did  on  arrival 
was,  of  course,  to  search  for  the  document  in  the  place 
agreed  upon.  There  were  not  many  words  on  the  little 
slip  of  paper,  but  they  gave  us  the  welcome  intelligence : 
"  All  well  so  far." 

We  had  expected  that  the  southern  party's  dogs 
would  have  finished  the  greater  j)art,  if  not  the  whole,  of 
the  seal  meat  that  was  laid  down  here  in  April;  but 
fortunately  this  was  not  the  case.  There  was  a  great 
quantity  left,  so  that  we  could  give  our  own  dogs  a 
hearty  feed  with  easy  consciences.  They  had  it,  too,  and 
it  was  no  trifling  amount  that  they  got  through.  The 
four  days'  trot  from  Framheim  had  been  enough  to 
produce  an  unusual  appetite.  There  was  a  puppy  in 
Johansen's  team  that  was  exposed  for  the  first  time 
in  his  life  to  the  fatigues  of  a  sledge  journey.  This  was 
a  plucky  little  chap  that  went  by  the  name  of  Lillegut. 
The  sudden  change  from  short  commons  to  abundance 
was  too  much  for  his  small  stomach,  and  the  poor  puppy 
lay  shrieking  in  the  snow  most  of  the  afternoon. 

We  also  looked  after  ourselves  that  day,  and  had  a 
good  meal  of  fresh  seal  meat;  after  that  we  supplied 
ourselves  from  the  large  stores  that  lay  here  with  the 
necessary  provisions  for  a  sledge  journey  of  five  weeks: 
three  cases  of  dogs'  pemmican,  one  case  of  men's  pemmi- 


226     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

can,  containing  ninety  rations,  20  pounds  of  dried  milk, 
55  pounds  of  oatmeal  biscuits,  and  three  tins  of  malted 
milk,  besides  instruments,  Alpine  rope,  and  clothing. 
The  necessary  quantity  of  chocolate  had  been  brought 
with  us  from  Framheim,  as  there  was  none  of  this  to 
spare  out  in  the  field.  Our  stock  of  paraffin  was 
6i  gallons,  divided  between  two  tanks,  one  on  each 
sledge.  Our  cooking  outfit  was  exactly  the  same  as 
that  used  by  the  southern  party. 

The  instruments  we  carried  were  a  theodolite,  a 
hypsometer,  two  aneroids,  one  of  which  was  no  larger 
than  an  ordinary  watch,  two  thermometers,  one  chrono- 
meter watch,  one  ordinary  watch,  and  one  photographic 
camera  (Kodak  3X3  inches),  adapted  for  using  either 
plates  or  films.  We  had  three  spools  of  film,  and  one 
dozen  plates. 

Our  medical  outfit  was  exceedingly  simple.  It  con- 
sisted of  nothing  but  a  box  of  laxative  pills,  three  small 
rolls  of  gauze  bandage,  and  a  small  pair  of  scissors,  which 
also  did  duty  for  beard-cutting.  Both  pills  and  gauze 
were  untouched  when  we  returned;  it  may  therefore 
be  safely  said  that  our  state  of  health  during  the  journey 
was  excellent. 

While  the  drivers  were  packing  and  lashing  their 
loads,  which  now  weighed  nearly  600  pounds,  I  wrote  a 
report  to  the  Chief,  and  took  an  azimutli  observation 
to  determine  the  direction  of  our  course.  According 
to  our  instructions  we  should  reallv  have  taken  a  north- 


a. 


a 
a 

H 

O 

El 

fa 
o 


DUE  EAST  227 

easterly  course  from  here ;  but  as  our  dogs  seemed  to  be 
capable  of  more  and  better  work  than  we  had  expected, 
and  as  there  was  believed  to  be  a  j)ossibility  that  bare 
land  was  to  be  found  due  east  of  the  spot  where  we 
were,  it  was  decided  to  make  an  attempt  in  that 
direction. 

Our  old  enemy  the  fog  had  made  its  appearance  in 
the  course  of  the  night,  and  now  hung,  grey  and  dis- 
gusting, under  the  sky,  when  we  broke  camp  at  the 
depot  on  the  morning  of  November  13.  However,  it 
was  not  so  bad  as  to  prevent  our  following  the  flags 
that  marked  the  depot  on  the  east. 

My  duty  as  forerunner  was  immediately  found  to  be 
considerably  lighter  than  before.  With  the  greatly 
increased  weight  behind  them  the  dogs  had  all  they 
could  do  to  follow,  if  I  went  at  an  ordinary  walking 
pace.  At  11  a.m.  we  passed  the  easternmost  flag,  at 
flve  geographical  miles  from  the  depot,  and  then  we 
found  ourselves  on  untrodden  ground.  A  light  southerly 
breeze  appeared  very  opportunely  and  swept  away  the 
fog;  the  sun  again  shed  its  light  over  the  Barrier, 
which  lay  before  us,  shining  and  level,  as  we  had  been 
accustomed  to  see  it.  There  was, however, one  difference: 
with  every  mile  we  covered  there  was  the  possibility  of 
seeing  something  new.  The  going  was  excellent,  although 
the  surface  was  rather  looser  than  one  could  have  wished. 
The  ski  flew  over  it  finely,  of  course,  while  dogs'  feet  and 
sledge-runners  sank  in.    I  hope  I  shall  never  have  to  go 


228     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

here  without  ski;  that  would  be  a  terrible  punishment; 
but  with  ski  on  one's  feet  and  in  such  weather  it  was 
pure  enjoyment. 

Meanwhile  the  new  sights  we  expected  were  slow  in 
coming.  We  marched  for  four  days  due  east  without 
seeing  a  sign  of  change  in  the  ground;  there  was  the 
same  undulating  surface  that  we  knew  so  well  from 
previous  expeditions.  The  readings  of  the  hypsometer 
gave  practically  the  same  result  day  after  day;  the 
ascent  we  were  looking  for  failed  to  appear. 

Stubberud,  who  for  the  first  day  or  two  after  leaving 
the  depot  had  been  constantly  stretching  himself  on 
tiptoe  and  looking  out  for  mountain-tops,  finally  gave 
it  as  his  heartfelt  conviction  that  this  King  Edward 
Land  we  were  hunting  for  was  only  a  confounded 
"  Flyaway  Land,"  which  had  nothing  to  do  with  reality. 
We  others  were  not  yet  quite  prepared  to  share  this 
view;  for  my  own  part,  in  any  case,  I  was  loth  to  give 
up  the  theory  that  assumed  a  southward  continuation 
of  King  Edward  Land  along  the  158th  meridian;  this 
theory  had  acquired  a  certain  force  during  the  winter, 
and  was  mainly  supported  by  the  fact  that  on  the 
second  depot  journey  we  had  seen,  between  the  81st 
and  82nd  parallels,  some  big  pressure-ridges,  which 
suggested  the  presence  of  bare  land  in  a  south-easterly 
direction. 

On  November  16  we  found  ourselves  at  the  158th 
meridian,  but  on  every  side  the  eye  encountered  the 


WE  TURN  NORTHWARD  229 

level,  uninterrupted  snow  surface  and  nothing  else. 
Should  we  go  on?  It  was  tempting  enough,  as  the 
probability  was  that  sooner  or  later  we  should  come 
upon  something;  but  there  was  a  point  in  our  instruc- 
tions that  had  to  be  followed,  and  it  said:  Go  to  the 
point  where  land  is  marked  on  the  chart.  This  point 
was  now  about  120  geographical  miles  to  the  north  of 
us.  Therefore,  instead  of  going  on  to  the  east  in 
uncertainty,  we  decided  to  turn  to  the  left  and  go 
north.  The  position  of  the  spot  where  we  altered  our 
course  was  determined,  and  it  was  marked  by  a  snow 
beacon  7  feet  high,  on  the  top  of  which  was  placed 
a  tin  box  containing  a  brief  report. 

On  that  part  of  the  way  which  we  now  had  before 
us  there  was  little  prospect  of  meeting  with  surprises; 
nor  did  any  fall  to  our  lot.  In  day's  marches  that 
varied  from  seventeen  to  twenty  geographical  miles,  we 
went  forward  over  practically  level  ground.  The  nature 
of  the  surface  was  at  first  ideal ;  but  as  we  came  farther 
north  and  thus  nearer  to  the  sea,  our  progress  was 
impeded  by  a  great  number  of  big  snow-waves  (sastrugi) , 
which  had  probably  been  formed  during  the  long  period 
of  bad  weather  that  preceded  our  departure  from  Fram- 
heim.  We  did  not  escape  damage  on  this  bad  surface. 
Stubberud  broke  the  forward  part  of  the  spare  ski  he 
had  lashed  under  his  sledge,  and  Johansen's  sledge  also 
suffered  from  the  continual  bumping  against  the  hard 
sastrugi.     Luckily  he  had  been  foreseeing  enough  to 


230     THE  EASTERX  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

bring  a  little  hickory  bar,  which  came  in  very  handy 
as  a  splint  for  the  broken  part. 

As  we  were  now  following  the  direction  of  the 
meridian,  or  in  other  words,  as  our  course  was  now 
true  north,  the  daily  observations  of  latitude  gave  a 
direct  check  on  the  readings  of  the  sledge-meter.  As 
a  rule  they  agreed  to  the  nearest  minute.  Whilst  I 
was  taking  the  noon  altitude  my  companions  had  the 
choice  of  standing  bj^  the  side  of  their  sledges  and  eating 
their  lunch,  or  setting  the  tent  and  taking  shelter.  They 
generally  chose  the  latter  alternative,  making  up  for  it 
by  going  an  hour  longer  in  the  afternoon.  Besides 
the  astronomical  observations,  the  barometric  pressure, 
temperature,  force  and  direction  of  the  wind,  and  amount 
of  cloud  were  noted  three  times  daily;  every  evening 
a  hypsometer  reading  was  taken. 

If  I  were  to  undertake  the  description  of  a  long  series 
of  days  like  those  that  passed  while  we  were  travelling 
on  the  flat  Barrier,  I  am  afraid  the  narrative  w^ould  be 
strikingly  reminiscent  of  the  celebrated  song  of  a  hundred 
and  twenty  verses,  all  with  the  same  rhyme.  One  day 
was  very  much  like  another.  One  would  think  that 
this  monotony  would  make  the  time  long,  but  the 
direct  opposite  was  the  case.  I  have  never  known  time 
fly  so  rapidly  as  on  these  sledge  journeys,  and  seldom 
have  I  seen  men  more  happy  and  contented  with  their 
existence  than  we  three,  when  after  a  successful  day's 
march  we  could  set  about  taking  our  simple  meal,  with 


AT  THE  BARRIER  EDGE  231 

a  pipe  of  cut  plug  to  follow.  The  bill  of  fare  was  iden- 
tically the  same  every  day,  perhaps  a  fault  in  the  eyes 
of  many;  variety  of  diet  is  supposed  to  be  the  thing. 
Hang  variety,  say  I;  appetite  is  what  matters.  To  a 
man  who  is  really  hungry  it  is  a  very  subordinate 
matter  what  he  shall  eat;  the  main  thing  is  to  have 
something  to  satisfy  his  hunger. 

After  going  north  for  seven  days,  we  found  that 
according  to  observations  and  sledge-meter  we  ought 
to  be  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  sea.  This  was 
correct.    My  diary  for  November  23  reads : 

*'  To-day  we  were  to  see  something  besides  sky  and 
snow.  An  hour  after  breaking  camp  this  morning  two 
snowy  petrels  came  sailing  over  us;  a  little  while  later 
a  couple  of  skua  gulls.  We  welcomed  them  as  the  first 
living  creatures  we  had  seen  since  leaving  winter-quar- 
ters. The  constantly  increasing  *  water-sky '  to  the 
north  had  long  ago  warned  us  that  we  were  approach- 
ing the  sea ;  the  presence  of  the  birds  told  us  it  was  not 
far  off.  The  skua  gulls  settled  very  near  us,  and  the 
dogs,  no  doubt  taking  them  for  baby  seals,  were  of 
course  ready  to  break  the  line  of  march,  and  go  off 
hunting,  but  their  keenness  soon  passed  when  they 
discovered  that  the  game  had  wings. 

"  The  edge  of  the  Barrier  was  difficult  to  see,  and, 
profiting  by  previous  experience  of  how  easy  it  is  to  go 
down  when  the  light  is  bad,  we  felt  our  way  forward 
step  by  step.    At  four  o'clock  we  thought  we  could  see 


232     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

the  precipice.  A  halt  was  made  at  a  safe  distance,  and 
I  went  in  advance  to  look  over.  To  my  surprise  I  found 
that  there  was  open  water  right  in  to  the  wall  of  ice. 
We  had  expected  the  sea-ice  to  extend  a  good  way  out 
still,  seeing  it  was  so  early  in  summer;  but  there  lay 
the  sea,  almost  free  of  ice  as  far  as  the  horizon.  Black 
and  threatening  it  was  to  look  at,  but  still  a  beneficent 
contrast  to  the  everlasting  snow  surface  on  which  we 
had  now  tramped  for  300  geographical  miles. 

"  The  perpendicular  drop  of  100  feet  that  forms  the 
boundary  between  the  dead  barrier  and  the  sea,  with 
its  varied  swarm  of  life,  is  truly  an  abrupt  and  im- 
posing transition.  The  panorama  from  the  top  of  the 
ice-wall  is  always  grand,  and  it  can  be  beautiful  as  well. 
On  a  sunny  day,  or  still  more  on  a  moonlit  night,  it  has 
a  fairylike  beauty.  To-day  a  heavy,  black  sky  hung 
above  a  still  blacker  sea,  and  the  ice-wall,  which  shines 
in  the  light  with  a  dazzling  white  purity,  looked  more 
like  an  old  white-washed  wall  than  anything  else.  There 
was  not  a  breath  of  wind;  the  sound  of  the  surf  at 
the  bottom  of  the  precipice  now  and  then  reached  my 
ears — this  was  the  only  thing  that  broke  the  vast 
silence.  One's  own  dear  self  becomes  so  miserably 
small  in  these  mighty  surroundings;  it  was  a  sheer 
relief  to  get  back  to  the  company  of  my  comrades." 

As  things  now  were,  with  open  water  up  to  the 
Barrier  itself,  our  prospect  of  getting  seals  here  at  the 
edge  of  the  ice  seemed  a  poor  one.     Next  morning. 


o 

'A 

< 

a 
« 

a 

w 


< 

O 

a 

O 

z 

o 

H 


a 


THE  BAY  OF  SEALS  233 

however,  we  found,  a  few  miles  farther  east,  a  bay- 
about  four  miles  long,  and  almost  entirely  enclosed. 
It  was  still  frozen  over,  and  seals  were  lying  on  the  ice 
by  the  dozen.  Here  was  food  enough  to  give  both 
ourselves  and  the  dogs  an  extra  feed  and  to  replenish 
our  supplies.  We  camped  and  went  off  to  examine  the 
ground  more  closely.  There  were  plenty  of  crevasses, 
but  a  practicable  descent  was  found,  and  in  a  very  short 
time  three  full-grown  seals  and  a  fat  young  one  were 
despatched.  We  hauled  half  a  carcass  up  to  the  camp 
with  the  Alpine  rope.  As  we  were  hard  at  work  drag- 
ging our  spoil  up  the  steep  slope,  we  heard  Stubberud 
sing  out,  "Below,  there!" — and  away  he  went  like  a 
stone  in  a  well.  He  had  gone  through  the  snow-bridge  on 
which  we  were  standing,  but  a  lucky  projection  stopped 
our  friend  from  going  very  far  down,  besides  which 
he  had  taken  a  firm  round  turn  with  the  rope  round  his 
wrist.  It  was,  therefore,  a  comparatively  easy  matter  to 
get  him  up  on  the  surface  again.  This  little  intermezzo 
would  probably  have  been  avoided  if  we  had  not  been 
without  our  ski,  but  the  slope  was  so  steep  and  smooth 
that  we  could  not  use  them.  After  a  few  more  hauls 
we  had  the  seal  up  by  the  tent,  where  a  large  quantity 
of  it  disappeared  in  a  surprisingly  short  time  down  the 
throats  of  fifteen  hungry  dogs. 

The  ice  of  the  bay  was  furrowed  by  numerous  leads, 
and  while  the  hunters  were  busy  cutting  up  the  seals, 
I  tried  to  get  a  sounding,  but  the  thirty  fathoms  of 

VOL.  II.  41 


234  THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

Alpine  rope  I  had  were  not  enough;  no  bottom  was 
reached.  After  having  something  to  eat  we  went  down 
again,  in  order  if  possible  to  find  out  the  depth.  This 
time  we  were  better  supplied  with  sounding  tackle: 
two  reels  of  thread,  a  marlinspike,  and  our  geological 
hammer. 

First  the  marlinspike  was  sent  down  with  the  thread 
as  a  line.  An  inquisitive  lout  of  a  seal  did  all  it  could 
to  bite  through  the  thread,  but  whether  this  was  too 
strong  or  its  teeth  too  poor,  we  managed  after  a  lot  of 
trouble  to  coax  the  marlinspike  up  again,  and  the  inter- 
fering rascal,  who  had  come  up  to  the  surface  now 
and  then  to  take  breath,  got  the  spike  of  a  ski-pole 
in  his  thick  hide.  This  unexpected  treatment  was 
evidently  not  at  all  to  his  liking,  and  after  acknow- 
ledging it  by  a  roar  of  disgust,  he  vanished  into  the 
depths.  Now  we  got  on  better.  The  marlinspike 
sank  and  sank  until  it  had  drawn  with  it  130  fathoms 
of  thread.  A  very  small  piece  of  seaweed  clung  to  the 
thread  as  we  hauled  it  in  again;  on  the  spike  there  was 
nothing  to  be  seen.  As  its  weight  was  rather  light  for 
so  great  a  depth — a  possible  setting  of  current  might 
have  carried  it  a  little  to  one  side — we  decided  to  try 
once  more  with  the  hammer,  which  was  considerably 
heavier,  in  order  to  check  the  result.  The  hammer,  on 
the  other  hand,  was  so  heavy,  that  with  the  delicate 
thread  as  a  line  the  probability  of  successfully  carrying 
out  the  experiment  seemed  small,  but  we  had  to  risk 


I' 

a. 


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g 


a 


z 

a 

o 
O 

> 

o 


A  SOUNDING  TAKEN  235 

it.  The  improvised  sinker  was  well  smeared  with 
blubber,  and  this  time  it  sank  so  rapidly  to  the  bottom 
as  to  leave  no  doubt  of  the  correctness  of  the  sounding 
— 130  fathoms  again.  By  using  extreme  care  we  suc- 
ceeded in  getting  the  hammer  up  again  in  safety,  but  no 
specimen  of  the  bottom  was  clinging  to  it. 

On  the  way  back  to  camp  we  dragged  with  us  the 
carcass  of  the  young  seal.  It  was  past  three  when  we 
got  into  our  sleeping-bags  that  night,  and,  in  conse- 
quence, we  slept  a  good  deal  later  than  usual  the  next 
morning.  The  forenoon  was  spent  by  Johansen  and 
Stubberud  in  hauling  up  another  seal  from  the  bay  and 
packing  as  much  flesh  on  the  sledges  as  possible.  As 
fresh  meat  is  a  commodity  that  takes  up  a  great  deal  of 
space  in  proportion  to  its  weight,  the  quantity  we  were 
able  to  take  with  us  was  not  large.  The  chief  advan- 
tage we  had  gained  was  that  a  considerable  supply 
could  be  stored  on  the  spot,  and  it  might  be  useful 
to  fall  back  upon  in  case  of  delay  or  other  mishaps. 

I  took  the  observation  for  longitude  and  latitude, 
found  the  height  by  hypsometer,  and  took  some  photo- 
graphs. After  laying  down  the  depot  and  erecting 
beacons,  we  broke  camp  at  3  p.m.  South  of  the  head  of 
the  bay  there  were  a  number  of  elevations  and  pressure 
masses,  exactly  like  the  formations  to  be  found  about 
Framheim.  To  the  east  a  prominent  ridge  appeared, 
and  with  the  glass  it  could  be  seen  to  extend  inland  in  a 
south-easterly  direction.    According  to  our  observations 


236     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

this  must  be  the  same  that  Captain  Scott  has  marked 
with  land-shading  on  his  chart. 

We  made  a  wide  detour  outside  the  worst  pressure- 
ridges,  and  then  set  our  course  east-north-east  towards 
the  ridge  just  mentioned.  It  was  a  pretty  steep  rise, 
which  was  not  at  all  a  good  thing  for  the  dogs.  They 
had  overeaten  themselves  shockingly,  and  most  of  the 
seal's  flesh  came  up  again.  So  that  their  feast  should 
not  be  altogether  wasted,  we  stopped  as  soon  as  we  had 
come  far  enough  up  the  ridge  to  be  able  to  regard  the 
surface  as  comparatively  safe;  for  in  the  depression 
round  the  bay  it  was  somewhat  doubtful. 
jr-  On  the  following  morning — Sunday,  November  26 — • 
there  was  a  gale  from  the  north-east  with  sky  and 
Barrier  lost  in  driving  snow.  That  put  an  end  to  our 
plans  of  a  long  Sunday  march.  In  the  midst  of  our 
disappointment  I  had  a  sudden  bright  idea.  It  was 
Queen  JMaud's  birthday!  If  we  could  not  go  on,  we 
could  at  least  celebrate  the  day  in  a  modest  fashion.  In 
one  of  the  provision  cases  there  was  still  a  solitary 
Stavanger  tin,  containing  salt  beef  and  peas.  It  was 
opened  at  once,  and  its  contents  provided  a  banquet 
that  tasted  better  to  us  than  the  most  carefully  chosen 
menu  had  ever  done.  In  this  connection  I  cannot  help 
thinking  of  the  joy  it  woidd  bring  to  many  a  household 
in  this  world  if  its  master  were  possessed  of  an  appetite 
like  ours.  The  wife  would  then  have  no  need  to  dread 
the  consequences,  however  serious  the  shortcomings  of 


QUEEN  MAUD'S  BIRTHDAY  237 

the  cuisine  might  be.  But  to  return  to  the  feast.  Her 
jMajesty's  health  was  drunk  in  a  very  small,  but,  at  the 
same  time,  very  good  tot  of  aquavit,  served  in  enamelled 
iron  mugs.  Carrying  alcohol  was,  of  course,  against 
regulations,  strictly  speaking;  but,  as  everyone  knows, 
prohibition  is  not  an  easy  thing  to  put  into  practice. 
Even  in  Antarctica  this  proved  to  be  the  case.  Lindstrom 
had  a  habit  of  sending  a  little  surprise  packet  with  each 
sledging  party  that  went  out,  and  on  our  departure  he 
had  handed  us  one  of  these,  with  the  injunction  that  the 
packet  was  only  to  be  opened  on  some  festive  occasion ; 
we  chose  as  such  Her  Majesty's  birthday.  On  examina- 
tion the  packet  was  found  to  contain  a  little  flask  of 
spirits,  in  which  we  at  once  agreed  to  drink  the  Queen's 
health. 

The  27th  brought  the  same  nasty  weather,  and  the 
28th  was  not  much  better,  though  not  bad  enough  to 
stop  us.  After  a  deal  of  hard  work  in  hauling  our 
buried  belongings  out  of  the  snow,  we  got  away  and 
continued  our  course  to  the  north-eastward.  It  was  not 
exactly  an  agreeable  morning :  a  brisk  wind  with  driving 
snow  right  in  one's  face.  After  trudging  against  this  for 
a  couple  of  hours  I  heard  Stubberud  call  "  Halt!" — half 
his  team  were  hanging  by  the  traces  in  a  crevasse.  I 
had  gone  across  without  noticing  anything;  no  doubt 
owing  to  the  snow  in  my  face.  One  would  think  the 
dogs  would  be  suspicious  of  a  place  like  this ;  but  they 
are  not — they   plunge  on   till   the  snow-bridge   breaks 


238     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

under  them.  Luckily  the  harness  held,  so  that  it  was 
the  affair  of  a  moment  to  pull  the  poor  beasts  up  again. 
Even  a  dog  might  well  be  expected  to  be  a  trifle  shaken 
after  hanging  head  downwards  over  such  a  fearful  chasm ; 
but  apparently  they  took  it  very  calmly,  and  were  quite 
prepared  to  do  the  same  thing  over  again. 

For  my  own  part  I  looked  out  more  carefully  after 
this,  and  although  there  were  a  good  many  ugly  fissures 
on  the  remaining  part  of  the  ascent,  we  crossed  them  all 
without  further  incident. 

Unpleasant  as  these  crevasses  are,  they  do  not  involve 
any  direct  danger,  so  long  as  the  weather  is  clear  and  the 
light  favourable.  One  can  then  judge  by  the  appearance 
of  the  surface  whether  there  is  danger  ahead;  and  if 
crevasses  are  seen  in  time,  there  is  always  a  suitable 
crossing  to  be  found.  The  case  is  somewhat  different  in 
fog,  drift,  or  when  the  light  is  such  that  the  small 
inequalities  marking  the  course  of  the  crevasse  do  not 
show  up.  This  last  is  often  the  case  in  cloudy  weather, 
when  even  a  fairly  prominent  rise  will  not  be  noticed  on 
the  absolutely  white  surface  until  one  fails  over  it.  In 
such  conditions  it  is  safest  to  feel  one's  way  forward  with 
the  ski-pole;  though  this  mode  of  proceeding  is  more 
troublesome  than  effective. 

In  the  course  of  the  28th  the  ascent  came  to  an  end, 
and  with  it  the  crevasses.  The  wind  fell  quite  light,  and 
the  blinding  drift  was  succeeded  by  clear  sunshine.  We 
liad  now  come  sufficiently  high  up  to  have  a  view  of  the 


KING  EDWARD  LAND  239 

sea  far  to  the  north-west.  During  the  high  wind  a 
quantity  of  ice  had  been  driven  southward,  so  that  for 
a  great  distance  there  was  no  open  water  to  be  seen,  but 
a  number  of  huge  icebergs.  From  the  distance  of  thq 
sea  horizon  we  guessed  our  height  to  be  about  1,000  feet, 
and  in  the  evening  the  hypsometer  showed  the  guess  to 
be  very  nearly  right. 

November  29. — Weather  and  going  all  that  could  be 
wished  on  breaking  camp  this  morning;  before  us  we 
had  a  level  plateau,  which  appeared  to  be  quite  free  from 
unpleasant  obstructions.  When  we  halted  for  the  noon 
observation  the  sledge-meter  showed  ten  geographical 
miles,  and  before  evening  we  had  brought  the  day's 
distance  up  to  twenty.  The  latitude  was  then  77°  32'. 
The  distance  to  the  Barrier  edge  on  the  north  was,  at  a 
guess,  about  twenty  geographical  miles.  We  were  now 
a  good  way  along  the  peninsula,  the  northern  point  of 
which  Captain  Scott  named  Cape  Colbeck,  and  at  the  same 
time  a  good  way  to  the  east  of  the  meridian  in  which  he 
put  land-shading  on  his  chart.  Our  height  above  the  sea, 
which  was  now  about  1,000  feet,  was  evidence  enough 
that  we  had  firm  land  under  us,  but  it  was  still  sheathed 
in  ice.  In  that  respect  the  landscape  offered  no  change 
from  what  we  had  learnt  to  know  by  the  name  of 
"  Barrier."  It  cannot  be  denied  that  at  this  juncture 
I  began  to  entertain  a  certain  doubt  of  the  existence  of 
bare  land  in  this  quarter. 

This  doubt  was  not  diminished  when  we  had  done 


240     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

another  good  day's  march  to  the  eastward  on  Novem- 
ber 30.  According  to  our  observations  v^e  were  then 
just  below  the  point  where  the  Alexandra  Mountains 
should  begin,  but  there  was  no  sign  of  mountain  ranges ; 
the  surface  was  a  little  rougher,  perhaps.  However,  it 
was  still  too  soon  to  abandon  the  hope.  It  would  be  un- 
reasonable to  expect  any  great  degree  of  accuracy  of  the 
chart  we  had  to  go  by;  its  scale  was  far  too  large  for 
that.  It  was,  moreover,  more  than  probable  that  our 
own  determination  of  longitude  was  open  to  doubt. 

Assuming  the  approximate  accm'acy  of  the  chart,  by 
holding  on  to  the  north-east  we  ought  soon  to  come 
down  to  the  seaboard,  and  with  this  object  in  view  we 
continued  our  march.  On  December  1,  in  the  middle 
of  the  day,  we  saw  that  everything  agreed.  From  the 
top  of  an  eminence  the  sea  was  visible  due  north, 
and  on  the  east  two  domed  summits  were  outlined, 
apparently  high  enough  to  be  worthy  of  the  name  of 
mountains.  They  were  covered  with  snow,  but  on  the 
north  side  of  them  there  was  an  abrupt  precipice,  in 
which  many  black  patches  showed  up  sharply  against 
the  white  background.  It  was  still  too  soon  to  form  an 
idea  as  to  whether  they  were  bare  rock  or  not;  they 
might  possibly  be  fissures  in  the  mass  of  ice.  The 
appearance  of  the  summits  agreed  exactly  with  Captain 
Scott's  description  of  what  he  saw  from  the  deck  of 
the  Discover u  in  1902.  He  assumed  that  the  black 
patches   were   rocks   emerging   from   the   snow-slopes. 


ON  THE  SEABOARD  241 

As  will  be   seen   later,   our  respected  precursor  was 
right. 

In  order  to  examine  the  nature  of  the  seaboard,  we 
began  by  steering  down  towards  it;  but  in  the  mean- 
time the  weather  underwent  an  unfavourable  change. 
The  sky  clouded  over  and  the  light  became  as  vile  as  it 
could  be.  The  point  we  were  anxious  to  clear  up  was 
whether  there  was  any  Barrier  wall  here,  or  whether  the 
land  and  sea-ice  gradually  passed  into  each  other  in  an 
easy  slope.  As  the  light  was,  there  might  well  have 
been  a  drop  of  100  feet  without  our  seeing  anything 
of  it.  Securely  roped  together  we  made  our  way  down, 
until  our  progress  was  stopped  by  a  huge  pressure- 
ridge,  which,  as  far  as  could  be  made  out,  formed  the 
boundary  between  land  and  sea-ice.  It  was,  however, 
impossible  in  the  circumstances  to  get  any  clear  view 
of  the  surroundings,  and  after  trudging  back  to  the 
sledges,  which  had  been  left  up  on  the  slope,  we  turned 
to  the  east  to  make  a  closer  examination  of  the  summits 
already  mentioned.  I  went  in  front,  as  usual,  in  the 
cheerful  belief  that  we  had  a  fairly  level  stretch  before 
us,  but  I  was  far  out  in  my  calculation.  My  ski  began 
to  slip  along  at  a  terrific  speed,  and  it  was  advisable  to 
put  on  the  brake.  This  was  easily  done  as  far  as  I  was 
concerned,  but  with  the  dogs  it  was  a  different  matter. 
Nothing  could  stop  them  when  they  felt  that  the  sledge 
was  running  by  its  own  weight;  they  went  in  a  wild 
gallop  down  the  slope,  the  end  of  which  could  not  at 


242     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

present  be  seen.  I  suppose  it  will  sound  like  a  tall 
story,  but  it  is  a  fact,  nevertheless,  that  to  our  eyes  the 
surface  appeared  to  be  horizontal  all  the  time.  Snow, 
horizon  and  sky  all  ran  together  in  a  white  chaos,  in 
which  all  lines  of  demarcation  were  obliterated. 

Fortunately  nothing  came  of  our  expectation  that  the 
scamper  would  have  a  frightful  ending  in  some  insidious 
abyss.  It  was  stopped  quite  naturally  by  an  opposing 
slope,  which  appeared  to  be  as  steep  as  the  one  we  had 
just  slid  down.  If  the  pace  had  been  rather  too  rapid 
before,  there  was  now  no  ground  of  complaint  on  that 
score.  Step  by  step  we  crawled  up  to  the  top  of  the 
ridge ;  but  the  ground  was  carefully  surveyed  before  we 
proceeded  farther. 

In  the  course  of  the  afternoon  we  groped  our  way 
forward  over  a  whole  series  of  ridges  and  intervening 
depressions.  Although  nothing  could  be  seen,  it  was 
obvious  enough  that  our  surroundings  were  now  of 
an  entirely  different  character  from  anything  we  had 
previously  been  accustomed  to.  The  two  mountain 
summits  had  disappeared  in  the  fleecy  mist,  but  the 
increasing  unevenness  of  the  ground  showed  that  we 
were  approaching  them.  JNIean while  I  considered  it 
inadvisable  to  come  to  close  quarters  with  them  so  long 
as  we  were  unable  to  use  our  eyes,  and,  remembering 
what  happens  when  the  blind  leads  the  blind,  we 
camped.  For  the  first  time  during  the  trip  I  had  a 
touch  of  snow -blindness  that  afternoon.     This  trouble- 


BAD  LIGHT  243 

some  and  rightly  dreaded  complaint  was  a  thing  that  we 
had  hitherto  succeeded  in  keeping  off  by  a  judicious  use 
of  our  excellent  snow-goggles.  Among  my  duties  as 
forerunner  was  that  of  maintaining  the  direction,  and 
this,  at  times,  involved  a  very  severe  strain  on  the  eyes. 
In  thick  weather  it  is  only  too  easy  to  yield  to  the 
temptation  of  throwing  off  the  protective  goggles, 
with  the  idea  that  one  can  see  better  without  them. 
Although  I  knew  perfectly  well  what  the  consequence 
would  be,  I  had  that  afternoon  broken  the  command- 
ment of  prudence.  The  trifling  smart  I  felt  in  my  eyes 
was  cured  by  keeping  the  goggles  on  for  a  couple  of 
hours  after  we  were  in  the  tent.  Like  all  other  ills, 
snow-blindness  may  easily  be  dispelled  by  taking  it  in 
time. 

Next  morning  the  sun's  disc  could  just  be  made  out 
through  a  veil  of  thin  stratus  clouds,  and  then  the  light 
was  more  or  less  normal  again.  As  soon  as  we  could 
see  what  our  surroundings  were,  it  was  clear  enough 
that  we  had  done  right  in  stopping  the  game  of  blind 
man's  buff  we  had  been  playing  on  the  previous  day. 
It  might  otherwise  have  had  an  unpleasant  ending. 
Right  across  our  line  of  route  and  about  500  yards 
from  our  camp  the  surface  was  so  broken  up  that  it 
was  more  hke  a  sieve  than  anything  else.  In  the  back- 
ground the  masses  of  snow  were  piled  in  huge  drifts 
down  a  steep  slope  on  the  north-west  side  of  the  two 
mountains.    It  was  impossible  to  take  the  sledges  any 


244     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

farther  on  the  way  we  had  hitherto  been  following,  but 
in  the  course  of  the  day  we  worked  round  by  a  long 
detour  to  the  foot  of  the  most  westerly  of  the  moun- 
tains. We  were  then  about  1,000  feet  above  the  sea; 
to  the  north  of  us  we  had  the  abrupt  descent  already 
mentioned,  to  the  south  it  was  quite  flat.  Our  view  to 
the  east  was  shut  in  by  the  two  mountains,  and  our 
first  idea  was  to  ascend  to  the  tops  of  them,  but  the 
powers  of  the  weather  again  opposed  us  with  their  full 
force.  A  stiff  south-east  wind  set  in  and  increased  in 
the  course  of  half  an  hour  to  a  regular  blizzard.  Little 
as  it  suited  our  wishes,  there  was  nothing  to  be  done 
but  to  creep  back  into  the  tent.  For  a  whole  month 
now  we  had  seen  scarcely  anything  but  fair  weather, 
and  the  advance  of  summer  had  given  us  hopes  that  it 
would  hold;  but  just  when  it  suited  us  least  of  all  came 
a  dismal  change. 

The  light  Antarctic  summer  night  ran  its  course, 
while  the  gusts  of  wind  tugged  and  tore  at  the  thin 
sides  of  our  tent;  no  snowfall  accompanied  the  south- 
easterly wind,  but  the  loose  snow  of  the  surface  was 
whirled  up  into  a  drift  that  stood  like  an  impenetrable 
wall  round  the  tent.  After  midnight  it  moderated  a 
little,  and  by  four  o'clock  there  was  comparatively  fair 
weather.  We  were  on  our  feet  at  once,  put  together 
camera,  glasses,  aneroids,  axe,  Alpine  rope,  with  some 
lumps  of  pemmican  to  eat  on  the  way,  and  then  went 
off  for  a  morning  walk  with  the  nearer  of  the  two  hills 


ASCENT  OF  SCOTT'S  MOUNTAINS     245 

as  our  goal.  All  three  of  us  went,  leaving  the  dogs 
in  charge  of  the  camp.  They  were  not  so  fresh  now 
that  they  would  not  gladly  accept  all  the  rest  that 
was  offered  them.  We  had  no  need  to  fear  any 
invasion  of  strangers;  the  land  we  had  come  to  ap- 
peared to  be  absolutely  devoid  of  living  creatures  of 
any  kind. 

The  hill  was  farther  off  and  higher  than  it  appeared 
at  first;  the  aneroid  showed  a  rise  of  700  feet  when 
we  reached  the  top.  As  our  camp  lay  at  a  height  of 
1,000  feet,  this  gave  us  1,700  feet  as  the  height  of  this 
hill  above  the  sea.  The  side  we  went  up  was  covered 
by  7ieve,  which,  to  judge  from  the  depth  of  the 
cracks,  must  have  been  immense.  As  we  approached 
the  summit  and  our  view  over  the  surrounding  ground 
became  wider,  the  belief  that  we  should  see  so  much  as 
a  crag  of  tliis  King  Edward  Land  grew  weaker  and 
weaker.  There  was  nothing  but  white  on  every  side, 
not  a  single  consolatory  little  black  patch,  however 
carefully  we  looked.  And  to  think  that  we  had  been 
dreaming  of  great  mountain  masses  in  the  style  of 
McMurdo  Sound,  with  sunny  slopes,  penguins  by  the 
thousand,  seals  and  all  the  rest!  All  these  visions  were 
slowly  but  surely  sunk  in  an  endless  sea  of  snow,  and 
when  at  last  we  stood  on  the  highest  point,  we  certainly 
thought  there  could  be  no  chance  of  a  revival  of  our 
hopes. 

But  the  unexpected   happened   after   all.      On   the 


246     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

precipitous  northern  side  of  the  adjacent  hill  our  eyes 
fell  upon  bare  rock — the  first  glimpse  we  had  had  of 
positive  land  during  the  year  we  had  been  in  Antarctica. 
Our  next  thought  was  of  how  to  get  to  it  and  take 
specimens,  and  with  tliis  object  we  at  once  began  to 
scale  the  neighbouring  liill,  which  was  a  trifle  higher 
than  the  one  we  had  first  ascended.  The  precipice  was, 
however,  perpendicular,  with  a  huge  snow  cornice  over- 
hanging it.  Lowering  a  man  on  the  rope  would  be 
rather  too  hazardous  a  proceeding;  besides  which,  a 
length  of  thirty  yards  would  not  go  very  far.  If  we 
were  to  get  at  the  rock,  it  would  have  to  be  from 
below.  In  the  meantime  we  availed  ourselves  of  the 
opportunity  offered  by  the  clear  weather  to  make  a 
closer  examination  of  our  surroundings.  From  the 
isolated  summit,  1,700  feet  high,  on  which  we  stood, 
the  view  was  fairly  extensive.  Down  to  the  sea  on  the 
north  the  distance  was  about  five  geographical  miles. 
The  surface  descended  in  terraces  towards  the  edge  of 
the  water,  where  there  was  quite  a  low  Barrier  wall. 
As  might  be  expected,  this  stretch  of  the  ice-field  was 
broken  by  innumerable  crevasses,  rendering  any  passage 
across  it  impossible. 

On  the  east  extended  a  well-marked  mountain-ridge, 
about  twenty  geographical  miles  in  length,  and  some- 
what lower  than  the  summit  on  which  we  stood.  This 
was  the  Alexandra  Mountains.  It  could  not  be  called 
an  imposing  range,  and  it  was  snow-clad  from  one  end 


VIEW  FROM  THE  SUMMIT  247 

to  the  other.  Only  on  the  most  easterly  spur  was  the 
rock  just  visible. 

On  the  south  and  south-west  nothing  was  to  be  seen 
but  the  usual  undulating  Barrier  surface.  Biscoe  Bay, 
as  Captain  Scott  has  named  it,  was  for  the  moment 
a  gathering-place  for  numerous  icebergs;  one  or  two 
of  these  seemed  to  be  aground.  The  inmost  corner  of 
the  bay  was  covered  with  sea-ice.  On  its  eastern  side 
the  Barrier  edge  could  be  seen  to  continue  northward, 
as  marked  in  Captain  Scott's  chart;  but  no  indication 
of  bare  land  was  visible  in  that  quarter. 

Having  built  a  snow  beacon,  6  feet  high,  on  the 
summit,  we  put  on  our  ski  again  and  went  down  the 
eastern  slope  of  the  hill  at  a  whizzing  pace.  On  this 
side  there  was  an  approach  to  the  level  on  the  north  of 
the  precipice,  and  we  availed  ourselves  of  it.  Seen  from 
below  the  mountain  crest  looked  quite  grand,  with  a 
perpendicular  drop  of  about  1,000  feet.  The  cliff  was 
covered  with  ice  up  to  a  height  of  about  100  feet,  and 
this  circumstance  threatened  to  be  a  serious  obstacle 
to  our  obtaining  specimens  of  the  rocks.  But  in  one 
place  a  nunatak  about  250  feet  high  stood  out  in  front 
of  the  precipice,  and  the  ascent  of  this  offered  no  great 
difficulty. 

A  wall  of  rock  of  very  ordinary  appearance  is  not 
usually  reckoned  among  things  capable  of  attracting  the 
attention  of  the  human  eye  to  any  marked  extent; 
nevertheless,  we  three  stood  and  gazed  at  it,  as  though 


248     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

we  had  something  of  extraordinary  beauty  and  interest 
before  us.  The  explanation  is  very  simple,  if  we  re- 
member the  old  saying  about  the  charm  of  variety. 
A  sailor,  who  for  months  has  seen  nothing  but  sea  and 
sky,  will  lose  himself  in  contemplation  of  a  little  islet, 
be  it  never  so  barren  and  desolate.  To  us,  who  for 
nearly  a  year  had  been  staring  our  eyes  out  in  a  dazzhng 
white  infinity  of  snow  and  ice,  it  was  indeed  an  experi- 
ence to  see  once  more  a  bit  of  the  earth's  crust.  That 
this  fragment  was  as  poor  and  bare  as  it  could  be  was 
not  taken  into  consideration  at  the  moment. 

The  mere  sight  of  the  naked  rock  was,  however,  only 
an  anticipatory  pleasure.  A  more  substantial  one  was 
the  feeling  of  again  being  able  to  move  on  ground  that 
afforded  a  sure  and  trustworthy  foothold.  It  is  possible 
that  we  behaved  rather  like  children  on  first  reaching 
bare  land.  One  of  us,  in  any  case,  found  immense 
enjoyment  in  rolling  one  big  block  after  another  down 
the  steep  slopes  of  the  nunatak.  At  any  rate,  the 
sport  had  the  interest  of  novelty. 

This  little  peak  was  built  up  of  very  heterogeneous 
materials.  As  the  practical  result  of  our  visit,  we 
brought  away  a  fairly  abundant  collection  of  specimens 
of  all  the  rocks  to  be  found  there.  Not  being  a 
specialist,  I  cannot  undertake  any  classification  of  the 
specimens.  It  will  be  the  task  of  geologists  to  deal 
with  them,  and  to  obtain  if  possible  some  information 
as  to  the  structure  of  the  country.    I  will  only  mention 


GEOLOGICAL  SPECIMENS  249 

that  some  of  the  stones  were  so  heavy  that  they  must 
certainly  have  contained  metalHc  ore  of  one  kind  or 
another.  On  returning  to  camp  that  evening,  we 
tried  them  with  the  compass-needle,  and  it  showed 
very  marked  attraction  in  the  case  of  one  or  two 
of  the  specimens.  These  must,  therefore,  contain 
iron-ore. 

This  spur,  which  had  been  severely  handled  by  ice- 
pressure  and  the  ravages  of  time,  offered  a  poor  chance 
of  finding  what  we  coveted  most — namely,  fossils — and 
the  most  diligent  search  proved  unsuccessful  in  this 
respect.  From  finds  that  have  been  made  in  other 
parts  of  Antarctica  it  is  known  that  in  former  geological 
periods — the  Jurassic  epoch — even  this  desolate  conti- 
nent possessed  a  rich  and  luxurious  vegetation.  The 
leader  of  the  Swedish  expedition  to  Graham  Land,  Dr. 
Nordenskjold,  and  his  companion,  Gunnar  Andersson, 
were  the  first  to  make  this  exceedingly  interesting  and 
important  discovery. 

While  it  did  not  fall  to  our  lot  to  furnish  any  proof 

of  the  existence  of  an  earher  flora  in  King  Edward 

Land,  we   found  living  plants  of  the   most   primitive 

form.    Even  on  that  tiny  islet  in  the  ocean  of  snow 

the  rock  was  in  many  places  covered  with  thick  moss. 

How  did  that  moss  come  there?    Its  occurrence  might, 

perhaps,  be  quoted  in  support  of  the  hypothesis  of  the 

genesis  of  organic  life  from  dead  matter.    This  disputed 

question  must  here  be  left  open,  but  it  may  be  men- 
voL.  II.  42 


250     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

tioned  in  the  same  connection  that  we  found  the 
remains  of  birds'  nests  in  many  places  among  the  rocks. 
Possibly  the  occupants  of  these  nests  may  have  been 
instrumental  in  the  conveyance  of  the  moss. 

Otherwise,  the  signs  of  bird  life  were  very  few.  One 
or  two  solitary  snowy  petrels  circled  round  the  summit 
while  we  were  there ;  that  was  all. 

It  was  highly  important  to  obtain  some  successful 
photographs  from  this  spot,  and  I  was  setting  about 
the  necessary  preparations,  when  one  of  my  companions 
made  a  remark  about  the  changed  appearance  of  the 
sky.  Busy  with  other  things,  I  had  entirely  neglected 
to  keep  an  eye  on  the  weather,  an  omission  for  which, 
as  will  be  seen,  we  might  have  had  to  pay  dearly. 
Fortunately,  another  had  been  more  watchful  than  I, 
and  the  warning  came  in  time.  A  glance  was  enough 
to  convince  me  of  the  imminent  approach  of  a  snow- 
storm; the  fiery  red  sky  and  the  heavy  ring  round  the 
sun  spoke  a  language  that  was  only  too  clear.  We  had 
a  good  hour's  march  to  the  tent,  and  the  possibility  of 
being  surprised  by  the  storm  before  we  arrived  was 
practically  equivalent  to  never  arriving  at  all. 

We  very  soon  put  our  things  together,  and  came 
down  the  nunatak  even  more  quickly.  On  the  steep 
slopes  leading  up  to  the  plateau  on  which  the  tent 
stood  the  pace  was  a  good  deal  slower,  though  we  made 
every  possible  effort  to  hurry.  There  was  no  need  to 
trouble  about  the  course;  we  had  only  to  follow  the 


A  RACE  FOR  THE  TENT  251 

trail  of  our  own  ski — so  long  as  it  was  visible.  But  the 
drift  was  beginning  to  blot  it  out,  and  if  it  once  did 
that,  any  attempt  at  finding  the  tent  would  be  hopeless. 
For  a  long  and  anxious  quarter  of  an  hour  it  looked  as 
if  we  should  be  too  late,  until  at  last  the  tent  came  in 
sight,  and  we  were  saved.  We  had  escaped  the  blizzard 
so  far;  a  few  minutes  later  it  burst  in  all  its  fury,  and 
the  whirling  snow  was  so  thick  that  it  would  have  been 
impossible  to  see  the  tent  at  a  distance  of  ten  paces,  but 
by  then  we  were  all  safe  and  sound  inside.  Ravenously 
hungry  after  the  twelve  hours  that  had  passed  since  our 
last  proper  meal,  we  cooked  an  extra  large  portion  of 
pemmican  and  the  same  of  chocolate,  and  with  this 
sumptuous  repast  we  celebrated  the  event  of  the  day — 
the  discovery  of  land.  From  what  we  had  seen  in  the 
course  of  the  day  it  might  be  regarded  as  certain  that 
we  should  be  disappointed  in  our  hopes  of  finding  any 
great  and  interesting  field  for  our  labours  in  this 
quarter;  King  Edward  Land  was  still  far  too  well 
hidden  under  eternal  snow  and  ice  to  give  us  that.  But 
even  the  establishment  of  this,  to  us,  somewhat  un- 
welcome fact  marked  an  increase  of  positive  human 
knowledge  of  the  territory  that  bears  the  name  of  King 
Edward  VII. ;  and  with  the  geological  specimens  that 
we  had  collected,  we  were  in  possession  of  a  tangible 
proof  of  the  actual  existence  of  soHd  ground  in  a  region 
which  otherwise  bore  the  greatest  resemblance  to  what 
we  called  "  Barrier  "  elsewhere,  or  in  any  case  to  the 


252     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

Barrier  as  it  appears  in  the  neighbourhood  of  our  winter- 
quarters  at  Framheim. 

Monday,  December  4. — The  gale  kept  on  at  full  force 
all  night,  and  increased  rather  than  moderated  as  the 
day  advanced.  As  usual,  the  storm  was  accompanied 
by  a  very  marked  rise  of  temperature.  At  the  noon 
observation  to-day  the  reading  was  +  26'6°  F.  This  is 
the  highest  temperature  we  have  had  so  far  on  this  trip, 
and  a  good  deal  higher  than  we  care  about.  When  the 
mercury  comes  so  near  freezing-point  as  this,  the  floor 
of  the  tent  is  always  damp. 

To-day,  for  once  in  a  way,  we  have  falling  snow, 
and  enough  of  it.  It  is  snowing  incessantly — big,  hard 
flakes,  almost  like  hail.  When  the  cooker  was  filled  to 
provide  water  for  dinner,  the  half-melted  mass  looked 
like  sago.  The  heavy  flakes  of  snow  make  a  noise 
against  the  tent  that  reminds  one  of  the  safety-valve 
of  a  large  boiler  blowing  off.  Inside  the  tent  it  is 
difficult  to  hear  oneself  speak;  when  we  have  anything 
to  say  to  each  other  we  have  to  shout. 

These  days  of  involuntary  idleness  on  a  sledge  journey 
may  safely  be  reckoned  among  the  experiences  it  is 
difficult  to  go  through  without  a  good  deal  of  mental 
sufi^ering.  I  say  nothing  of  the  purely  physical  dis- 
comfort of  having  to  pass  the  day  in  a  sleeping-bag. 
That  may  be  endured ;  in  any  case,  so  long  as  the  bag 
is  fairly  dry.  It  is  a  far  worse  matter  to  reconcile  one- 
self to  the  loss  of  the  many   solid  hours  that  might 


FOOD  RUNNING  SHORT  253 

otherwise  have  been  put  to  a  useful  purpose,  and  to  the 
irritating  consciousness  that  every  bit  of  food  that  is 
consumed  is  so  much  wasted  of  the  limited  store.  At 
this  spot  of  all  others  w^e  should  have  been  so  glad 
to  spend  the  time  in  exploring  round  about,  or  still 
more  in  going  farther.  But  if  we  are  to  go  on,  we 
must  be  certain  of  having  a  chance  of  getting  seals  at  a 
reasonable  distance  from  here.  With  our  remaining 
supply  of  dogs'  food  we  cannot  go  on  for  more  than 
three  days. 

What  we  have  left  will  be  just  enough  for  the  return 
journey,  even  if  we  should  not  find  the  depot  of  seals' 
flesh  left  on  the  way.  There  remained  the  resource  of 
killing  dogs,  if  it  was  a  question  of  getting  as  far  to  the 
east  as  possible,  but  for  many  reasons  I  shrank  from 
availing  myself  of  that  expedient.  We  could  form  no 
idea  of  what  would  happen  to  the  southern  party's 
animals.  The  probability  was  that  they  would  have 
none  left  on  their  return.  Supposing  their  return  were 
delayed  so  long  as  to  involve  spending  another  winter 
on  the  Barrier,  the  transport  of  supphes  from  the  ship 
could  hardly  be  carried  out  in  the  necessary  time  with 
the  ten  untrained  puppies  that  were  left  with  Lind- 
strom.  We  had  picked  out  the  useful  ones,  and  I 
thought  that,  should  the  necessity  arise,  they  could  be 
used  with  greater  advantage  for  this  work  than  we 
should  derive  from  slaughtering  them  here,  and  thereby 
somewhat  prolonging  the  distance  covered ;  the  more  so 


254     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

as,  to  judge  from  all  appearance,  there  was  a  poor  pros- 
pect of  our  finding  anything  of  interest  within  a  reason- 
able time. 

Tuesday,  December  5. — It  looks  as  if  our  patience 
is  to  be  given  a  really  hard  trial  this  time.  Outside  the 
same  state  of  things  continues,  and  the  barometer  is 
going  down.  A  mass  of  snow  has  fallen  in  the  last 
twenty-four  hours.  The  drift  on  the  windward  side  of  the 
tent  is  constantly  growing ;  if  it  keeps  on  a  little  longer 
it  will  be  as  high  as  the  top  of  the  tent.  The  sledges  are 
completely  snowed  under,  and  so  are  the  dogs;  we  had 
to  haul  them  out  one  by  one  in  the  middle  of  the  day. 
Most  of  them  are  now  loose,  as  there  is  nothing  exposed 
to  the  attacks  of  their  teeth.  It  is  now  blowing  a  regular 
gale;  the  direction  of  the  wind  is  about  true  east. 
Occasionally  squalls  of  hurricane-like  violence  occur. 
Fortunately  the  big  snow-drift  keeps  us  comfortable, 
and  we  are  under  the  lee  of  a  hill,  otherwise  it  would 
look  badly  for  our  tent.  Hitherto  it  has  held  well,  but  it 
is  beginning  to  be  rather  damp  inside.  The  tempera- 
ture remains  very  high  (+  27'2°  F.  at  noon  to-day) ,  and 
the  mass  of  snow  pressing  against  the  tent  causes  the 
formation  of  rime. 

In  order  to  while  away  the  time  to  some  extent  under 
depressing  circumstances  like  these,  I  put  into  my  diary 
on  leaving  Framheim  a  few  loose  leaves  of  a  Russian 
grammar;  Johansen  solaced  himself  with  a  serial  cut  out 
of  the  Aftenpost;  as  far  as  I  remember,  the  title  of  it 


FIRST    IN    KING    EDWARD    LAND. 


IN    KING    EDWARD    LAND  :    AFTER    A    THREE    DAYS'    STORM. 


To  jace  parte  254,  Vol.  11. 


STILL  WEATHER-BOUND  255 

was  "  The  Red  Rose  and  the  White."  Unfortunately 
the  story  of  the  Two  Roses  was  very  soon  finished ;  but 
Johansen  had  a  good  remedy  for  that :  he  simply  began 
it  over  again.  My  reading  had  the  advantage  of  being 
incomparably  stiffer.  Russian  verbs  are  uncommonly 
difficult  of  digestion,  and  not  to  be  swallowed  in  a  hurry. 
For  lack  of  mental  nutriment,  Stubberud  with  great 
resignation  consoled  himself  with  a  pipe,  but  his  enjoy- 
ment must  have  been  somewhat  diminished  by  the 
thought  that  his  stock  of  tobacco  was  shrinking  at  an 
alarming  rate.  Every  time  he  filled  his  pipe,  I  could 
see  him  cast  longing  looks  in  the  direction  of  my  pouch, 
which  was  still  comparatively  full.  I  could  not  help 
promising  a  fraternal  sharing  in  case  he  should  run  short ; 
and  after  that  our  friend  puffed  on  with  an  easy  mind. 

Although  I  look  at  it  at  least  every  half -hour,  the 
barometer  will  not  go  up.  At  8  p.m.  it  was  down  to 
2730.  If  tliis  means  anything,  it  can  only  be  that  we 
shall  have  the  pleasure  of  being  imprisoned  here  another 
day.  Some  poor  consolation  is  to  be  had  in  the  thought 
of  how  lucky  we  were  to  reach  the  tent  at  the  last 
moment  the  day  before  yesterday.  A  storm  as  lasting 
as  this  one  would  in  all  probability  have  been  too  much 
for  us  if  we  had  not  got  in. 

Wednesday,  December  6. — The  third  day  of  idleness 
has  at  last  crept  away  after  its  predecessors.  We  have 
done  with  it.  It  has  not  brought  any  marked  variation. 
The  weather  has  been  just  as  violent,  until  now — 8  p.m. — 


256     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

the  wind  shows  a  slight  tendency  to  moderate.  It  is, 
surely,  time  it  did;  three  days  and  nights  should  be 
enough  for  it.  The  heavy  snowfall  continues.  Big, 
wet  flakes  come  dancing  down  through  the  opening 
in  the  drift  in  which  the  peak  of  the  tent  still  manages 
to  show  itself.  In  the  course  of  three  days  we  have  had 
more  snowfall  here  than  we  had  at  Framheim  in  ten 
whole  months.  It  will  be  interesting  to  compare  our 
meteorological  log  with  Lindstrom's;  probably  he  has 
had  his  share  of  the  storm,  and  in  that  case  it  will  have 
given  him  some  exercise  in  snow-shovelling. 

The  moisture  is  beginning  to  be  rather  troublesome 
now;  most  of  our  wardrobe  is  wet  through,  and  the 
sleeping-bags  will  soon  meet  with  the  same  fate.  The 
snow-drift  outside  is  now  so  high  that  it  shuts  out  most 
of  the  daylight;  we  are  in  twilight.  To-morrow  we 
shall  be  obliged  to  dig  out  the  tent,  whatever  the 
weather  is  like,  otherwise  we  shall  be  buried  entirely, 
and  run  the  additional  risk  of  having  the  tent  spht  by 
the  weight  of  snow.  I  am  afraid  it  will  be  a  day's  work 
to  dig  out  the  tent  and  the  two  sledges;  we  have  only 
one  little  shovel  to  do  it  with. 

A  slight  rise  of  both  barometer  and  thermometer  tells 
us  that  at  last  we  are  on  the  eve  of  the  change  we  have 
been  longing  for.  Stubberud  is  certain  of  fair  weather 
to-morrow,  he  says.  I  am  by  no  means  so  sure,  and 
offer  to  bet  pretty  heavily  that  there  will  be  no  change. 
Two  inches  of  Norwegian  plug  tobacco  is  the  stake, 


DIGGING  OUT  THE  TENT  257 

and  with  a  heartfelt  desire  that  Jorgen  may  win  I  await 
the  morrow. 

Thursday,  December  7. — Early  this  morning  I  owned 
to  having  lost  my  bet,  as  the  weather,  so  far  as  I  could 
tell,  was  no  longer  of  the  same  tempestuous  character; 
but  Stubberud  thought  the  contrary.  "  It  seems  to  me 
just  as  bad,"  said  he.  He  was  right  enough,  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  but  this  did  not  prevent  my  persuading  him  to 
accept  payment.  Meanwhile  we  were  obliged  to  make 
an  attempt  to  dig  out  the  tent,  regardless  of  the  weather ; 
the  situation  was  no  longer  endurable.  We  waited  all 
the  forenoon  in  the  hope  of  an  improvement;  but  as 
none  came,  we  set  to  work  at  twelve  o'clock.  Our 
implements  showed  some  originality  and  diversity:  a 
little  spade,  a  biscuit-tin,  and  a  cooker.  The  drift  did 
its  best  to  undo  our  work  as  fast  as  we  dug,  but  we 
managed  to  hold  our  own  against  it.  Digging  out  the 
tent-pegs  gave  most  trouble.  After  six  hours'  hard 
work  we  got  the  tent  set  up  a  few  yards  to  windward  of 
its  first  position;  the  place  where  it  had  stood  was  now 
a  well  about  seven  feet  deep.  Unfortunately  there  was 
no  chance  of  immortalizing  this  scene  of  excavation.  It 
would  have  been  amusing  enough  to  have  it  on  the 
plate;  but  drifting  snow  is  a  serious  obstacle  to  an 
amateur  photographer — besides  which,  my  camera  was 
on  Stubberud's  sledge,  buried  at  least  four  feet  down. 

In  the  course  of  our  digging  we  had  had  the  misfortune 
to  make  two  or  three  serious  rents  in  the  thin  canvas  of 


258     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

the  tent,  and  the  drift  was  not  long  in  finding  a  way- 
through  these  when  the  tent  was  up  again.  To  con- 
clude my  day's  work  I  had,  therefore,  a  longish  tailor's 
job,  while  the  other  two  men  were  digging  out  a  good 
feed  for  the  dogs,  who  had  been  on  half-rations  for  the 
last  two  days.  That  night  we  went  rather  short  of 
sleep.  Vulcan,  the  oldest  dog  in  Johansen's  team, 
was  chiefly  to  blame  for  this.  In  his  old  age  Vulcan 
was  afflicted  with  a  bad  digestion,  for  even  Eskimo  dogs 
may  be  liable  to  this  infirmity,  hardy  as  they  generally 
are.  The  protracted  blizzard  had  given  the  old  fellow 
a  relapse,  and  he  proclaimed  this  distressing  fact  by 
incessant  howling.  This  kind  of  music  was  not  calcu- 
lated to  lull  us  to  sleep,  and  it  was  three  or  four  in  the 
morning  before  we  could  snatch  a  nap.  During  a  pause 
I  was  just  dropping  off,  when  the  sun  showed  faintly 
through  the  tent.  This  unwonted  sight  at  once  banished 
all  further  thoughts  of  sleep ;  the  Primus  was  lighted,  a 
cup  of  chocolate  swallowed,  and  out  we  went.  Stubberud 
and  Johansen  set  to  work  at  the  hard  task  of  digging 
out  the  sledges ;  they  had  to  go  down  four  feet  to  get  hold 
of  them.  I  dragged  our  wet  clothes,  sleeping-bags,  and 
so  forth  out  of  the  tent,  and  hung  them  all  up  to  dry. 
In  the  course  of  the  morning  observations  were  taken 
for  determining  the  geographical  longitude  and  latitude, 
as  well  as  a  few  photographs,  which  will  give  some  idea 
of  what  our  camp  looked  like  after  the  blizzard. 

Having  made  good  the  damage  and  put  everything 


a. 


H 
H 

o 

CO 

o 


S5. 


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< 

< 


H 

O 


SCOTT'S  NUNATAKS  259 

fairly  in  order,  we  hurried  away  to  our  peaks,  to  secure 
some  photographs  while  the  light  was  favourable.  This 
time  we  were  able  to  achieve  our  object.  "  Scott's 
Nunataks,"as  they  were  afterwards  named — after  Captain 
Scott,  who  first  saw  them — were  now  for  the  first  time 
recorded  by  the  camera.  Before  we  left  the  summit  the 
Norwegian  flag  was  planted  there,  a  snow  beacon  erected, 
and  a  report  of  our  visit  deposited  in  it.  The  weather 
would  not  keep  clear;  before  we  were  back  at  the  camp 
there  was  a  thick  fog,  and  once  more  we  had  to  thank 
the  tracks  of  our  ski  for  showing  us  the  way.  During 
the  time  we  had  been  involuntarily  detained  at  this 
spot,  our  store  of  provisions  had  decreased  alarmingly; 
there  was  only  a  bare  week's  supply  left,  and  in  less  than 
a  week  we  should  hardly  be  able  to  make  home; 
probably  it  would  take  more  than  a  week,  but  in  that 
case  we  had  the  depot  at  our  Bay  of  Seals  to  fall  back 
upon.  In  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  our  present 
position  we  could  not  reckon  on  being  able  to  replenish 
our  supj)ly  in  the  continued  unfavourable  state  of  the 
weather.  We  therefore  made  up  our  minds  on  the 
morning  of  December  9  to  break  off  the  journey  and 
turn  our  faces  homeward.  For  three  days  more  we  had 
to  struggle  with  high  wind  and  thick  snow,  but  as  things 
now  were,  we  had  no  choice  but  to  keep  going,  and  by 
the  evening  of  the  11th  we  had  dragged  ourselves  fifty 
geographical  miles  to  the  west.  The  weather  cleared 
during  the  night,  and  at  last,  on  December  12,  we  had 


260     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

a  day  of  real  sunshine.  All  our  discomforts  were 
forgotten ;  everything  went  easily  again.  In  the  course 
of  nine  hours  we  covered  twenty-six  geographical  miles 
that  day,  without  any  great  strain  on  either  dogs  or 
men. 

At  our  midday  rest  we  found  ourselves  abreast  of  the 
bay,  where,  on  the  outward  journey,  we  had  laid  down 
our  depot  of  seals'  flesh.  I  had  intended  to  turn  aside 
to  the  depot  and  replenish  our  supply  of  meat  as  a  pre- 
caution, but  Johansen  suggested  leaving  out  this  detour 
and  going  straight  on.  We  might  thereby  run  the  risk 
of  having  to  go  on  short  rations ;  but  Johansen  thought 
it  a  greater  risk  to  cross  the  treacherous  ground  about 
the  bay,  and,  after  some  deliberation,  I  saw  he  was 
right.    It  was  better  to  go  on  while  we  were  about  it. 

From  this  time  on  we  met  with  no  difficulty,  and 
rapidly  drew  near  to  our  destination  in  regular  daily 
marches  of  twenty  geographical  miles.  After  men  and 
dogs  had  received  their  daily  ration  on  the  evening 
of  the  15th,  our  sledge  cases  were  practically  empty; 
but,  according  to  our  last  position,  we  should  not  have 
more  than  twenty  geographical  miles  more  to  Framheim. 

Saturday,  December  16. — We  broke  camp  at  the 
usual  time,  in  overcast  but  perfectly  clear  weather,  and 
began  what  was  to  be  our  last  day's  march  on  this  trip. 
A  dark  water-sky  hung  over  the  Barrier  on  the  west 
and  north-west,  showing  that  there  was  open  sea  off  the 
mouth  of  the  Bay  of  Whales.    We  went  on  till  10.30, 


BACK  AT  FRAMHEIM  261 

our  course  being  true  west,  when  we  made  out  far  to 
the  north-west  an  ice-cape  that  was  taken  to  be  the 
extreme  point  on  the  western  side  of  the  bay.  Imme- 
diately after  we  were  on  the  edge  of  the  Barrier,  the 
direction  of  which  was  here  south-west  and  north-east. 
We  altered  our  course  and  followed  the  edge  at  a  proper 
distance  until  we  saw  a  familiar  iceberg  that  had  broken 
off  to  the  north  of  Framheim,  but  had  been  stopped  by 
the  sea-ice  from  drifting  out.  With  this  excellent  mark 
in  view  the  rest  of  the  way  was  plain  sailing.  The 
sledge-meter  showed  19*5  geographical  miles,  when  in 
the  afternoon  we  came  in  sight  of  our  winter  home. 
Quiet  and  peaceful  it  lay  there,  if  possible  more  deeply 
covered  in  snow  than  when  we  had  left  it.  At  first  we 
could  see  no  sign  of  hf e,  but  soon  the  glasses  discovered 
a  lonely  wanderer  on  his  way  from  the  house  to  the 
"meteorological  institute."  So  Lindstrom  was  still 
alive  and  performing  his  duties. 

When  we  left,  our  friend  had  expressed  his  satisfaction 
at  "  getting  us  out  of  the  way  " ;  but  I  have  a  suspicion 
that  he  was  quite  as  pleased  to  see  us  back  again.  I 
am  not  quite  certain,  though,  that  he  did  see  us  for  the 
moment,  as  he  was  about  as  snow-blind  as  a  man  can 
be.  Lindstrom  was  the  last  person  we  should  have 
suspected  of  that  malady.  On  our  asking  liim  how  it 
came  about,  he  seemed  at  first  unwilling  to  give  any 
explanation;  but  by  degrees  it  came  out  that  the  mis- 
fortune had  happened  a  couple  of  days  before,  when 


262     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

he  had  gone  out  after  seals.  His  team,  composed  of 
nothing  but  puppies,  had  run  away  and  pulled  up  at 
a  big  hummock  out  by  the  western  cape,  ten  miles  from 
the  station.  But  Lindstrom,  who  is  a  determined  man, 
would  not  give  up  before  he  had  caught  the  runaways; 
and  this  was  too  much  for  his  eyes,  as  he  had  no  goggles 
with  him.  *'  When  I  got  home  I  couldn't  see  what  the 
time  was,"  he  said;  "  but  it  must  have  been  somewhere 
about  six  in  the  morning."  When  we  had  made  him 
put  on  plenty  of  red  eye-ointment  and  supplied  him 
with  a  proper  pair  of  goggles,  he  was  soon  cured. 

Framheim  had  had  the  same  protracted  storms  with 
heavy  snowfall.  On  several  mornings  the  master  of  the 
house  had  had  to  dig  his  way  out  through  the  snow- 
wall  outside  the  door;  but  during  the  last  three  fine 
days  he  had  managed  to  clear  a  passage,  not  only  to 
the  door,  but  to  the  window  as  well.  Daylight  came 
down  into  the  room  through  a  well  nine  feet  deep.  This 
had  been  a  tremendous  piece  of  work;  but,  as  already 
hinted,  nothing  can  stop  Lindstrom  when  he  makes 
up  his  mind.  His  stock  of  seals'  flesh  was  down  to 
a  minimum;  the  little  there  was  vanished  on  the  ap- 
pearance of  our  ravenous  dogs.  We  ourselves  were  in 
no  such  straits;  sweets  were  the  only  things  in  special 
demand. 

We  stayed  at  home  one  day.  After  bringing  up  two 
loads  of  seals'  flesh,  filling  our  empty  provision  cases, 
carrying  out  a  number  of  small  repairs,  and  checking 


EXPLORING  THE  BAY  263 

our  watches,  we  were  again  on  the  road  on  Monday 
the  18th.  We  were  not  very  loth  to  leave  the  house; 
indoor  existence  had  become  rather  uncomfortable  on 
account  of  constant  dripping  from  the  ceiling.  In  the 
course  of  the  winter  a  quantity  of  ice  had  formed  in  the 
loft.  As  the  kitchen  fire  was  always  going  after  our 
return,  the  temperature  became  high  enough  to  melt 
the  ice,  and  the  water  streamed  down.  Lindstrom  was 
annoyed  and  undertook  to  put  a  stop  to  it.  He  dis- 
appeared into  the  loft,  and  sent  down  a  hail  of  ice, 
bottle-straw,  broken  cases,  and  other  treasures  through 
the  trap-door.  We  fled  before  the  storm  and  drove 
away.  This  time  we  had  to  carry  out  our  instructions 
as  to  the  exploration  of  the  long  eastern  arm  of  the  Bay 
of  Whales.  During  the  autumn  several  Sunday  excur- 
sions had  been  made  along  this  remarkable  formation; 
but  although  some  of  these  ski-runs  had  extended  as  far 
as  twelve  miles  in  one  direction,  there  was  no  sign  of 
the  hummocks  coming  to  an  end.  These  great  dis- 
turbances of  the  ice-mass  must  have  a  cause,  and  the 
only  conceivable  one  was  that  the  subjacent  land  had 
brought  about  this  disruption  of  the  surface.  For 
immediately  to  the  south  there  was  undoubtedly  land, 
as  there  the  surface  rose  somewhat  rapidly  to  a  height 
of  1,000  feet;  but  it  was  covered  with  snow.  There 
was  a  possibility  that  the  rock  might  project  among  the 
evidences  of  heavy  pressure  at  the  foot  of  tliis  slope; 
and  with  this  possibility  in  view  we  made  a  five  days' 


264     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

trip,  following  the  great  fissure,  or  "bay,"  as  we  generally- 
called  it,  right  up  to  its  head,  twenty-three  geographical 
miles  to  the  east  of  our  winter-quarters. 

Although  we  came  across  no  bare  rock,  and  in  that 
respect  the  journey  was  a  disappointment,  it  was  never- 
theless very  interesting  to  observe  the  effects  of  the 
mighty  forces  that  had  here  been  at  work,  the  disrup- 
tion of  the  solid  ice-sheath  by  the  still  more  solid  rock. 

The  day  before  Christmas  Eve  we  were  back  at 
Framheim.  Lindstrom  had  made  good  use  of  his  time 
in  our  absence.  The  ice  had  disappeared  from  the  loft, 
and  therewith  the  rain  from  the  ceiling.  New  linoleum 
had  been  laid  down  over  half  the  floor,  and  marks  of  the 
paint-brush  were  visible  on  the  ceiling.  These  efforts 
had  possibly  been  made  with  an  eye  to  the  approaching 
festival,  but  in  other  respects  we  abstained  from  any 
attempt  at  keeping  Christmas.  It  did  not  agree  with 
the  time  of  year;  constant  blazing  sunshine  all  through 
the  twenty-four  hours  could  not  be  reconciled  with  a 
northerner's  idea  of  Christmas.  And  for  that  reason 
we  had  kept  the  festival  six  months  before.  Christmas 
Eve  fell  on  a  Sunday,  and  it  passed  just  like  any  ordinary 
Sunday.  Perhaps  the  only  difference  was  that  we  used 
a  razor  that  day  instead  of  the  usual  beard-clipper.  On 
Christmas  Day  we  took  a  holiday,  and  Lindstrom  pre- 
pared a  banquet  of  skua  gulls.  Despise  this  dish  as 
one  may,  it  tasted  undeniably  of — bird. 

The  numerous  snow-houses  were  now  in  a  sad  way. 


A  TRIP  TO  THE  WEST  265 

Under  the  weight  of  the  constantly  increasing  mass,  the 
roofs  of  most  of  the  rooms  were  pressed  so  far  in  that 
there  was  just  enough  space  to  crawl  on  hands  and 
knees.  In  the  Crystal  Palace  and  the  Clothing  Store 
we  kept  all  our  skin  clothing,  besides  a  good  deal  of 
outfit,  which  it  was  intended  to  take  on  board  the  Fram 
when  she  and  the  southern  party  arrived.  If  the  sinking 
continued,  it  would  be  a  long  business  digging  these 
things  out  again,  and  in  order  to  have  everything  ready 
we  made  up  our  minds  to  devote  a  few  days  to  this 
work  at  once.  We  hauled  the  snow  up  from  these  two 
rooms  through  a  well  twelve  feet  deep  by  means  of 
tackles.  It  was  a  long  job,  but  when  we  had  finished 
this  part  of  the  labyrinth  was  as  good  as  ever.  We  had 
no  time  to  deal  with  the  vapour-bath  or  the  carpenter's 
shop  just  then.  There  still  remained  the  survey  of  the 
south-western  corner  of  the  Bay  of  Whales  and  its 
surroundings.  On  an  eight  days'  sledge  journey,  start- 
ing at  the  New  Year,  we  ranged  about  this  district, 
where  we  were  surprised  to  find  the  solid  Barrier  divided 
into  small  islands,  separated  by  comparatively  broad 
sounds.  These  isolated  masses  of  ice  could  not  possiblj'' 
be  afloat,  although  the  depth  in  one  or  two  places,  where 
we  had  a  chance  of  making  soundings,  proved  to  be  as 
much  as  200  fathoms.  The  only  rational  explanation 
we  could  think  of  was  that  there  must  be  a  group  of 
low-lying  islands  here,  or  in  any  case  shoals.  These 
*'  ice  islands,"  if  one  may  call  them  so,  had  a  height  of 
VOL.  II.  43 


266     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

90  feet  and  sloped  evenly  down  to  the  water  on  the 
greater  part  of  their  circumference.  One  of  the  sounds, 
that  penetrated  into  the  Barrier  a  short  distance  inside 
the  western  cape  of  the  bay,  continued  southward  and 
gradually  narrowed  to  a  mere  fissure.  We  followed 
this  until  it  lost  itself,  thirty  geographical  miles  within 
the  Barrier. 

The  last  day  of  this  trip — Thursday,  January  11 — will 
always  be  fixed  in  our  memory;  it  was  destined  to 
bring  us  experiences  of  the  kind  that  are  never  for- 
gotten. Our  start  in  the  morning  was  made  at  exactly 
the  same  time  and  in  exactly  the  same  way  as  so  many 
times  before.  We  felt  pretty  certain  of  reaching  Fram- 
heim  in  the  course  of  the  day,  but  that  prospect  was  for 
the  moment  of  minor  importance.  In  the  existing  state 
of  the  weather  our  tent  offered  us  as  comfortable 
quarters  as  our  snowed-up  winter  home.  What  made 
us  look  forward  to  our  return  with  some  excitement  was 
the  possibility  of  seeing  the  Fram  again,  and  this 
thought  was  no  doubt  in  the  minds  of  all  of  us  that 
January  morning,  though  we  did  not  say  much  about  it. 

After  two  hours'  march  we  caught  sight  of  West 
Cape,  at  the  entrance  to  the  bay,  in  our  line  of  route, 
and  a  little  later  we  saw  a  black  strip  of  sea  far  out  on 
the  horizon.  As  usual,  a  number  of  bergs  of  all  sizes 
were  floating  on  this  strip,  in  every  variety  of  shade  from 
white  to  dark  grey,  as  the  light  fell  on  them.  One 
particular  lump  appeared  to  us  so  dark  that  it  could 


THE  "FRAM"  SIGHTED  267 

hardly  be  made  of  ice;  but  we  had  been  taken  in  too 
many  times  to  make  any  remark  about  it. 

As  the  dogs  now  had  a  mark  to  go  by,  Johansen  was 
driving  in  front  without  my  help ;  I  went  by  the  side  of 
Stubberud's  sledge.  The  man  at  my  side  kept  staring 
out  to  sea,  without  uttering  a  word.  On  my  asking 
him  what  in  the  world  he  was  looking  at,  he  replied: 
"  I  could  almost  swear  it  was  a  ship,  but  of  course  it's 
only  a  wretched  iceberg."  We  were  just  agreed  upon 
this,  when  suddenly  Johansen  stopped  short  and  began 
a  hurried  search  for  his  long  glass.  "  Are  you  going  to 
look  at  the  Framf  I  asked  ironically.  "  Yes,  I  am," 
he  said;  and  while  he  turned  the  telescope  upon  the 
doubtful  object  far  out  in  Ross  Sea,  we  two  stood 
waiting  for  a  few  endless  seconds.  "  It's  the  Fram^  sure 
enough,  as  large  as  life!"  was  the  welcome  announce- 
ment that  broke  our  suspense.  I  glanced  at  Stubberud 
and  saw  his  face  expanding  into  its  most  amiable  smile. 
Though  I  had  not  much  doubt  of  the  correctness  of 
Johansen's  statement,  I  borrowed  his  glass,  and  a 
fraction  of  a  second  was  enough  to  convince  me.  That 
ship  was  easily  recognized;  she  was  our  own  old  Fram 
safely  back  again. 

We  had  still  fourteen  long  miles  to  Framheim  and  an 
obstinate  wind  right  in  our  faces,  but  that  part  of  the 
way  was  covered  in  a  remarkably  short  time.  On 
arriving  at  home  at  two  in  the  afternoon  we  had  some 
expectation  of  finding  a  crowd  of  people  in  front  of  the 


268     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

house;  but  there  was  not  a  living  soul  to  be  seen. 
Even  Lindstrom  remained  concealed,  though  as  a  rule 
he  was  always  about  when  anyone  arrived.  Thinking 
that  perhaps  our  friend  had  had  a  relapse  of  snow- 
bhndness,  I  went  in  to  announce  our  return.  Lindstrom 
was  standing  before  his  range  in  the  best  of  health 
when  I  entered  the  kitchen.  "  The  Frains  come!"  he 
shouted,  before  I  had  shut  the  door.  "  Tell  me  some- 
thing I  don't  know,"  said  I,  "  and  be  so  kind  as  to  give 
me  a  cup  of  water  with  a  little  syrup  in  it  if  you  can." 
I  thought  somehow  that  the  cook  had  a  sly  grin  on  his 
face  when  he  brought  what  I  asked  for,  but  with  the 
thirst  I  had  after  the  stiff  march,  I  gave  a  great  part  of 
mv  attention  to  the  drink.  I  had  consumed  the  best 
part  of  a  quart,  when  Lindstrom  went  off  to  his  bunk 
and  asked  if  I  could  guess  what  he  had  hidden  there. 
There  was  no  time  to  guess  anything  before  the  blankets 
were  thrown  on  to  the  floor,  and  after  them  bounded  a 
bearded  ruffian  clad  in  a  jersey  and  a  pair  of  overalls  of 
indeterminable  age  and  colour.  "Hullo!"  said  the 
ruffian,  and  the  voice  was  that  of  Lieutenant  Gjertsen. 
Lindstrom  was  shaking  with  laughter  while  I  stood 
open-mouthed  before  this  apparition ;  I  had  been  given 
a  good  surprise.  We  agreed  to  treat  Johansen  and 
Stubberud  in  the  same  way,  and  as  soon  as  they  were 
heard  outside,  Gjertsen  hid  himself  again  among  the 
blankets.  But  Stubbenid  had  smelt  a  rat  in  some  way 
or  other.    "  There  are  more  than  two  in  this  room,"  he 


05 


Q 

Ed 
O 

M 

a 
W 

H 


E-i 


A  VISITOR  FROM  THE  SHIP         269 

said,  as  soon  as  he  came  in.    It  was  no  surprise  to  him 
to  find  a  man  from  the  Fram  in  Lindstrom's  bunk. 

When  we  heard  that  the  visitor  had  been  under  our 
roof  for  a  whole  day,  we  assumed  that  in  the  course  of 
that  time  he  had  heard  all  about  our  own  concerns  from 
Lindstrom.  We  were  therefore  not  inclined  to  talk 
about  ourselves;  we  wanted  news  from  without,  and 
Gjertsen  was  more  than  ready  to  give  us  them.  The 
Fram  had  arrived  two  days  before,  all  well.  After  lying 
at  the  ice  edge  for  a  day  and  a  night,  keeping  a  constant 
lookout  for  the  "natives,"  Gjertsen  had  grown  so  curious 
to  know  how  things  were  at  Framheim  that  he  had 
asked  Captain  Nilsen  for  "  shore  leave."  The  careful 
skipper  had  hesitated  a  while  before  giving  permission; 
it  was  a  long  way  up  to  the  house,  and  the  sea-ice  was 
scored  with  lanes,  some  of  them  fairly  wide.  Finally 
Gjertsen  had  his  way,  and  he  left  the  ship,  taking  a  signal 
flag  with  him.  He  found  it  rather  difficult  to  recognize 
his  surroundings,  to  begin  with ;  one  ice  cape  was  very  like 
another,  and  ugly  ideas  of  calvings  suggested  themselves, 
until  at  last  he  caught  sight  of  Cape  Man's  Head,  and 
then  he  knew  that  the  foundations  of  Framheim  had  not 
given  way.  Cheered  by  this  knowledge,  he  made  his 
way  towards  Mount  Nelson,  but  on  arriving  at  the  top 
of  this  ridge,  from  which  there  was  a  view  over 
Framheim,  the  eager  explorer  felt  his  heart  sink.  Where 
our  new  house  had  made  such  a  brave  show  a  year 
before  on  the  surface  of  the  Barrier,  there  was  now  no 


270     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

house  at  all  to  be  seen.  All  that  met  the  eyes  of  the 
visitor  was  a  sombre  pile  of  ruins.  But  his  anxiety 
quickly  vanished  when  a  man  emerged  from  the  confu- 
sion. The  man  was  Lindstrom,  and  the  supposed  ruin 
was  the  most  ingenious  of  all  winter-quarters.  Lindstrom 
was  ignorant  of  the  Fratris  arrival,  and  the  face  he 
showed  on  seeing  Gjertsen  must  have  been  worth  some 
money  to  look  at. 

When  our  first  curiosity  was  satisfied,  our  thoughts 
turned  to  our  comrades  on  board  the  Fram.  We 
snatched  some  food,  and  then  went  down  to  the  sea-ice, 
making  our  way  across  the  little  bay  due  north  of  the 
house.  Our  well-trained  team  were  not  long  in  getting 
there,  but  we  had  some  trouble  with  them  in  crossing 
the  cracks  in  the  ice,  as  some  of  the  dogs,  especially  the 
puppies,  had  a  terror  of  water. 

The  Fram  was  cruising  some  way  out,  but  when  we 
came  near  enough  for  them  to  see  us,  they  made  all 
haste  to  come  in  to  the  ice-foot.  Yes,  there  lay  om* 
good  little  ship,  as  trim  as  when  we  had  last  seen  her ; 
the  long  voyage  round  the  world  had  left  no  mark 
on  her  strong  hull.  Along  the  bulwarks  appeared  a  row 
of  smiling  faces,  which  we  were  able  to  recognize  in  spite 
of  the  big  beards  that  half  concealed  many  of  them. 
While  clean-shaven  chins  had  been  the  fashion  at 
Framheim,  almost  every  man  on  board  appeared  with 
a  flowing  beard.  As  we  came  over  the  gangway 
questions  began  to  hail  upon  us.     I  had  to  ask  for  a 


ON  BOARD  THE  "  FRAM  "  271 

moment's  grace  to  give  the  captain  and  crew  a  hearty 
shake  of  the  hand,  and  then  I  collected  them  all  about 
me  and  gave  a  short  account  of  the  most  important 
events  of  the  past  year.  When  this  was  done,  Captain 
Nilsen  pulled  me  into  the  chart-house,  where  we  had  a 
talk  that  lasted  till  about  four  the  next  morning — to  both 
of  us  certainly  one  of  the  most  interesting  we  have  ever 
had.  On  Nilsen's  asking  about  the  prospects  of  the 
southern  party,  I  ventured  to  assure  liim  that  in  all 
probability  we  should  have  our  Chief  and  his  companions 
back  in  a  few  days  with  the  Pole  in  their  pockets. 

Our  letters  from  home  brought  nothing  but  good 
news.  What  interested  us  most  in  the  newspapers  was, 
of  course,  the  account  of  how  the  expedition's  change  of 
route  had  been  received. 

At  8  a.m.  we  left  the  Fram  and  returned  home.  For 
the  next  few  days  we  were  occupied  with  the  work  of 
surveying  and  charting,  which  went  comparatively 
quickly  in  the  favourable  weather.  When  we  returned 
after  our  day's  work  on  the  afternoon  of  the  17th,  we 
found  Lieutenant  Gjertsen  back  at  the  hut.  He  asked 
us  if  we  could  guess  the  news,  and  as  we  had  no  answer 
ready,  he  told  us  that  the  ship  of  the  Japanese  expedition 
had  arrived.  We  hurriedly  got  out  the  cinematograph 
apparatus  and  the  camera,  and  went  off  as  fast  as  the 
dogs  could  go,  since  Gjertsen  thought  this  visit  would 
not  be  of  long  duration. 

When  we  caught  sight  of  the  Fram  she  had  her  flag 


272     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

up,  and  just  beyond  the  nearest  cape  lay  the  Kainan 
Maru,  with  the  ensign  of  the  Rising  Sun  at  the  peak. 
Banzai !  We  had  come  in  time.  Although  it  was 
rather  late  in  the  evening,  Nilsen  and  I  decided  to  pay 
her  a  visit,  and  if  possible  to  see  the  leader  of  the  expedi- 
tion. We  were  received  at  the  gangway  by  a  young, 
smiling  fellow,  who  beamed  still  more  when  I  produced 
the  only  Japanese  word  I  knew:  Oheio — Good-day. 
There  the  conversation  came  to  a  full  stop,  but  soon 
a  number  of  the  inquisitive  sons  of  Nippon  came  up,  and 
some  of  them  understood  a  little  English.  We  did  not 
get  very  far,  however.  We  found  out  that  the  Kainan 
Maru  had  been  on  a  cruise  in  the  direction  of  King 
Edward  VII.  Land ;  but  we  could  not  ascertain  whether 
any  landing  had  been  attempted  or  not. 

As  the  leader  of  the  expedition  and  the  captain  of  the 
ship  had  turned  in,  we  did  not  want  to  disturb  them  by 
prolonging  our  visit;  but  we  did  not  escape  before  the 
genial  first  officer  had  offered  us  a  glass  of  wine  and 
a  cigar  in  the  chart -house.  With  an  invitation  to  come 
again  next  day,  and  permission  to  take  some  photo- 
graphs, we  returned  to  the  Fram;  but  nothing  came  of 
the  projected  second  \'isit  to  our  Japanese  friends.  Both 
ships  put  out  to  sea  in  a  gale  that  sprang  up  during  the 
night,  and  before  we  had  another  opportunity  of  going  on 
board  tlie  Kainan  Maru  the  southern  party  had  returned. 

The  days  immediately  preceding  the  departure  of  the 
expedition  for  the  north  fell  about  the  middle  of  the 


Pi 

< 


a. 


^ 


A  VISIT  TO  THE  JAPANESE  273 

short  Antarctic  summer,  just  at  the  time  when  the 
comparatively  rich  animal  life  of  the  Bay  of  Whales 
shows  itself  at  its  best. 

The  name  of  the  Bay  of  Whales  is  due  to  Shackleton, 
and  is  appropriate  enough;  for  from  the  time  of  the 
break-up  of  the  sea-ice  this  huge  inlet  in  the  Barrier 
forms  a  favourite  playground  for  whales,  of  which  we 
often  saw  schools  of  as  many  as  fifty  disporting  them- 
selves for  hours  together.  We  had  no  means  of  dis- 
turbing their  peaceful  sport,  although  the  sight  of  all 
these  monsters,  each  worth  a  small  fortune,  was  well 
calculated  to  make  our  fingers  itch.  It  was  the  whaling 
demon  that  possessed  us. 

For  one  who  has  no  special  knowledge  of  the  industry 
it  is  difficult  to  form  an  adequate  opinion  as  to  whether 
this  part  of  Antarctica  is  capable  of  ever  becoming  a 
field  for  whaling  enterprise.  In  any  case,  it  will  prob- 
ably be  a  long  time  before  such  a  thing  happens.  In 
the  first  place,  the  distance  to  the  nearest  inhabited 
country  is  very  great — over  2,000  geographical  miles — 
and  in  the  second,  there  is  a  serious  obstruction  on  this 
route  in  the  shape  of  the  belt  of  pack-ice,  which,  narrow 
and  loose  as  it  may  be  at  times,  will  always  necessitate 
the  employment  of  timber-built  vessels  for  the  work  of 
transport. 

The  conditions  prevailing  in  the  Bay  of  Whales  must 
presumably  offer  a  decisive  obstacle  to  the  establishment 
of  a  permanent  station.    Our  winter  house  was  snowed 


274     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

under  in  the  course  of  two  months,  and  to  us  this  was 
only  a  source  of  satisfaction,  as  our  quarters  became  all 
the  warmer  on  this  account;  but  whether  a  whaling 
station  would  find  a  similar  fate  equally  convenient  is 
rather  doubtful. 

Lastly,  it  must  be  said  that,  although  in  the  bay 
itself  huge  schools  of  whales  were  of  frequent  occur- 
rence, we  did  not  receive  the  impression  that  there  was 
any  very  great  number  of  them  out  in  Ross  Sea.  The 
species  most  commonly  seen  was  the  Finner;  after  that 
the  Blue  Whale. 

As  regards  seals,  they  appeared  in  great  quantities 
along  the  edge  of  the  Barrier  so  long  as  the  sea-ice  still 
lay  there;  after  the  break-up  of  the  ice  the  Bay  of 
Whales  was  a  favourite  resort  of  theirs  all  through  the 
summer.  This  was  due  to  its  offering  them  an  easy 
access  to  the  dry  surface,  where  they  could  abandon 
themselves  to  their  favourite  occupation  of  basking  in 
the  sunshine. 

During  our  whole  stay  we  must  have  killed  some  two 
hundred  and  fifty  of  them,  by  far  the  greater  number  of 
which  were  shot  in  the  autumn  immediately  after  our 
arrival.  This  little  inroad  had  no  appreciable  effect. 
The  numerous  survivors,  who  had  been  eye-witnesses  of 
their  companions'  sudden  death,  did  not  seem  to  have 
the  slightest  idea  that  the  Bay  of  Whales  had  become 
for  the  time  being  a  somewhat  unsafe  place  of  residence. 

As  early  as  September,  wliile  the  ice  still  stretched 


SEALS    ON    SEA-ICE    NEAR   THE    BARRIER. 


SEALS  :     MOTHER   AND    CALF. 


To  face  X'0.fje  Tii,  Vol.  11. 


WHALES  AND  SEALS  275 

for  miles  out  into  Ross  Sea,  the  first  seal  found  occasion 
to  come  up  into  daylight  through  one  of  the  numerous 
pressure  cracks  in  the  bay.  To  us  this  was  the  first 
sure  sign  of  spring;  for  the  seal  it  was  a  leap  into 
eternity. 

Of  the  three  different  species  we  met  with — the 
Weddell,  the  sea-leopard,  and  the  crab-eater — the  first- 
named  was  by  far  the  most  numerous.  The  Weddell 
seal  is  an  extremely  awkward  and  clumsy  animal,  that 
fully  understands  the  art  of  not  hurrying ;  this,  of  course, 
applies  only  to  its  movements  out  of  the  water.  A  full- 
grown  bull  is  almost  as  large  as  a  walrus,  and  must 
certainly  weigh  something  like  8  hundredweight.  A 
ridiculously  small  head  is  set  upon  its  heavy  body,  and 
its  mouth  is  provided  with  teeth  about  as  innocuous  as 
those  of  the  domestic  cow.  The  skins  vary  from  light 
grey  to  brownish  black. 

The  sea-leopard  was  far  more  rare  in  these  parts.  In 
the  bay  itself  it  was  not  found;  the  few  specimens  we 
saw  were  met  with  in  the  pack-ice.  As  far  as  I  know, 
we  only  secured  a  couple  of  them.  The  sea-leopard  is  a 
far  more  dangerous  fellow  than  his  cousin  the  Weddell 
seal.  He  is  almost  as  big,  but  his  body  is  very  much 
more  lithe  and  agile ;  he  has  a  mouth  full  of  long,  sharp 
teeth,  and  is  always  ready  to  use  this  weapon.  He 
is  not  to  be  approached  without  a  certain  caution, 
and  in  the  water  he  must  be  an  extremely  unpleasant 
opponent. 


276     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

The  name  crab-eater  may  possibly  evoke  ideas  of 
some  ferocious  creature;  in  that  case  it  is  misleading. 
The  animal  that  bears  it  is,  without  question,  the  most 
amicable  of  the  three  species.  It  is  of  about  the  same  size 
as  our  native  seal,  brisk  and  active  in  its  movements,  and 
is  constantly  exercising  itself  in  high  jumps  from  the 
water  on  to  the  ice-foot.  Even  on  the  ice  it  can  work 
its  way  along  so  fast  that  it  is  all  a  man  can  do  to  keep 
up.  Its  skin  is  extraordinarily  beautiful — grey,  wdth  a 
sheen  of  silver  and  small  dark  spots. 

One  is  often  asked  whether  seal's  flesh  does  not  taste 
of  train  oil.  It  seems  to  be  a  common  assumption  that 
it  does  so.  This,  however,  is  a  mistake;  the  oil  and  the 
taste  of  it  are  only  present  in  the  layer  of  blubber,  an 
inch  thick,  which  covers  the  seal's  body  like  a  protective 
armour.  The  flesh  itself  contains  no  fat;  on  the  other 
hand,  it  is  extremely  rich  in  blood  and  its  taste  in  con- 
sequence reminds  one  of  black-puddings.  The  flesh  of 
the  Weddell  seal  is  very  dark  in  colour;  in  the  frying- 
pan  it  turns  quite  black.  The  flesh  of  the  crab-eater 
is  of  about  the  same  colour  as  beef,  and  to  us,  at  any 
rate,  its  taste  was  equally  good.  We  therefore  always 
tried  to  get  crab-eater  when  providing  food  for  our- 
selves. 

We  found  the  penguins  as  amusing  as  the  seals  were 
useful.  So  much  has  been  written  recently  about  these 
remarkable  creatures,  and  they  Iiave  been  photographed 
and  cinematographed  so  many  times,  that  everyone  is 


PENGUINS  27T 

acquainted  with  them.  Nevertheless,  anyone  who  sees 
a  living  penguin  for  the  first  time  will  always  be  at- 
tracted and  interested,  both  by  the  dignified  Emperor 
penguin,  with  his  three  feet  of  stature,  and  by  the 
bustling  little  Adelie. 

Not  only  in  their  upright  walk,  but  also  in  their 
manners  and  antics,  these  birds  remind  one  strikingly  of 
human  beings.  It  has  been  remarked  that  an  Emperor 
is  the  very  image  of  "an  old  gentleman  in  evening 
dress,"  and  the  resemblance  is  indeed  very  notice- 
able. It  becomes  still  more  so  when  the  Emperor — 
as  is  always  his  habit — approaches  the  stranger  with 
a  series  of  ceremonious  bows;  such  is  their  good 
breeding ! 

When  this  ceremony  is  over,  the  penguin  will  usually 
come  quite  close;  he  is  entirely  unsuspecting  and  is  not 
frightened  even  if  one  goes  slowly  towards  him.  On 
the  other  hand,  if  one  approaches  rapidly  or  touches 
him,  he  is  afraid  and  immediately  takes  to  flight.  It 
sometimes  happens,  though,  that  he  shows  fight,  and 
then  it  is  wiser  to  keep  out  of  range  of  his  flippers ;  for 
in  these  he  has  a  very  powerful  weapon,  which  might 
easily  break  a  man's  arm.  If  you  wish  to  attack  him,  it 
is  better  to  do  so  from  behind;  both  flippers  must  be 
seized  firmly  at  the  same  time  and  bent  backwards  along 
his  back;  then  the  fight  is  over. 

The  little  Adelie  is  always  comic.  On  meeting  a 
flock  of  these  little  busybodies  the  most  ill-humoured 


278     THE  EASTERN  SLEDGE  JOURNEY 

observer  is  forced  to  burst  into  laughter.  During  the 
first  weeks  of  our  stay  in  the  Bay  of  Whales,  while  we 
were  still  unloading  stores,  it  was  always  a  welcome 
distraction  to  see  a  flock  of  Adelie  penguins,  to  the 
number  of  a  dozen  or  so,  suddenly  jump  out  of  the 
water,  as  though  at  a  word  of  command,  and  then  sit 
still  for  some  moments,  stiff  with  astonishment  at  the 
extraordinary  things  they  saw.  When  they  had  recovered 
from  the  first  surprise,  they  generally  dived  into  the  sea 
again,  but  their  intense  curiosity  soon  drove  them  back 
to  look  at  us  more  closely. 

In  contradistinction  to  their  calm  and  self -controlled 
relative,  the  Emperor  penguin,  these  active  little  creatures 
have  an  extremely  fiery  temperament,  which  makes  them 
fly  into  a  passion  at  the  slightest  interference  with  their 
affairs;  and  this,  of  course,  only  makes  them  still  more 
amusing. 

The  penguins  are  birds  of  passage;  they  spend  the 
winter  on  the  various  small  groups  of  islands  that  are 
scattered  about  the  southern  ocean.  On  the  arrival  of 
spring  they  betake  themselves  to  Antarctica,  where 
they  have  their  regular  rookeries  in  places  where  there 
is  bare  ground.  They  have  a  pronounced  taste  for 
roaming,  and  as  soon  as  the  chicks  are  grown  they  set 
out,  young  and  old  together,  on  their  travels.  It  was 
only  as  tourists  that  the  penguins  visited  Framheim  and 
its  environs;  for  there  was,  of  course,  no  bare  land  in 
our  neighbourhood  that  might  offer  them  a  place  of 


A    GROUP    OF    ADKLIE    PENGUINS. 


A    QUIET    PIPE. 


To  face  pMje  i'iS,  rol.  I!. 


HABITS  OF  THE  PENGUINS         279 

residence.  For  this  reason  we  really  saw  comparatively 
little  of  them;  an  Emperor  was  a  very  rare  visitor; 
but  the  few  occasions  on  which  we  met  these  peculiar 
"  bird  people  "  of  Antarctica  will  remain  among  the 
most  delightful  memories  of  our  stay  in  the  Bay  of 
Whales. 


CHAPTER  XVI 

THE   VOYAGE  OF  THE   "FRAM" 

By  First-Lieutenant  Thorvcdd  Nilsen 

I. 

From    Norway   to   the   Barrier. 

After  the  Frain  had  undergone  extensive  repairs  in 
Horten  Dockyard,  and  had  loaded  provisions  and  equip- 
ment in  Christiania,  we  left  the  latter  port  on  June  7, 
1910.  According  to  the  plan  we  were  first  to  make  an 
oceanographical  cruise  of  about  two  months  in  tlie 
North  Atlantic,  and  then  to  return  to  Norway,  where 
the  Fram  was  to  be  docked  and  the  remaining  outfit 
and  dogs  taken  on  board. 

This  oceanographical  cruise  was  in  many  respects 
successful.  In  the  first  place,  we  gained  familiarity  with 
the  vessel,  and  got  everything  shipshape  for  the  long 
voyage  to  come;  but  the  best  of  all  was, that  we  acquired 
valuable  experience  of  our  auxiliary  engine.  This  is  a 
180  h.p.  Diesel  motor,  constructed  for  solar  oil,  of 
which  we  were  taking  about  90,000  litres  (about  19,800 
gallons).    In  this  connection  it  may  be  mentioned  that 

280 


FIRST-LIEUTENANT    THORVALD    NILSEN,    NORWEGIAN    NAVY. 


To/ace  7i((;/c  280,   Vol.  11 


THE  PRELIMINARY  CRUISE         281 

we  consumed  about  500  litres  (about  110  gallons)  a  day, 
and  that  the  Fram's  radius  of  action  was  thus  about  six 
months.  For  the  first  day  or  two  the  engine  went  well 
enough,  but  after  that  it  went  slower  and  slower,  and 
finally  stopped  of  its  own  accord.  After  this  it  was 
known  as  the  "  Whooping  Cough."  This  happened 
several  times  in  the  course  of  the  trip;  the  piston-rods 
had  constantly  to  be  taken  out  and  cleared  of  a  thick 
black  deposit.  As  possibly  our  whole  South  Polar 
Expedition  would  depend  on  the  motor  doing  its  work 
properly,  the  result  of  this  was  that  the  projected  cruise 
was  cut  short,  and  after  a  lapse  of  three  weeks  our  course 
was  set  for  Bergen,  where  we  changed  the  oil  for  refined 
paraffin,  and  at  the  same  time  had  the  motor  thoroughly 
overhauled. 

Since  then  there  has  never  been  anything  wrong  with 
the  engine. 

From  Bergen  we  went  to  Christiansand,  where  the 
Fram  was  docked,  and,  as  already  mentioned,  the 
remaining  outfit,  with  the  dogs  and  dog-food,  was 
taken  on  board. 

The  number  of  living  creatures  on  board  when  we 
left  Norway  was  nineteen  men,  ninety-seven  dogs,  four 
pigs,  six  carrier  pigeons,  and  one  canary. 

At  last  we  were  ready  to  leave  Christiansand  on 

Thursday,  August  9,  1910,  and  at  nine  o'clock  that 

evening  the  anchor  was  got  up  and  the  motor  started. 

After  the  busy  time  we  had  had,  no  doubt  we  were  all 
VOL.  II.  44 


282       THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAJNI  " 

glad  to  get  off.  As  our  departure  had  not  been 
made  public,  only  the  pilot  and  a  few  acquaintances 
accompanied  us  a  little  way  out.  It  was  glorious 
weather,  and  everyone  stayed  on  deck  till  far  into  the 
light  night,  watching  the  land  slowly  disappear.  All 
the  ninety-seven  dogs  were  chained  round  the  deck,  on 
which  we  also  had  coal,  oil,  timber  and  other  things,  so 
that  there  was  not  much  room  to  move  about. 

The  rest  of  the  vessel  was  absolutely  full.  To  take  an 
example,  in  the  fore-saloon  we  had  placed  forty-three 
sledging  cases,  which  were  filled  with  books,  Christmas 
presents,  underclothing,  and  the  like.  In  addition  to 
these,  one  hundred  complete  sets  of  dog-harness,  all  our 
ski,  ski-poles,  snow-shoes,  etc.  Smaller  articles  were 
stowed  in  the  cabins,  and  every  man  had  something. 
When  I  complained,  as  happened  pretty  often,  that 
I  could  not  imagine  where  this  or  that  was  to  be  put, 
the  Chief  of  the  expedition  used  generally  to  say:  "  Oh, 
that's  all  right;  you  can  just  put  it  in  your  cabin!" 
Thus  it  was  with  every  imaginable  thing — from  barrels 
of  paraffin  and  new-born  pups  to  writing  materials  and 
charts. 

As  the  story  of  this  voyage  has  already  been  told, 
it  may  be  rapidly  passed  over  here.  After  much  delay 
through  headwinds  in  the  Channel,  we  picked  up  the 
north-east  trade  in  about  the  latitude  of  Gibraltar,  and 
arrived  at  Madeira  on  September  6. 

At  9  p.m.  on  September  9  we  weighed  anchor  for  the 


IN  THE  TRADE  WINDS  28a 

last  time,  and  left  Madeira.  As  soon  as  we  were  clear 
of  the  land  we  got  the  north-east  trade  again,  and  it 
held  more  or  less  fresh  till  about  lat.  11°  N. 

After  our  departure  from  Madeira  I  took  over  the 
morning  watch,  from  4  to  8  a.m.;  Prestrud  and 
Gjertsen  divided  the  remainder  of  the  twenty-four 
hours. 

In  order  if  possible  to  get  a  little  more  way  on  the 
ship,  a  studding-sail  and  a  skysail  were  rigged  up  with 
two  awnings;  it  did  not  increase  our  speed  very  much, 
but  no  doubt  it  helped  a  little. 

The  highest  temperature  we  observed  was  84°  F. 
In  the  trade  winds  we  constantly  saw  flying-fish,  but 
as  far  as  I  know  not  one  was  ever  found  on  deck ;  those 
that  came  on  board  were  of  course  instantly  snapped  up 
by  the  dogs. 

In  about  lat.  11°  N.  we  lost  the  north-east  trade, 
and  thus  came  into  the  "  belt  of  calms,"  a  belt  that 
extends  on  each  side  of  the  Equator,  between  the 
north-east  and  south-east  trades.  Here,  as  a  rule,  one 
encounters  violent  rain  -  squalls ;  to  saihng  ships  in 
general  and  ourselves  in  particular  tliis  heavy  rain  is 
welcome,  as  water-tanks  can  be  filled  up.  Only  on  one 
day  were  we  lucky  enough  to  have  rain,  but  as  it  was 
accompanied  by  a  strong  squall  of  wind,  we  did  not 
catch  all  the  water  we  wanted.  All  hands  were  on 
deck  carrying  water,  some  in  oilskins,  some  in  Adam's 
costume;  the  Chief  in  a  white  tropical  suit,  and,  as  far 


284  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

as  I  remember,  clogs.  As  the  latter  were  rather 
slippery,  and  the  Fram  suddenly  gave  an  unexpected 
lurch,  he  was  carried  off  his  legs,  and  left  sitting  on  the 
deck,  while  his  bucket  of  water  poured  all  over  him. 
But  "  it  was  all  in  his  country's  cause,"  so  he  did  not 
mind.  We  caught  about  3  tons  of  water,  and  then 
had  our  tanks  full,  or  about  30  tons,  when  the  shower 
passed  off;  later  in  the  voyage  we  filled  a  bucket  now 
and  again,  but  it  never  amounted  to  much,  and  if  we 
had  not  been  as  careful  as  we  were,  our  water-supply 
would  hardly  have  lasted  out. 

On  October  4  we  crossed  the  Equator.  The  south- 
east trade  was  not  so  fresh  as  we  had  expected,  and  the 
engine  had  to  be  kept  going  the  whole  time. 

At  the  beginning  of  November  we  came  down  into 
the  west  wind  belt,  or  the  "  Roaring  Forties,"  as  they 
are  called,  and  from  that  time  we  ran  down  our  easting 
at  a  great  rate.  We  were  very  lucky  there,  and  had 
strong  fair  winds  for  nearly  seven  weeks  at  a  stretch. 
In  the  heavy  sea  we  found  out  what  it  was  to  sail  in  the 
Fram;  she  rolls  incessantly,  and  there  is  never  a 
moment's  rest.  The  dogs  were  thrown  backwards  and 
forwards  over  the  deck,  and  when  one  of  them  rolled 
into  another,  it  was  taken  as  a  personal  insult,  and  a 
fight  followed  at  once.  But  for  all  that  the  Fram  is 
a  first-rate  sea  boat,  and  hardly  ever  ships  any  water. 
If  this  had  been  otherwise,  the  dogs  would  have  been 
far  worse  off  than  they  were. 


THE    SECOND    IN    COMMAND    TAKES   A   NAP. 


To  lace  }mge  2S4,  Vol.  II. 


THE  FIRST  ICEBERGS  285 

The  weather  in  the  "  Foggy  Fifties  "  varied  between 
gales,  calms,  fogs,  snowstorms,  and  other  delights.  As 
a  rule,  the  engine  was  now  kept  constantly  ready,  in 
case  of  our  being  so  unlucky  as  to  come  too  near  an 
iceberg.  Fortunately,  however,  we  did  not  meet  any 
of  these  until  early  on  the  morning  of  January  1,  1911, 
when  we  saw  some  typical  Antarctic  bergs;  that  is  to 
say,  entirely  tabular.  Our  latitude  was  then  a  little 
over  60°  S.,  and  we  were  not  far  off  the  pack.  On  the 
1st  and  2nd  we  sailed  southward  without  seeing  any- 
thing but  scattered  bergs  and  a  constantly  increasing 
number  of  lumps  of  ice,  which  showed  us  we  were  get- 
ting near.  By  10  p.m.  on  the  2nd  we  came  into  slack 
drift-ice;  the  weather  was  foggy,  and  we  therefore  kept 
going  as  near  as  might  be  on  the  course  to  the  Bay  of 
Whales,  which  was  destined  to  be  our  base. 

A  good  many  seals  were  lying  on  the  ice-floes,  and  as 
we  went  forward  we  shot  some.  As  soon  as  the  first 
seal  was  brought  on  board,  all  our  dogs  had  their  first 
meat  meal  since  Madeira ;  they  were  given  as  much  as 
they  wanted,  and  ate  as  much  as  they  could.  We,  too, 
had  our  share  of  the  seal,  and  from  this  time  forward  we 
had  fresh  seal-steak  for  breakfast  at  least  every  day;  it 
tasted  excellent  to  us,  who  for  nearly  half  a  year  had 
been  living  on  nothing  but  tinned  meat.  With  the 
steak  whortleberries  were  always  served,  which  of 
course  helped  to  make  it  appreciated.  The  biggest 
seal  we  got  in  the  pack-ice  was  about  12  feet  long,  and 


286  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM 


j> 


weighed  nearly  half  a  ton.  A  few  penguins  were  also 
shot,  mostly  Adelie  penguins;  these  are  extraordinarily 
amusing,  and  as  inquisitive  as  an  animal  can  be.  When 
any  of  them  saw  us,  they  at  once  came  nearer  to  get 
a  better  view  of  the  unbidden  guests.  If  they  became 
too  impertinent,  we  did  not  hesitate  to  take  them,  for 
their  flesh,  especially  the  liver,  was  excellent.  The 
albatrosses,  which  had  followed  us  through  the  whole 
of  the  west  wind  belt,  had  now  departed,  and  in  their 
place  came  the  beautiful  snowy  petrels  and  Antarctic 
petrels. 

We  had  more  or  less  fog  all  through  the  pack-ice. 
Only  on  the  night  of  the  5th  did  we  have  sun  and  fine 
weather,  when  we  saw  the  midnight  sun  for  the  first 
time.  A  more  beautiful  morning  it  would  be  difficult 
to  imagine:  radiantly  clear,  with  thick  ice  everywhere, 
as  far  as  the  eye  could  see;  the  lanes  of  water  between 
the  floes  gleamed  in  the  sun,  and  the  ice-crystals  glit- 
tered like  thousands  of  diamonds.  It  was  a  pure  de- 
light to  go  on  deck  and  drink  in  the  fresh  air;  one  felt 
altogether  a  new  man.  I  believe  everyone  on  board 
found  this  passage  through  the  pack  the  most  interesting 
part  of  the  whole  voyage,  and,  of  course,  it  all  had  the 
charm  of  novelty.  Those  who  had  not  been  in  the  ice 
before,  myself  among  them,  and  who  were  hunting  for 
the  first  time,  ran  about  after  seals  and  penguins,  and 
amused  themselves  like  children. 

At  10  p.m.  on  the  6th  we  were  already  out  of  the 


THROUGH  THE  PACK  287 

ice  after  a  passage  of  exactly  four  days;  we  had  been 
extremely  lucky,  and  the  Fram  went  very  easily 
through  the  ice. 

After  coming  out  of  the  pack,  our  course  was  con- 
tinued through  the  open  Ross  Sea  to  the  Bay  of 
Whales,  which  from  the  previous  description  was  to 
be  found  in  about  long.  164°  W.  On  the  after- 
noon of  the  11th  we  had  strong  ice-bhnk  ahead,  by 
which  is  meant  the  luminous  stripe  that  is  seen  above 
a  considerable  accumulation  of  ice;  the  nearest  thing 
one  can  compare  it  to  is  the  glare  that  is  always  seen 
over  a  great  city  on  approaching  it  at  night.  We  knew 
at  once  that  this  was  the  glare  of  the  mighty  Ross 
Barrier,  named  after  Sir  James  Clark  Ross,  who  first 
saw  it  in  1841.  The  Barrier  is  a  wall  of  ice,  several 
hundred  miles  long,  and  about  100  feet  high,  which 
forms  the  southern  boundary  of  Ross  Sea.  We  were, 
of  course,  very  intent  upon  seeing  what  it  looked  like, 
but  to  me  it  did  not  appear  so  imposing  as  I  had 
imagined  it.  Possibly  this  was  because  I  had  become 
familiar  with  it,  in  a  way,  from  the  many  descriptions 
of  it.  From  these  descriptions  we  had  expected  to  find 
a  comparatively  narrow  opening  into  Balloon  Bight,  as 
shown  in  the  photographs  we  had  before  us;  but  as 
we  went  along  the  Barrier,  on  the  12th,  we  could  find 
no  opening.  In  long.  164°  W.,  on  the  other  hand, 
there  was  a  great  break  in  the  wall,  forming  a  cape 
(West  Cape)  ;  from  here  to  the  other  side  of  the  Barrier 


288  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

was  about  eight  geographical  miles,  and  southward,  as 
far  as  we  could  see,  lay  loose  bay  ice.  We  held  on  to  the 
east  outside  this  drift-ice  and  along  the  eastern  Barrier 
till  past  midnight,  but  as  Balloon  Bight  was  not  to  be 
found,  we  returned  to  the  above-mentioned  break  or 
cape,  where  we  lay  during  the  whole  forenoon  of  the 
13th,  as  the  ice  was  too  thick  to  allow  us  to  make  any 
progress.  After  midday,  however,  the  ice  loosened, 
and  began  to  drift  out ;  at  the  same  time  we  went»in,  and 
having  gone  as  far  as  possible,  the  Fram  was  moored  to 
the  fast  ice-foot  on  the  western  side  of  the  great  bay  we 
had  entered.  It  proved  that  Balloon  Bight  and  another 
bight  had  merged  to  form  a  great  bay,  exactly  as 
described  by  Sir  Ernest  Shackleton,  and  named  by  him 
the  Bay  of  Whales. 

After  mooring  here,  the  Chief  and  one  or  two  others 
went  on  a  reconnoitring  tour;  but  it  began  to  snow 
pretty  thickly,  and,  as  far  as  I  am  aware,  nothing  was 
accomplished  beyond  seeing  that  the  Barrier  at  the 
southernmost  end  of  the  bay  sloped  evenly  down  to 
the  sea-ice;  but  between  the  latter  and  the  slope  there 
was  open  water,  so  that  they  could  not  go  any  farther. 
We  lay  all  night  drifting  in  the  ice,  which  was  con- 
stantly breaking  up,  and  during  this  time  several  seals 
and  penguins  were  shot.  Towards  morning  on  the  14th 
it  became  quite  clear,  and  we  had  a  splendid  view  of 
the  surroundings.  Right  over  on  the  eastern  side  of 
the  bay  it  looked  as  if  there  was  more  open  water;  we 


A  SEAL  HUNT  289 

therefore  went  along  the  fast  ice-foot  and  moored  off 
the  eastern  Barrier  at  about  three  in  the  afternoon. 
The  cape  in  the  Barrier,  under  which  we  lay,  was  given 
the  name  of  "Man's  Head,"  on  account  of  its  resemblance 
to  a  human  profile.  All  the  time  we  were  going  along 
the  ice  we  were  shooting  seals,  so  that  on  arrival  at  our 
final  moorings  we  already  had  a  good  supply  of  meat. 

For  my  part  I  was  rather  unlucky  on  one  of  these 
hunts.  Four  seals  were  lying  on  the  ice-foot,  and  I 
jumped  down  with  rifle  and  five  cartridges;  to  take  any 
cartridges  in  reserve  did  not  occur  to  me,  as,  of  course, 
I  regarded  myself  as  a  mighty  hunter,  and  thought  that 
one  shot  per  seal  was  quite  enough.  The  three  first 
died  without  a  groan;  but  the  fourth  took  the  alarm, 
and  made  off  as  fast  as  it  could.  I  fired  my  fourth 
cartridge,  but  it  did  not  hit  as  it  ought  to  have  done, 
and  the  seal  was  in  full  flight,  leaving  a  streak  of  blood 
behind  it.  I  was  not  anxious  to  let  a  wounded  seal  go, 
and  as  I  had  only  one  cartridge  left,  and  the  seal  had 
its  tail  turned  towards  me,  I  wanted  to  come  to  close 
quarters  to  make  sure  of  it.  I  therefore  ran  as  hard  as 
I  could,  but  the  seal  was  quicker,  and  it  determined  the 
range.  After  running  half-way  to  the  South  Pole,  I 
summoned  my  remaining  strength  and  fired  the  last 
shot.  Whether  the  bullet  went  above  or  below,  I  have 
no  idea.  All  I  know  is,  that  on  arriving  on  board  I 
was  met  by  scornful  smiles  and  had  to  stand  a  good 
deal  of  chaff. 


290       THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAjNI  " 

As  already  mentioned,  we  left  Norway  on  August  9, 

1910,  and  arrived  at  our  final  moorings  on  January  14, 

1911,  in  the  course  of  which  time  we  had  only  called 
at  Madeira.  The  Barrier  is  16,000  geographical  miles 
from  Norway,  a  distance  which  we  took  five  months 
to  cover.  From  Madeira  we  had  had  127  days  in  open 
sea,  and  therewith  the  first  part  of  the  voyage  was 
brought  to  an  end. 


II. 

Off  the  Barrier. 

As  soon  as  we  had  moored,  the  Chief,  Prestrud, 
Johansen  and  I  went  up  on  to  the  Barrier  on  a  tour 
of  reconnaissance.  The  ascent  from  the  sea-ice  to  the 
Barrier  was  fine,  a  perfectly  even  slope.  When  no 
more  than  a  mile  from  the  ship,  we  found  a  good  site 
for  the  first  dog-camp,  and  another  mile  to  the  south  it 
was  decided  that  the  house  was  to  stand,  on  the  slope 
of  a  hill,  where  it  would  be  least  exposed  to  the  strong 
south-easterly  gales  which  might  be  expected  from 
previous  descriptions.  Up  on  the  Barrier  all  was  abso- 
lutely still,  and  there  was  not  a  sign  of  life;  indeed, 
what  should  anytliing  live  on?  This  deliglitful  ski-run 
was  extended  a  little  farther  to  the  south,  and  after 
a  couple  of  hours  we  returned  on  board.  Here  in  the 
meantime  the  slaughtering  of  seals  had  been  going  on. 


UNLOADING  THE  SHIP  291 

and  there  were  plenty  to  be  had,  as  several  hundreds  of 
them  lay  about  on  the  ice. 

After  the  rather  long  sea  voyage,  and  the  cramped 
quarters  on  board,  I  must  say  it  was  a  pleasure  to  have 
fii'm  ground  under  one's  feet  and  to  be  able  to  move 
about  a  little.  The  dogs  evidently  thought  the  same; 
when  they  came  down  on  to  the  ice,  they  rolled  in  the 
snow  and  ran  about,  wild  with  delight.  During  our 
whole  stay  a  great  part  of  the  time  was  spent  in  ski- 
runs  and  seal-hunts,  and  an  agreeable  change  it  was. 

Sunday  the  15th  was  spent  in  setting  up  tents  at  the 
first  dog-camp  and  at  Framheim,  as  the  winter  station 
was  named.  A  team  of  dogs  was  used,  and,  as  they 
were  unused  to  being  driven,  it  is  not  surprising  that 
some  lay  down,  others  fought,  a  few  wanted  to  go  on 
board,  but  hardly  any  of  them  appreciated  the  serious- 
ness of  the  situation  or  understood  that  their  good  time 
had  come  to  an  end.  On  Monday  all  the  dogs  were 
landed,  and  on  the  following  day  the  supplies  began  to 
be  put  ashore. 

The  landing  of  the  cases  was  done  in  this  way:  the 
sea-party  brought  up  on  deck  as  many  cases  as  the 
drivers  could  take  in  one  journey;  as  the  sledges  came 
down  to  the  vessel,  the  cases  were  sent  down  on  to  the 
ice  on  skids,  so  that  it  all  went  very  rapidly.  We 
would  not  put  the  cases  out  on  the  ice  before  the 
sledges  came  back,  as,  in  case  the  ice  should  break  up, 
we  should  be  obliged  to  heave  them  all  on  board  again. 


292       THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAJM  " 

or  we  might  even  lose  them.  At  night  no  one  was 
ever  allowed  to  stay  on  the  ice. 

Before  we  reached  the  ice,  we  had  counted  on  having 
50  per  cent,  of  idle  days — that  is,  from  previous  descrip- 
tions we  had  reckoned  on  having  such  bad  weather  half 
the  time  that  the  Fram  would  be  obliged  to  leave  her 
moorings.  In  this  respect  we  were  far  luckier  than  we 
expected,  and  only  had  to  put  out  twice.  The  first 
time  was  on  the  night  of  January  25,  when  we  had 
a  stiff  breeze  from  the  north  with  some  sea,  so  that 
the  vessel  was  bumping  rather  hard  against  the  ice. 
Drifting  floes  came  down  upon  us,  and  so  as  not  to  be 
caught  by  any  iceberg  that  might  suddenly  come  sailing 
in  from  the  point  of  the  Barrier  we  called  IMan's  Head, 
we  took  our  moorings  on  board  and  went.  When  the 
shore  party  next  morning  came  down  as  usual  at  a 
swinging  pace,  they  saw  to  their  astonishment  that  the 
Fram  was  gone.  In  the  course  of  the  day  the  weather 
became  fine,  and  we  tried  to  go  back  about  noon;  but 
the  bay  was  so  full  of  drift-ice  that  we  could  not  come 
in  to  the  fast  ice-foot.  About  nine  in  the  evening  we 
saw  from  the  crow's  nest  that  the  ice  was  loosening; 
we  made  the  attempt,  and  by  midnight  we  were  again 
moored. 

But  the  day  was  not  wasted  by  the  shore  party,  for  on 
the  day  before  Kristensen,  L,  Hansen  and  I  had  been 
out  on  ski  and  had  shot  forty  seals,  which  were  taken  up 
to  the  station  while  we  were  away. 


ON    THE    ICE    EDGE,    JANUARY,    1911. 


To  face  iiage  292,  Vol.  II. 


THE  "  TERRA  NOVA  "  ARRIVES     293 

Only  once  or  twice  more  did  we  have  to  leave  our 
berth,  until  on  February  7,  when  almost  all  the  ice  had 
left  the  bay,  we  were  able  to  moor  alongside  the  low, 
fast  Barrier,  where  we  lay  in  peace  until  we  went  for 
good. 

There  was  a  great  deal  of  animal  life  about  us.  A 
number  of  whales  came  close  in  to  the  vessel,  where  they 
stayed  still  to  look  at  the  uninvited  guests.  On  the  ice 
seals  came  right  up  to  the  ship,  as  did  large  and  small 
flocks  of  penguins,  to  have  a  look  at  us.  These  latter 
Mere  altogether  extraordinarily  inquisitive  creatures. 
Two  Emperor  penguins  often  came  to  our  last  moorings 
to  watch  us  laying  out  an  ice-anchor  or  hauling  on  a 
hawser,  while  they  put  their  heads  on  one  side  and 
jabbered,  and  they  were  given  the  names  of  "  the 
Harbour-master  and  his  Missis." 

A  great  number  of  birds,  skua  gulls,  snowy  petrels 
and  Antarctic  petrels,  flew  round  the  ship  and  gave  us 
many  a  good  "  roast  ptarmigan." 

On  the  morning  of  February  4,  about  1  a.m.,  the 
watchman,  Beck,  came  and  called  me  with  the  news  that 
a  vessel  was  coming  in.  I  guessed  at  once,  of  course, 
that  it  was  the  Terra  Nova;  but  I  must  confess  that  I 
did  not  feel  inclined  to  turn  out  and  look  at  her.  We 
hoisted  the  colours,  however. 

As  soon  as  she  was  moored.  Beck  told  me,  some  of 
her  party  went  ashore,  presumably  to  look  for  the  house. 
They  did  not  find  it,  though,  and  at  3  a.m.  Beck  came 


294       THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAJNI  " 

below  again,  and  said  that  now  they  were  coming  on 
board.  So  then  I  turned  out  and  received  them.  They 
were  Lieutenant  Campbell, the  leader  of  Captain  Scott's 
second  shore  party,  and  Lieutenant  Pennell,  the  com- 
mander of  the  Terra  Nova.  They  naturally  asked  a 
number  of  questions,  and  evidently  had  some  difficulty 
in  believing  that  it  was  actually  the  Fram  that  was 
lying  here.  We  had  at  first  been  taken  for  a  whaler. 
They  offered  to  take  our  mail  to  New  Zealand;  but  we 
had  no  mail  ready,  and  had  to  decline  the  offer  with 
thanks.  Later  in  the  day  a  number  of  the  Terra 
Novas  officers  went  to  breakfast  at  Framheim,  and 
the  Chief,  Prestrud  and  I  lunched  with  them.  At 
about  two  in  the  afternoon  the  Terra  Nova  sailed 
again. 

On  Friday,  February  16,  a  number  of  the  shore  party 
started  on  the  first  trip  to  lay  down  depots.  We  cleared 
up,  filled  our  water-tanks  with  snow,  and  made  the  ship 
ready  for  sea.  We  had  finished  this  by  the  evening  of 
the  l-lth. 


HI. 

From  the  Bay  of  Whales  to  Buenos  Aires. 

The  sea  party  consisted  of  the  following  ten  men: 
Thorvald  Nilsen,  L.  Hansen,  H.  Kristensen  and  J. 
Nodtvedt;    H.    F.    Gjertsen,    A    Beck,    M.    Ronne, 


I' 


H 
O 
O 
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I 

a 
o 

a 
K 

O 

en 
O 

o 
o 


o 


l-t 

< 

n 

K 

o 

o 
o 

H 

a 

H 

o 


O 
D 


WE  LEAVE  THE  BARRIER  295 

A.  Kutschin  and  O.  K.  Sundbeck.  The  first  four 
formed  one  watch,  from  eight  to  two,  and  the  last  five 
the  other,  from  two  to  eight.  Last,  but  not  least,  comes 
K.  Olsen,  cook. 

Having  made  ready  for  sea,  we  let  go  our  moorings 
on  the  Ice  Barrier  at  9  a.m.  on  February  15,  1911. 
Hassel,  Wisting,  Bjaaland,  and  Stubberud  came  down 
to  see  us  off.  As  in  the  course  of  the  last  few  days  the 
ice  had  broken  up  right  to  the  end  of  the  bay,  we  went 
as  far  south  as  possible  to  take  a  sounding;  the  shallowest 
we  got  was  155f  fathoms  (285  metres) .  The  bay  ended 
in  a  ridge  of  ice  on  the  east,  which  was  continued  in  a 
northerly  direction,  so  that  at  the  spot  where  we  were 
stopped  by  the  Barrier,  we  reached  the  most  southerly 
point  that  a  vessel  can  attain,  so  long  as  the  Barrier 
remains  as  it  is  now.  Highest  latitude  78°  41'  S.  When 
the  Terra  Nova  was  here,  her  latitude  and  ours  was 
78°  38'  S. 

The  last  two  days  before  our  departure  had  been  calm, 
and  a  thick,  dense  sludge  lay  over  the  whole  bay;  so 
dense  was  it  that  the  Fram  lost  her  way  altogether,  and 
we  had  to  keep  going  ahead  and  astern  until  we  came 
out  into  a  channel.  Seals  by  the  hundred  were  lying 
on  the  floes,  but  as  we  had  a  quantity  of  seal's  flesh,  we 
left  them  in  peace  for  a  change. 

Before  the  Chief  began  the  laying  out  of  depots,  I 
received  from  him  the  following  orders: 


296     THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FR AM  " 

"  To  First-Lieutenant  Thoryald  Xilsen. 

"  With  the  departure  of  the  Fram  from  the  Ice 
Barrier,  you  will  take  over  the  command  on  board.  In 
accordance  with  the  plan  we  have  mutually  agreed  upon : 

"1.  You  will  sail  direct  to  Buenos  Aires,  where  the 
necessary  repairs  will  be  executed,  provisions  taken  on 
board,  and  the  crew  comj^leted.  When  this  has  been 
done, 

"  2.  You  will  sail  from  Buenos  Aires  to  carry  out 
oceanographical  observations  in  the  South  Atlantic 
Ocean.  It  would  be  desirable  if  j^ou  could  investigate 
the  conditions  between  South  America  and  Africa  in 
two  sections.  These  investigations  must,  however,  be 
dependent  on  the  prevailing  conditions,  and  on  the  time 
at  your  disposal.  When  the  time  arrives  you  will 
return  to  Buenos  Aires,  where  the  final  preparations  will 
be  made  for 

"  3.  Your  departure  for  the  Ice  Barrier  to  take  off  the 
shore  party.  The  sooner  you  can  make  your  ^vay  in  to 
the  Barrier  in  1912,  the  better.  I  mention  no  time,  as 
everything  depends  on  circumstances,  and  I  leave  it  to 
you  to  act  according  to  your  judgment. 

"  In  all  else  that  concerns  the  interests  of  the  Expedi- 
tion, I  leave  you  entire  freedom  of  action. 

"  If  on  your  return  to  tlie  Barrier  you  should  find  that 
I  am  prevented  by  illness  or  death  from  taking  over  the 
leadership  of  the  Expedition,  I  place  this  in  your  hands, 


OUR  INSTRUCTIONS  297 

and  beg  you  most  earnestly  to  endeavour  to  carry  out 
the  original  plan  of  the  Expedition — the  exploration  of 
the  North  Polar  basin. 

"  With  thanks  for  the  time  we  have  spent  together, 
and  in  the  hope  that  when  we  meet  again  we  shall  have 
reached  our  respective  goals, 

"  I  am, 

"  Yours  sincerely, 

"  RoALD  Amundsen." 

When  Sir  James  Ross  was  in  these  waters  for  the  first 
time,  in  1842,  he  marked  "  Appearance  of  land  "  in  long. 
160°  W.,  and  lat.  about  78°  S.  Afterwards,  in  1902, 
Captain  Scott  named  this  land  "  King  Edward  VII. 
Land."  One  of  the  Terra  Novas  objects  was  to 
explore  this  land;  but  when  we  met  the  ship  on 
February  4,  they  told  us  on  board  that  on  account  of  the 
ice  conditions  they  had  not  been  able  to  land.  As  no 
one  had  ever  been  ashore  there,  I  thought  it  might  be 
interesting  to  go  and  see  what  it  looked  like.  Conse- 
quently our  course  was  laid  north-eastward  along  the 
Barrier.  During  the  night  a  thick  sea-fog  came  on,  and 
it  was  only  now  and  then  that  we  could  see  the  Barrier 
over  our  heads.  All  of  a  sudden  we  were  close  upon 
a  lofty  iceberg,  so  that  we  had  to  put  the  helm  hard 
over  to  go  clear.  The  Fram  steers  splendidly,  however, 
when    she   is   in    proper   trim,    and  turns  as  if    on    a 

pivot;  besides  which,  it  was  calm. 

VOL.  II.  45 


298     THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "FRAJVI 


>» 


As  the  day  advanced,  the  weather  cleared  more  and 
more,  and  by  noon  it  was  perfectly  clear.  The  sight 
that  then  met  us  was  the  lofty  Barrier  to  starboard,  and 
elsewhere  all  round  about  some  fifty  icebergs,  great  and 
small.  The  Barrier  rose  from  about  100  feet  at  its  edge 
to  something  like  1,200  feet. 

We  followed  the  Barrier  for  some  distance,  but  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Cape  Colbeck  we  met  the  drift-ice, 
ajnd  as  I  had  no  wish  to  come  between  this  and  tha 
Barrier,  we  stood  out  in  a  north-westerly  direction. 
There  is,  besides,  the  disadvantage  about  a  propeller 
like  ours,  that  it  is  apt  to  wear  out  the  brasses,  so  that 
these  have  to  be  renewed  from  time  to  time.  It  was 
imperative  that  this  should  be  done  before  we  came 
into  the  pack-ice,  and  the  sooner  the  better.  When, 
therefore,  we  had  gone  along  the  Barrier  for  about 
a  day  and  a  half  without  seeing  any  bare  land,  we 
set  our  course  north-west  in  open  water,  and  after 
we  had  come  some  way  out  we  got  a  slant  of 
easterly  wind,  so  that  the  sails  could  be  set.  We 
saw  the  snow -covered  land  and  the  glare  above  it  all 
night. 

The  date  had  not  yet  been  changed,  but  as  this  had 
to  be  done,  it  was  changed  on  February  15.* 

*  A  vessel  sailing  continuously  to  the  eastward  puts  the  clock  on 
every  day,  one  hour  for  every  fifteen  degrees  of  longitude ;  one  sailing 
westward  puts  it  back  in  the  same  way.  In  long.  180°  one  of  them 
has  gone  twelve  hours  forward,  the  other  twelve  hours  back ;  the  differ- 


THE  PROPELLER  REPAIRED         299 

At  noon  on  the  16th  the  propeller  was  lifted,  and  by 
the  evening  of  the  17th  the  job  was  done— a  record 
in  spite  of  the  temperature.  Capital  fellows  to  work, 
our  engineers. 

On  the  night  of  the  15th  we  saw  the  midnight  sun 
unfortunately  for  the  last  time.  The  same  night  some- 
thing dark  was  sighted  on  the  port  bow ;  in  that  light  it 
looked  very  like  an  islet.  The  sounding  apparatus  was 
got  ready,  and  we  who  were  on  watch  of  course  saw 
ourselves  in  our  minds  as  great  discoverers.  I  was 
already  wondering  what  would  be  the  most  appropriate 
name  to  give  it,  but,  alas!  the  "discovery"  became 
clearer  and  the  name — well,  it  was  a  rather  prosaic  one : 
"  Dead  Whale  Islet " ;  for  it  turned  out  to  be  a  huge 
inflated  whale,  that  was  drifting,  covered  with  birds. 

We  went  rather  slowly  north-westward  under  sail 
alone.  On  the  morning  of  the  17th  we  saw  ice-blink 
on  the  starboard  bow,  and  about  noon  we  were  close  to 
the  pack  itself;  it  was  here  quite  thick,  and  raised  by 
pressure,  so  that  an  attempt  to  get  through  it  was  out 
of  the  question.  We  were,  therefore,  obliged  to  follow 
the  ice  to  the  west.  Due  aft  we  saw  in  the  sky  the 
same  glare  as  above  the  great  Ice  Barrier,  which  may 
possibly  show  that  the  Barrier  turns  towards  the  north 


ence  is  thus  twenty-four  hours.  In  changing  the  longitude,  therefore, 
one  has  to  change  the  date,  so  that,  in  passing  from  east  to  west 
longitude,  one  will  have  the  same  day  twice  over,  and  in  passing  from 
west  to  east  longitude  a  day  must  be  missed. 


300  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

and  north-west;  besides  which,  the  masses  of  pressure- 
ice  that  collect  here  must  go  to  show  that  it  encoimters 
an  obstruction,  probably  the  Barrier.  When  we  went 
out  in  1912  the  ice  lay  in  exactly  the  same  place  and  in 
the  same  way. 

Our  course  was  still  to  the  west  along  the  pack-ice, 
and  it  was  not  till  the  20th  that  we  could  turn  her  nose 
northward  again.  For  a  change  we  now  had  a  stiff 
breeze  from  the  south-east,  with  thick  snow,  so  we  got 
on  very  well.  On  the  whole,  the  Fram  goes  much 
more  easily  through  the  water  now  than  on  the  way 
south.  Her  bottom  has  probably  been  cleaned  by  the 
cold  water  and  all  the  scraping  against  the  ice;  besides 
which,  we  have  no  more  than  a  third  of  the  load  with 
which  we  left  Norway. 

On  the  night  of  the  20th  we  had  to  light  the  binnacle- 
lamps  again,  and  now  the  days  grew  rapidly  shorter. 
It  may  possibly  be  a  good  thing  to  have  dark  nights  on 
land,  but  at  sea  it  ought  always  to  be  light,  especially 
in  these  waters,  which  are  more  or  less  unknown,  and 
full  of  drifting  icebergs. 

At  4  p.m.  on  the  22nd  we  entered  the  drift-ice  in 
lat.  70-5°  S.,  long.  177*5''  E.  The  ice  was  much 
higher  and  uglier  than  when  we  were  going  south, 
but  as  there  was  nothing  but  ice  as  far  as  we  could 
see  both  east  and  west,  and  it  was  fairly  loose,  we  had 
to  make  the  attempt  where  there  seemed  to  be  the  best 
chance  of  getting  through. 


CLEAR  OF  THE  PACK  301 

The  seals,  which  to  the  south  of  the  ice  had  been 
following  us  in  decreasing  numbers,  had  now  disap- 
peared almost  entirely,  and  curiously  enough  we  saw 
very  few  seals  in  the  pack.  Luckily,  however,  Lieu- 
tenant Gjertsen's  watch  got  three  seals,  and  for  a 
week  we  were  able  to  enjoy  seal-beef,  popularly  known 
as  "  crocodile  beef,"  three  times  a  day.  Seal-beef  and 
fresh  whortleberries — delicioso ! 

We  went  comparatively  well  through  the  ice,  though 
at  night — from  eleven  to  one — we  had  to  slacken  speed, 
as  it  was  impossible  to  steer  clear  on  accoimt  of  the 
darkness,  and  towards  morning  we  had  a  heavy  fall  of 
snow,  so  that  nothing  could  be  seen,  and  the  engine  had 
to  be  stopped.  When  it  cleared,  at  about  9  a.m.,  we 
had  come  into  a  dam,  out  of  which  we  luckily  managed 
to  turn  fairly  easily,  coming  out  into  a  bay.  This  was 
formed  by  over  a  hundred  icebergs,  many  of  which  lay 
in  contact  with  each  other  and  had  packed  the  ice  close 
together.  On  the  west  was  the  outlet,  which  we  steered 
for,  and  by  10  p.m.  on  February  23  we  were  already 
out  of  the  ice  and  in  open  water.  Our  latitude  was 
then  69°  S.,  longitude  175-5°  E. 

It  is  very  curious  to  find  such  calm  weather  in 
Ross  Sea;  in  the  two  months  we  have  been  here  we 
have  hardly  had  a  strong  breeze.  Thus,  when  I  was 
relieved  at  2  a.m.  on  the  25th,  I  wrote  in  my  diary: 
"...  It  is  calm,  not  a  ripple  on  the  water.  The 
three  men  forming  the  watch  walk  up  and  down  the 


302     THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRA3I 


>j 


deck.  Now  and  then  one  hears  the  penguins'  cry, 
kva,  kva,  but  except  these  there  is  no  other  sound  than 
the  tuf,  tuff  of  the  motor,  220  times  a  minute.  Ah, 
that  motor!  it  goes  unweariedly.  It  has  now  gone  for 
1,000  hours  without  being  cleaned,  while  on  our  Atlantic 
cruise  last  year  it  stopped  dead  after  going  for  eighty 
hours.  .  .  .  Right  over  us  we  have  the  Southern 
Cross,  all  round  glow  the  splendid  southern  lights,  and 
in  the  darkness  can  be  seen  the  gleaming  outline  of  an 
iceberg.  .  .  ." 

On  the  26th  we  crossed  the  Antarctic  Circle,  and  the 
same  day  the  temperature  both  of  air  and  water  rose 
above  32°  F. 

It  was  with  sorrow  in  our  hearts  that  we  ate  our  last 
piece  of  "  crocodile  beef,"  but  I  hoped  we  should  get 
a  good  many  albatrosses,  which  we  saw  as  soon  as  we 
came  out  of  the  ice.  They  were  mostly  the  sooty 
albatross,  that  tireless  bird  that  generally  circles  alone 
about  the  ship  and  is  so  difficult  to  catch,  as  he  seldom 
tries  to  bite  at  the  pork  that  is  used  as  bait.  When 
I  saw  these  birds  for  the  first  time,  as  a  deck  boy,  I  was 
told  they  were  called  parsons,  because  they  were  the 
souls  of  ungodly  clergymen,  who  had  to  wait  down  here 
till  doomsday  without  rest. 

More  or  less  in  our  course  to  Cape  Horn  there  are 
supposed  to  be  two  groups  of  islands,  the  Nimrod  group 
in  about  long.  158°  W.,  and  Dougherty  Island  in  about 
long.  120°  W.   They  are  both  marked  "  D  "  (Doubtful) 


SEARCH  FOR  DOUBTFUL  ISLANDS     303 

on  the  English  charts.    Lieutenant  Shackleton's  vessel, 
the   Nimrod,  Captain   Davis,   searched  for   both,   but 
found  neither;   Dougherty    Island,    however,    is    said 
to   have   been    twice    sighted.       The    Frams    course 
was  therefore  laid  for  the  Nimrod  group.    For  a  time 
things  went  very  well,  but  then  we  had   a  week  of 
northerly  winds — that  is,  head  winds — and  when  at  last 
we  had  a  fair  wind  again,  we  were  so  far  to  the  south- 
east of  them  that  there  was  no  sense  in  sailing  back  to 
the  north-west  to  look  for  doubtful  islands;  it  would 
certainly   have    taken    us    weeks.      Consequently,    our 
course   was    laid    for  Dougherty    Island.      We    had 
westerly  winds  for  about  two  weeks,  and  were  only  two 
or  three  days'  sail  from  the  island  in  question,  when 
suddenly  we  had   a  gale  from   the  north-east,  which 
lasted  for  three  days,  and  ended  in  a  hurricane  from  the 
same   quarter.     When   this   was   over,  we   had    come 
according  to  dead  reckoning  about  eighty  nautical  miles 
to  the  south-east  of  the  island;  the  heavy  swell,  which 
lasted  for  days,  made  it  out  of  the  question  to  attempt 
to  go  against  it  with  the  motor.    We  hardly  had  a 
glimpse  of  sun  or  stars,  and  weeks  passed  without  our 
being  able  to  get  an  observation,  so  that  for  that  matter 
we  might  easily  be  a  degree  or  two  out  in  our  reckon- 
ing.    For  the  present,  therefore,  we  must  continue  to 
regard  these  islands  as  doubtful. 

Moral:  Don't  go  on  voyages  of  discovery,  my  friend; 
you're  no  good  at  it ! 


304  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM 


>» 


As  soon  as  we  were  out  of  Ross  Sea  and  had  entered 
the  South  Pacific  Ocean,  the  old  circus  started  again — 
in  other  words,  the  Fram  began  her  everlasting  rolling 
from  one  side  to  the  other.  When  this  was  at  its  worst, 
and  cups  and  plates  were  dancing  the  fandango  in  the 
galley,  its  occupant's  only  wish  was,  "  Oh,  to  be  in 
Buenos  Aires !"  For  that  matter,  it  is  not  a  very  easy 
job  to  be  cook  in  such  circumstances,  but  ours  was 
always  in  a  good  humour,  singing  and  whistling  all  day 
long.  How  well  the  Fram  understands  the  art  of 
rolling  is  shown  by  the  following  little  episode. 

One  afternoon  a  couple  of  us  were  sitting  drinking 
coffee  on  a  tool-box  that  stood  outside  the  galley.  As 
ill-luck  would  have  it,  during  one  of  the  lurches  the 
lashing  came  loose,  and  the  box  shot  along  the  deck. 
Suddenly  it  was  checked  by  an  obstacle,  and  one  of 
those  who  were  sitting  on  it  flew  into  the  air,  through 
the  galley  door,  and  dashed  past  the  cook  with  a 
splendid  tiger's  leap,  until  he  landed  face  downwards  at 
the  other  end  of  the  galley,  still  clinging  like  grim  death 
to  his  cup,  as  though  he  wanted  something  to  hold  on 
to.  The  face  he  presented  after  this  successful  feat  of 
aviation  was  extremely  comical,  and  those  who  saw  it 
had  a  hearty  fit  of  laughter. 

As  has  already  been  said,  we  went  very  well  for  a 
time  after  reaching  the  Pacific,  a  fair  wind  for  fourteen 
days  together,  and  I  began  to  hope  that  we  were  once 
more  in  what  are  called  the  "  westerlies."     However, 


BECK    STEERS    THE    "FRAM"    THROUGH    UNKNOWN    WATERS. 


OUR   COOK,    CHEERFUL    AND    CONTENTED   AS    USUAL. 


'io  face  page  304,  Vol.  II. 


ROLLING  AGAIN  305 

nothing  is  perfect  in  this  world,  and  we  found  that  out 
here,  as  we  had  icebergs  every  day,  and  were  constantly 
bothered  by  snow-squalls  or  fog;  the  former  were,  of 
course,  to  be  preferred,  as  it  was  at  any  rate  clear 
between  the  squalls;  but  fog  is  the  worst  thing  of  all. 
It  sometimes  happened  that  all  hands  were  on  deck  the 
whole  night  to  work  the  ship  at  a  moment's  notice,  and 
there  were  never  less  than  two  men  on  the  lookout 
forward.  The  engine,  too,  was  always  ready  to  be 
started  instantly.  A  little  example  will  show  how 
ready  the  crew  were  at  any  time. 

One  Sunday  afternoon,  when  Hansen,  Kristensen  and 
I  were  on  watch,  the  wind  began  to  draw  ahead,  so  that 
we  had  to  beat.  It  was  blowing  quite  freshly,  but  I  did 
not  want  to  call  the  watch  below,  as  they  might  need 
all  the  sleep  they  could  get,  and  Hansen  and  I  were  to 
]3ut  the  ship  about.  Kristensen  was  steering,  but  gave 
us  a  hand  when  he  could  leave  the  wheel.  As  the  ship 
luffed  up  into  the  wind  and  the  sails  began  to  flap 
pretty  violently,  the  whole  of  the  watch  below  suddenly 
came  rushing  on  deck  in  nothing  but  their  unmention- 
ables and  started  to  haul.  Chance  willed  it  that  at  the 
same  moment  an  iceberg  came  out  of  the  fog,  right  in 
front  of  our  bows.  It  was  not  many  minutes,  either, 
before  we  were  on  the  other  tack,  and  the  watch  below 
did  not  linger  long  on  deck.  With  so  few  clothes  on  it 
was  no  pleasure  to  be  out  in  that  cold,  foggy  air.  They 
slept  so  lightly,  then,  that  it  took  no  more  noise  than 


306  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

that  to  wake  them.  When  I  afterwards  asked  one  of 
them — I  think  it  was  Beck — what  made  them  think  of 
coming  up,  he  rephed  that  they  thought  we  were  going  to 
run  into  an  iceberg  and  were  trying  to  get  out  of  the  way. 

It  has  haj)pened  at  night  that  I  have  seen  the  ice- 
bhnk  as  far  off  as  eight  miles,  and  then  there  is  nothing 
to  fear;  but  sometimes  in  the  middle  of  the  dav  we 
have  sailed  close  to  icebergs  that  have  only  been  seen  a 
few  minutes  before  we  were  right  on  them.  As  the 
voyage  was  long,  we  sailed  as  fast  as  we  could,  as  a  rule ; 
but  on  two  or  three  nights  we  had  to  reduce  our  way  to 
a  minimum,  as  we  could  not  see  much  farther  than  the 
end  of  the  bowsprit. 

After  two  or  three  weeks'  sailing  the  icebergs  began 
gradually  to  decrease,  and  I  hoped  we  should  soon  come 
to  the  end  of  them;  but  on  Sundaj^  ]March  5,  when  it 
was  fairly  clear,  we  saw  about  midday  a  whole  lot  of  big 
bergs  ahead.  One  of  the  watch  below,  who  had  just 
come  on  deck,  exclaimed:  "What  the  devil  is  this 
beastly  mess  yon  fellows  have  got  into?"  He  might  well 
ask,  for  in  the  course  of  that  afternoon  we  passed  no  less 
than  about  a  hundred  bergs.  They  were  big  tabular 
bergs,  all  of  the  same  height,  about  100  feet,  or  about  as 
high  as  the  crow's-nest  of  the  Fram.  The  bergs  were 
not  the  least  worn,  but  looked  as  if  they  had  calved 
quite  recently.  As  I  said,  it  was  clear  enough,  we  even 
got  an  observation  that  day  (lat.  61°  S., long.  150°  W.), 
and  as  we  had  a  west  wind,  we  twisted  quite  elegantly 


A  HUNDRED  ICEBERGS  307 

past  one  iceberg  after  another.  The  sea,  which  during 
the  morning  had  been  high  enough  for  the  spray  to  dash 
over  the  tops  of  the  bergs,  gradually  went  down,  and  in 
the  evening,  when  we  were  well  to  leeward  of  them  all, 
it  was  as  smooth  as  if  we  had  been  in  harbour.  In  the 
course  of  the  night  we  passed  a  good  many  more  bergs, 
and  the  next  day  we  only  saw  about  twenty. 

In  the  various  descriptions  of  voyages  in  these  waters, 
opinions  are  divided  as  to  the  temperature  of  the  water 
falling  in  the  neighbourhood  of  icebergs.  That  it  falls 
steadily  as  one  approaches  the  pack-ice  is  certain  enough, 
but  whether  it  falls  for  one  or  a  few  scattered  icebergs, 
no  doubt  depends  on  circumstances. 

One  night  at  12  o'clock  we  had  a  temperature  in  the 
water  of  341°  F.,  at  4-  a.m.  33*8°  F.,  and  at  8  a.m. 
33'6°  F.;  at  6  a.m.  we  passed  an  iceberg.  At  12  noon 
the  temperature  had  risen  to  33*9°  F.  In  this  case  one 
might  say  that  the  temperature  gave  warning,  but,  as  a 
rule,  in  high  latitudes  it  has  been  constant  both  before 
and  after  passing  an  iceberg. 

On  Christmas  Eve,  1911,  when  on  our  second  trip 
southward  we  saw  the  first  real  iceberg,  the  temperature 
of  the  water  fell  in  four  hours  from  35*6°  F.  to  327°  F., 
which  was  the  temperature  when  the  bergs  were  passed, 
after  which  it  rose  rather  rapidly  to  35°  F. 

In  the  west  wind  belt  I  believe  one  can  tell  with 
some  degree  of  certainty  when  one  is  approaching  ice. 
In   the  middle   of   November,   1911,   between   Prince 


308  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  '  FRAM  " 

Edward  Island  and  the  Crozet  Islands  (about  lat.47°  S.) 
the  temperature  fell.  Towards  morning  I  remarked  to 
someone:  "  The  temperature  of  the  water  is  falling  as  if 
we  were  getting  near  the  ice."  On  the  forenoon  of  the 
same  day  we  sailed  past  a  very  small  berg ;  the  tempera- 
ture again  rose  to  the  normal,  and  we  met  no  more  ice 
until  Christmas  Eve. 

On  Saturday,  JNIarch  4,  the  day  before  we  met  that 
large  collection  of  bergs,  the  temperature  fell  pretty 
rapidly  from  33-9°  F.  to  32'5°  F.  We  had  not  then  seen 
ice  for  nearly  twenty-four  hours.  At  the  same  time 
the  colour  of  the  water  became  unusually  green,  and  it 
is  possible  that  we  had  come  into  a  cold  current.  The 
temperature  remained  as  low  as  this  till  Sunday  morn- 
ing, when  at  8  a.m.  it  rose  to  327°  F. ;  at  12  noon, 
close  to  a  berg,  to  32*9°  F.,  and  a  mile  to  lee  of  it,  to 
33°  F.  It  continued  to  rise,  and  at  4  p.m.,  when  the 
bergs  were  thickest,  it  was  33*4°  F.;  at  8  p.m.  33*6°  F., 
and  at  midnight  338°  F.  If  there  had  been  a  fog,  we 
should  certainly  have  thought  we  were  leaving  the  ice 
instead  of  approaching  it;  it  is  very  curious,  too,  that 
the  temperature  of  the  w^ater  should  not  be  more  constant 
in  the  presence  of  such  a  great  quantity  of  ice ;  but,  as 
I  have  said,  it  may  have  been  a  current. 

In  the  course  of  the  week  following  JNIarch  5  the 
bergs  became  rarer,  but  the  same  kind  of  weather  pre- 
vailed. Our  speed  was  irreproachable,  and  in  one  day's 
work   (from  noon  to  noon)   we  covered  a  distance  of 


TEJNIPERATURE  OF  THE  WATER    309 

200  nautical  miles,  or  an  average  of  about  8^  knots  an 
hour,  which  was  the  best  day's  work  the  Fram  had  done 
up  to  that  time.  The  wind,  which  had  been  westerly 
and  north-westerly,  went  by  degrees  to  the  north,  and 
ended  in  a  hurricane  from  the  north-east  on  Sunday, 
JNIarch  12.  I  shall  quote  here  what  I  wrote  about  this 
in  my  diary  on  the  13th: 

"  Well,  now  we  have  experienced  the  first  hurricane 
on  the  Fram.  On  Saturday  afternoon, the  11th, the  wind 
went  to  the  north-east,  as  an  ordinary  breeze  with  rain. 
The  barometer  had  been  steady  between  29*29  inches 
(744  millimetres)  and  29'33  inches  (745  millimetres). 
During  the  afternoon  it  began  to  fall,  and  at  8  p.m. 
it  was  29*25  inches  (743  millimetres)  without  the 
wind  having  freshened  at  all.  The  outer  jib  was  taken 
in,  however.  By  midnight  the  barometer  had  fallen 
to  29*0  inches  (737  millimetres),  while  the  wind  had 
increased  to  a  stiff  breeze.  We  took  in  the  foresail, 
mainsail,  and  inner  jib,  and  had  now  only  the  top- 
sail and  a  storm-trysail  left.  The  wind  gradually  in- 
creased to  a  gale.  At  4  a.m.  on  Sunday  the  barometer 
had  fallen  again  to  28*66  inches  (728  millimetres),  and 
at  6  a.m.  the  topsail  was  made  fast.* 

*  For  the  benefit  of  those  who  know  what  a  buntline  on  a  sail  is, 
I  may  remark  that  besides  the  usual  topsail  buntlines  we  had  six  extra 
buntlines  round  the  whole  sail,  so  that  when  it  was  clewed  up  it  was, 
so  to  speak,  made  fast.  We  got  the  sail  clewed  up  without  its  going 
to  pieces,  but  it  took  us  over  an  hour.  We  had  to  take  this  precaution, 
of  having  so  many  buntlines,  as  we  were  short-handed. 


310  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

"  The  wind  increased  and  the  seas  ran  higher,  but 
we  did  not  ship  much  water.  At  8  a.m.  the  barometer 
was  28"30  inches  (719  milhmetres),  and  at  9  a.m. 
28'26  inches  (718  milhmetres),  when  at  last  it  stopped 
going  down  and  remained  steady  till  about  noon,  during 
which  time  a  furious  hurricane  was  blowing.  The  clouds 
were  brown,  the  colour  of  chocolate ;  I  cannot  remember 
ever  having  seen  such  an  ugly  sky.  Little  by  little  the 
wind  went  to  the  north,  and  we  sailed  large  under  two 
storm-trysails.  Finally,  we  had  the  seas  on  our  beam, 
and  now  the  Fram  showed  herself  in  all  her  glory  as  the 
best  sea-boat  in  the  world.  It  was  extraordinary  to 
watch  how  she  behaved.  Enormous  seas  came  surging 
high  to  windward,  and  we,  who  were  standing  on  the 
bridge,  turned  our  backs  to  receive  them,  with  some 
such  remark  as :  '  Ugh,  that's  a  nasty  one  coming.*  But 
the  sea  never  came.  A  few  yards  from  the  ship  it 
looked  over  the  bulwarks  and  got  ready  to  hurl  itself 
upon  her.  But  at  the  last  moment  the  Fram  gave 
a  wriggle  of  her  body  and  was  instantly  at  the  top  of 
the  wave,  which  slipped  under  the  vessel.  Can  anyone 
be  surprised  if  one  gets  fond  of  such  a  ship?  Then  she 
went  down  with  the  speed  of  lightning  from  the  top  of 
the  wave  into  the  trough,  a  fall  of  fourteen  or  fifteen 
yards.  When  we  sank  like  this,  it  gave  one  the  same 
feeling  as  dropping  from  the  twelfth  to  the  ground-floor 
in  an  American  express  elevator,  '  as  if  everything  inside 
you  was  coming  up.'    It  was  so  quick  that  we  seemed 


A  HURRICANE  311 

to  be  lifted  off  the  deck.  We  went  up  and  down  like 
this  all  the  afternoon  and  evening,  till  during  the  night 
the  wind  gradually  dropped  and  it  became  calm.  That 
the  storm  would  not  be  of  long  duration  might  almost 
be  assumed  from  its  suddenness,  and  the  English  rule — 

Long  foretold,  long  last ; 
Short  notice,  soon  past ' — 

may  thus  be  said  to  have  held  good. 

"  When  there  is  a  strong  wind  on  her  beam,  the 
Fram  does  not  roll  so  much  as  usual,  except  for  an 
occasional  leeward  lurch ;  nor  was  any  excessive  quantity 
of  water  shipped  in  this  boisterous  sea.  The  watch  went 
below  as  usual  when  they  were  relieved,  and,  as  some- 
body very  truly  remarked,  all  hands  might  quite  well 
have  turned  in,  if  we  had  not  had  to  keep  a  lookout  for 
ice.  And  fortune  willed  it  that  the  day  of  the  hurricane 
was  the  first  since  we  had  left  the  Barrier  that  we  did 
7iot  see  ice — whether  this  was  because  the  spray  was  so 
high  that  it  hid  our  view,  or  because  there  really  was 
none.  Be  that  as  it  may,  the  main  thing  was  that  we 
saw  no  ice.  During  the  night  we  had  a  glimpse  of  the 
full  moon,  which  gave  the  man  at  the  wheel  occasion  to 
call  out  '  Hurrah  !' — and  with  good  reason,  as  we  had 
been  waiting  a  long  time  for  the  moon  to  help  us  in 
looking  out  for  ice. 

"  In  weather  like  tliis  one  notices  nothing  out  of  the 
ordinary  below  deck.  Here  hardly  anything  is  heard  of 
the  wind,  and  in  the  after-saloon,  wliich  is  below  the 


312  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

water-line,  it  is  perfectly  comfortable.  The  cook,  who 
resides  below,  therefore  reckons  '  ugly  weather  '  accord- 
ing to  the  motion  of  the  vessel,  and  not  according  to 
storms,  fog,  or  rain.  On  deck  we  do  not  mind  much 
how  it  blows,  so  long  as  it  is  only  clear,  and  the  \^ind  is 
not  against  us.  How  little  one  hears  below  deck  may 
be  understood  from  the  fact  that  yesterday  morning, 
while  it  was  blowing  a  hurricane,  the  cook  went  about 
as  usual,  whistling  his  two  verses  of  '  The  Whistling 
Bowery  Boy.'  While  he  was  in  the  middle  of  the  first, 
I  came  by  and  told  him  that  it  was  blowing  a  hurricane 
if  he  cared  to  see  what  it  looked  like.  '  Oh,  yes,'  he 
said,  '  I  could  guess  it  was  blowing,  for  the  galley  fire 
has  never  drawn  so  well;  the  bits  of  coal  are  flying  up 
the  chimney ' ;  and  then  he  whistled  through  the  second 
verse.  All  the  same,  he  could  not  resist  going  up  to 
see.  It  was  not  long  before  he  came  down  again,  with 
a  '  ]My  word,  it  is  blowing,  and  waves  up  to  the  sky !' 
No;  it  was  warmer  and  more  cosy  below  among  his 
pots  and  pans. 

"  For  dinner,  which  was  eaten  as  usual  amid  cheerful 
conversation,  we  had  green-pea  soup,  roast  sirloin,  with 
a  glass  of  aquavit,  and  caramel  pudding;  so  it  may  be 
seen  that  the  cook  was  not  behindhand  in  oj^ening  tins, 
even  in  a  hurricane.  After  dinner  we  enjoyed  our  usual 
Sunday  cigar,  while  tlie  canary,  which  has  become  Kris- 
tensen's  pet,  and  hangs  in  his  cabin,  sang  at  the  top  of 
its  voice." 


A  CYCLONE  313 

On  March  14  we  saw  the  last  iceberg;  during  the 
whole  trip  we  had  seen  and  passed  between  500  and 
600  bergs. 

The  wind  held  steady  from  the  north-east  for  a  week 
and  a  half,  and  I  was  beginning  to  think  we  should  be 
stuck  down  here  to  play  the  Flying  Dutchman.  There 
was  every  possible  sign  of  a  west  wind,  but  it  did  not  come. 
On  the  night  of  the  17th  it  cleared;  light  cirrus  clouds 
covered  the  sky,  and  there  was  a  ring  about  the  moon. 
This,  together  with  the  heavy  swell  and  the  pronounced 
fall  of  the  barometer,  showed  that  something  might  be 
expected.  And,  sure  enough,  on  Sunday,  March  19, 
we  were  in  a  cyclone.  By  manoeuvring  according  to 
the  rules  for  avoiding  a  cyclone  in  the  southern  hemi- 
sphere, we  at  any  rate  went  well  clear  of  one  semicircle. 
About  4  p.m.  on  Sunday  afternoon  the  barometer  was 
down  to  27'56  inches  (700  millimetres),  the  lowest 
barometer  reading  I  have  ever  heard  of.  From  noon 
to  4  p.m.  there  was  a  calm,  with  heavy  sea.  Immedi- 
ately after  a  gale  sprang  up  from  the  north-west,  and  in 
the  course  of  a  couple  of  days  it  slowly  moderated  to 
a  breeze  from  the  same  quarter. 

Sunday,  March  5,  a  hundred  icebergs;  Sunday 
March  12,  a  hurricane;  and  Sunday,  March  19,  a 
cyclone:  truly  three  pleasant  "  days  of  rest." 

The  curves  given  on  the  next  page,  which  show  the 
course  of  barometric  pressure  for  a  week,  from  Monday 
to  Monday,  are  interesting. 

VOL.  II.  46 


314   THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 


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By  way  of  comparison  a  third  curve  is  given  from 
the  north-east  trade,  where  there  is  an  almost  constant 
breeze  and  fine  weather. 


On  this  trip  the  fore-saloon  was  converted  into  a  sail- 
loft,  where  Ronne  and  Hansen  carried  on  their  work, 
each  in  his  watch.  The  after-saloon  was  used  as  a 
common  mess-room,  as  it  is  warmer,  and  the  motion  is 
far  less  felt  than  forward. 


ARRIVAL  AT  BUENOS  AIRES        315 

From  the  middle  of  JNIarch  it  looked  as  if  the  equi- 
noctial gales  were  over,  for  we  had  quite  fine  weather 
all  the  way  to  Buenos  Aires.  Cape  Horn  was  passed 
on  March  31  in  the  most  delightful  weather — a  light 
westerly  breeze,  not  a  cloud  in  the  sky,  and  only  a  very 
slight  swell  from  the  west.  Who  would  have  guessed 
that  such  splendid  weather  was  to  be  found  in  these 
parts? — and  that  in  March,  the  most  stormy  month  of 
the  year. 

Lieutenant  Gjertsen  and  Kutschin  collected  plankton 
all  the  time;  the  latter  smiled  all  over  his  face  whenever 
he  chanced  to  get  one  or  two  "  tadpoles  "  in  his  tow-net. 

From  the  Falkland  Islands  onward  the  Fram  was 
washed  and  painted,  so  that  we  might  not  present  too 
"  Polar  "  an  appearance  on  arrival  at  Buenos  Aires. 

It  may  be  mentioned  as  a  curious  fact  that  the  snow 
with  which  we  filled  our  water-tanks  on  the  Barrier  did 
not  melt  till  we  were  in  the  River  La  Plata,  which 
shows  what  an  even  temperature  is  maintained  in  the 
Frames  hold. 

About  midday  on  Easter  Sunday  we  were  at  the  mouth 
of  the  River  La  Plata,  without  seeing  land,  however. 
During  the  night  the  weather  became  perfect,  a  breeze 
from  the  south,  moonlight  and  starry,  and  w^e  went  up 
the  river  by  soundings  and  observations  of  the  stars 
until  at  1  a.m.  on  Monday,  when  we  had  the  Recalada 
light-ship  right  ahead.  We  had  not  seen  any  light 
since  we  left  Madeira  on  September  9.     At  2.30  the 


316       THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  rRA:M  " 

same  morning  we  got  a  pilot  aboard,  and  at  seven  in 
the  evening  we  anchored  in  the  roads  of  Buenos  Aires. 

We  had  then  been  nearly  once  round  the  world,  and 
for  over  seven  months  the  anchor  had  not  been  out. 

We  had  reckoned  on  a  two  months'  voyage  from  the 
ice,  and  it  had  taken  us  sixty-two  days. 


IV. 

The  Oceanographical  Cruise. 

According  to  the  programme,  the  Fram  was  to  go 
on  an  oceanographical  cruise  in  the  South  Atlantic,  and 
my  orders  were  that  this  was  to  be  arranged  to  suit  the 
existing  circumstances.  I  had  reckoned  on  a  cruise  of 
about  three  months.  We  should  have  to  leave  Buenos 
Aires  at  the  beginning  of  October  to  be  down  in  the  ice 
at  the  right  time  (about  the  New  Year). 

As  we  were  too  short-handed  to  work  the  ship, 
take  soundings,  etc.,  the  following  four  seamen  were 
engaged:  H.  Halvorsen,  A.  Olsen,  F.  Steller,  and 
J.  Andersen. 

At  last  we  were  more  or  less  ready,  and  the  Fram 
sailed  from  Buenos  Aires  on  June  8,  1911,  the  anni- 
versary of  our  leaving  Horten  on  our  first  hydrographic 
cruise  in  the  North  Atlantic.  I  suppose  there  was  no 
one  on  board  on  June  8,  1910,  who  dreamed  that  a  year 
later  we  should  go  on  a  similar  cruise  in  the  South. 


LEAVING  THE  RIVER  PLATE        317 

We  had  a  pilot  on  board  as  far  as  Montevideo,  where 
we  arrived  on  the  afternoon  of  the  9th;  but  on  account 
of  an  increasing  wind  (pampero)  we  had  to  lie  at 
anchor  here  for  a  day  and  a  half,  as  the  pilot  could  not 
be  taken  off.  On  Saturday  afternoon,  the  10th,  he  was 
fetched  off  by  a  big  tug-boat,  on  board  of  which  was  the 
Secretary  of  the  Norwegian  Consulate.  This  gentleman 
asked  us  if  we  could  not  come  into  the  harbour,  as 
"people  would  like  to  see  the  sliip."  I  promised  to 
come  in  on  the  way  back,  "  if  we  had  time." 

On  Sunday  morning,  the  11th,  we  weighed  anchor, 
and  went  out  in  the  most  lovely  weather  that  can  be 
imagined.  Gradually  the  land  disappeared,  and  in  the 
course  of  the  evening  we  lost  the  lights;  we  were  once 
more  out  in  the  Atlantic,  and  immediately  everything 
resumed  its  old  course. 

In  order  to  save  our  supply  of  preserved  provisions  as 
much  as  possible,  we  took  with  us  a  quantity  of  live 
poultry,  and  no  fewer  than  twenty  live  sheep,  which  were 
quartered  in  the  "  farmyard  "  on  the  port  side  of  the 
vessel's  fore-deck.  Sheep  and  hens  were  all  together,  and 
there  was  always  a  most  beautiful  scent  of  hay,  so  that 
we  had  not  only  sea  air,  but  "  country  air."  In  spite  of 
all  this  delightful  air,  three  or  four  of  the  crew  were 
down  with  influenza,  and  had  to  keep  their  berths  for 
some  days. 

I  reckoned  on  being  back  at  Buenos  Aires  by  the 
beginning  of  September,  and  on  getting,  if  possible,  one 


318   THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

station  a  day.  The  distance,  according  to  a  rough 
calculation,  was  about  8,000  nautical  miles,  and  I  laid 
down  the  following  plan:  To  go  about  east  by  north 
with  the  prevailing  northerly  and  north-westerly  winds 
to  the  coast  of  Africa,  and  there  get  hold  of  the  south- 
east trade.  If  we  could  not  reach  Africa  before  that  date, 
then  to  turn  on  July  22  and  lay  our  course  with  the 
south-east  trade  for  St.  Helena,  which  we  could  reach 
before  August  1 ;  from  there  again  with  the  same  wind 
to  South  Trinidad  (August  11  or  12)  ;  on  again  with 
easterly  and  north-easterly  winds  on  a  south-westerly 
course  until  about  August  22,  when  the  observations 
were  to  be  concluded,  and  we  should  try  to  make 
Buenos  Aires  in  the  shortest  time. 

That  was  the  plan  that  we  attempted.  On  account  of 
the  fresh  water  from  the  River  La  Plata,  we  did  not 
begin  at  once  to  take  samples  of  water,  and  with  a  head- 
wind, north-east,  we  lay  close-hauled  for  some  days. 
We  also  had  a  pretty  stiff  breeze,  which  was  another 
reason  for  delaying  the  soundings  until  the  17th. 

For  taking  samples  of  water  a  winch  is  used,  with 
a  sounding-line  of,  let  us  say,  5,000  metres  (2,734 
fathoms),  on  which  are  hung  one  or  more  tubes  for 
catching  water;  we  used  three  at  once  to  save  time. 
Now,  supposing  water  and  temperatures  are  to  be  taken 
at  depths  of  300,  400,  and  500  metres  (164,  218,  and 
273  fathoms) ,  Apparatus  III.  (see  diagram)  is  first  hung 
on,  about  20  metres  (10  fathoms)  from  the  end  of  the 


THE  SOUNDING  APPARATUS        319 

line,  where  a  small  weight  (a)  hangs;  then  it  is  lowered 
until  the  indicator-wheel,  over  which  the  line  passes, 
shows  100  metres  (54  fathoms)  ;  Apparatus  II.  is  then 
put  on,  and  it  is  lowered  again  for  another  100  metres, 
when  Apparatus  I.  is  put  on  and  the  line  paid  out  for 
300  metres  (164  fathoms) — that  is,  until  the  indicator- 
wheel  shows  500  metres  (273  fathoms).  The  upper 
Apparatus  (I.)  is  then  at  300  metres  (164  fathoms). 
No.  II.  at  400  metres  (218  fathoms),  and  No.  III.  at 
500  metres  (273  fathoms) .  Under  Apparatus  I.  and  II. 
is  hung  a  slipping  sinker  (about  8  centimetres,  or 
31  inches,  long,  and  3  centimetres,  or  li  inches,  in 
diameter).  To  the  water-samplers  are  attached  ther- 
mometers ( 6 )  in  tubes  arranged  for  the  purpose. 

The  water-samplers  themselves  consist  of  a  brass 
cylinder  (c),  about  38  centimetres  (15  inches)  long  and 
4  centimetres  (1^  inches)  in  diameter  (about  half  a  litre 
of  water),  set  in  a  frame  (d).  At  about  the  middle  of 
the  cylinder  are  pivots,  which  rest  in  bearings  on  the 
frame,  so  that  the  cylinder  can  be  swung  180  degrees 
(straight  up  and  down). 

The  cylinder,  while  being  lowered  in  an  inverted 
position,  is  open  at  both  ends,  so  that  the  water  can 
pass  through.  But  at  its  upper  and  lower  ends  are 
valves,  working  on  hinges  and  provided  with  packing. 
When  the  apparatus  is  released,  the  cylinder  swings 
round,  and  these  valves  then  automatically  close  the 
ends  of  the  cylinder.     The  water  that  is  thus  caught  in 


320     THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRA]M " 

the  cylinder  at  the  required  depth  remains  in  it  while  it 
is  being  heaved  up,  and  is  collected  in  bottles.  When 
tlie  apparatus  is  released,  the  column  of  mercury  in  the 
thermometer  is  broken,  and  the  temperature  of  the  water 
is  read  at  the  same  depth  as  the  water  is  taken  from. 

The  release  takes  place  in  the  following  manner: 
when  all  the  cylinders  have  been  lowered  to  the  required 
depths,  they  are  left  hanging  for  a  few  minutes,  so  that 
the  thermometers  may  be  set  at  the  right  temperature 
before  the  column  of  mercury  is  broken.  Then  a  slipping 
sinker  is  sent  down  the  line.  When  this  sinker  strikes 
the  first  apparatus,  a  spring  is  pressed,  a  hook  (e)  which 
has  held  the  cylinder  slips  loose,  and  the  cylinder  turns 
completely  over  (Apparatus  I.).  As  it  does  this,  the 
valves,  as  already  mentioned,  close  the  ends  of  the 
cyhnder,  which  is  fixed  in  its  new  position  by  a  hook  in 
the  bottom  of  the  frame.  At  the  same  instant  the 
slipping  sinker  that  hangs  under  Apparatus  I.  is  released, 
and  continues  the  journey  to  Apparatus  II.,  where 
the  same  thing  happens.  It  is  then  repeated  with 
Apparatus  III.  When  they  are  all  ready,  they  are 
heaved  in. 

By  holding  one's  finger  on  the  line  one  can  feel,  at  all 
events  in  fairlv  calm  weather,  when  the  sinkers  strike 
against  the  cylinders;  but  I  used  to  look  at  my  watch, 
as  it  takes  about  half  a  minute  for  the  sinker  to  go  down 
100  metres. 

The  necessary  data  are  entered  in  a  book. 


METHOD  OF  SOUNDING  321 

On  the  morning  of  the  17th,  then,  the  sails  were 
clewed  up,  and  the  Fram  began  to  roll  even  worse  than 
with  the  sails  set.  We  first  tried  taking  soundings  with 
a  sinker  of  66  pounds,  and  a  tube  for  taking  specimens 
of  the  sea-bed.  At  2,000  metres  (1,093  fathoms)  or 
more  the  line  (piano  wire)  broke,  so  that  sinker,  tube, 
and  over  2,000  metres  of  line  continued  their  way 
unhindered  to  the  bottom.  I  had  thought  of  taking 
samples  of  water  at  4,000,3,000,  and  2,000  metres  (2,187, 
1,639,  1,093  fathoms),  and  so  on,  and  water-cylinders 
were  put  on  from  0  to  2,000  metres.  This,  however, 
took  six  hours.  Next  day,  on  account  of  the  heavy  sea, 
only  a  few  samples  from  0  to  100  metres  (54  fathoms) 
were  taken.  On  the  third  day  we  made  another  attempt 
to  get  the  bottom.  This  time  we  got  specimens  of  the 
sea-bed  from  about  4,500  metres  (about  2,500  fathoms)  ; 
but  the  heaving  in  and  taking  of  water  samples  and 
temperatures  occupied  eight  hours,  from  7  a.m.  till 
3  p.m.,  or  a  third  part  of  the  twenty-four  hours.  In  this 
way  we  should  want  at  least  nine  months  on  the  route 
that  had  been  laid  down;  but  as,  unfortunately,  this 
time  was  not  at  our  disposal,  we  at  once  gave  up  taking 
specimens  of  the  bottom  and  samples  of  water  at  greater 
depths  than  1,000  metres  (546  fathoms).  For  the 
remainder  of  the  trip  we  took  temperatures  and  samples 
of  water  at  the  following  depths:  0,  5,  10,  25,  50,  75, 
100,  150,  200,  250,  300,  400,  500,  750,  and  1,000  metres 
(0,  2f,  5h  ISh  27,  41,  54,  81,  108,  135,  164,  218,  273, 


322  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

410,  and  546  fathoms),  in  all,  fifteen  samples  from  each 
station,  and  from  this  time  forward  we  went  on  regularly 
with  one  station  every  day.  Finally,  we  managed  to 
heave  up  two  water-cylinders  on  the  same  line  by  hand 
without  great  difficulty.  At  first  this  was  done  with 
the  motor  and  sounding-machine,  but  this  took  too 
long,  and  we  afterwards  used  nothing  but  a  light  hand- 
winch.  Before  very  long  we  were  so  practised  that  the 
whole  business  only  took  two  hours. 

These  two  hours  were  those  we  liked  best  of  the 
twenty-four.  All  kinds  of  fminy  stories  were  told, 
especially  about  experiences  in  Buenos  Aires,  and  every 
day  there  was  something  new.    Here  is  a  little  yarn : 

One  of  the  members  of  the  expedition  had  been 
knocked  down  by  a  motor-car  in  one  of  the  busiest 
streets ;  the  car  stopped  and  of  course  a  crowd  collected 
at  once.  Our  friend  lay  there,  wondering  whether  he 
ought  not  to  be  dead,  or  at  least  to  have  broken  a  leg, 
so  as  to  get  compensation.  While  he  lay  thus,  being 
prodded  and  examined  by  the  public,  he  suddenly 
remembered  that  he  had  half  a  dollar  in  his  pocket. 
With  all  that  money  it  didn't  matter  so  much  about  the 
compensation;  up  jumped  our  friend  like  an  india- 
rubber  ball,  and  in  a  second  he  had  vanished  in  the 
crowd,  who  stood  open-mouthed,  gazing  after  the 
"  dead  "  man. 

Our  speed  on  this  cruise  was  regulated  as  nearly  as 
possible  so  that  there  might  be  about  100  nautical  miles 


SMARTENING  UP  THE  SHIP         323 

between  each  station,  and  I  must  say  we  were  un- 
commonly lucky  in  the  weather.  We  made  two 
fairly  parallel  sections  with  comparatively  regular 
intervals  between  the  stations;  as  regular,  in  any 
case,  as  one  can  hope  to  get  with  a  vessel  hke  the 
Fram,  which  really  has  too  little  both  of  sail  area  and 
engine  power.  The  number  of  stations  was  60  in  all 
and  891  samples  of  water  were  taken.  Of  plankton 
specimens  190  were  sent  home.  The  further  examina- 
tion of  these  specimens  in  Norway  will  show  whether 
the  material  collected  is  of  any  value,  and  whether  the 
cruise  has  yielded  satisfactory  results. 

As  regards  the  weather  on  the  trip,  it  was  uniformly 
good  the  whole  time;  we  had  a  good  deal  of  wind  now 
and  then,  with  seas  and  rolling,  but  for  the  most  part 
there  was  a  fresh  breeze.  In  the  south-east  trade  we 
sailed  for  four  weeks  at  a  stretch  without  using  the 
engine,  which  then  had  a  thorough  overhauling.  At 
the  same  time  we  had  a  good  opportunity  of  smartening 
up  the  ship,  which  she  needed  badly.  All  the  iron  was 
freed  from  rust,  and  the  whole  vessel  painted  both 
below  and  above  deck.  The  decks  themselves  were 
smeared  with  a  mixture  of  oil,  tar  and  turpentine,  after 
being  scoured.  All  the  rigging  was  examined.  At  the 
anchorage  at  Buenos  Aires  nearly  the  whole  ship  was 
painted  again,  masts  and  yards,  the  outside  of  the  vessel 
and  everything  inboard,  both  deck-houses,  the  boats  and 
the  various  winches,  pumps,  etc.     In  the  engine-room 


324     THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAJSI  " 

everything  was  either  shining  bright  or  freshly  painted, 
everything  hung  in  its  place  and  such  order  and  cleanli- 
ness reigned  that  it  was  a  pleasure  to  go  down  there. 
The  result  of  all  this  renovating  and  smartening  up  was 
that,  when  we  fetched  up  by  the  quay  at  Buenos  Aires, 
the  Fram  looked  brighter  than  I  suppose  she  has  ever 
done  since  she  was  new. 

During  the  trip  the  holds  were  also  cleaned  up,  and  all 
the  provisions  re-stowed  and  an  inventory  made  of  them. 

A  whole  suit  of  sails  was  completely  worn  out  on  this 
voyage;  but  what  can  one  expect  when  the  ship  is  being 
worked  every  single  day,  with  clewing  up,  making  fast 
and  setting  of  sails  both  in  calms  and  winds?  This 
work  every  day  reminded  me  of  the  corvette  ElUda, 
when  the  order  was  "all  hands  aloft."  As  a  rule 
though,  it  was  only  clewing  up  the  sails  that  had  to  be 
done,  as  we  always  had  to  take  soundings  on  the 
weather  side,  so  that  the  sounding-line  should  not  foul 
the  bottom  of  the  vessel  and  smash  the  apparatus.  And 
we  did  not  lose  more  than  one  thermometer  in  about 
nine  hundred  soundings. 

On  account  of  all  this  wear  and  tear  of  sails  Ronne 
was  occupied  the  whole  time,  both  at  sea  and  in  Buenos 
Aires,  in  making  and  patching  sails,  as  there  was  not 
much  more  than  the  leeches  left  of  those  that  had  been 
used,  and  on  the  approacliing  trip  (to  tlie  Ice  Barrier) 
we  should  have  to  have  absolutely  first-class  things  in 
the  "  Roaring  Forties." 


CIRCUMNAVIGATION  COMPLETED     325 

June  30,  1911,  is  a  red-letter  day  in  the  Frarns 
history,  as  on  that  day  we  intersected  our  course  from 
Norway  to  the  Barrier,  and  the  Fram  thus  completed 
her  first  circumnavigation  of  the  globe.  Bravo,  Fram! 
It  was  well  done,  especially  after  the  bad  character  you 
have  been  given  as  a  sailer  and  a  sea-boat.  In  honour 
of  the  occasion  we  had  a  better  dinner  than  usual,  and 
the  Fram  was  congratulated  by  all  present  on  having 
done  her  work  well. 

On  the  evening  of  July  29  St.  Helena  was  passed.  It 
was  the  first  time  I  had  seen  this  historic  island.  It  was 
very  strange  to  think  that  "the  greatest  spirit  of  a 
hundred  centuries,"  as  some  author  has  called  Napoleon, 
should  have  ended  his  restless  Hfe  on  this  lonely  island 
of  the  South  Atlantic. 

On  August  12,  when  daylight  came,  we  sighted  the 
little  Martin  Vaz  Islands  ahead,  and  a  little  later  South 
Trinidad  (in  1910  this  island  was  passed  on  October  16) . 
We  checked  our  chronometers,  which,  however,  proved 
to  be  correct.  From  noon  till  2  p.m.,  while  we  were 
lying  still  and  taking  our  daily  hydrographic  observa- 
tions, a  sailing  ship  appeared  to  the  north  of  us,  lying 
close-hauled  to  the  south.  She  bore  down  on  us  and 
ran  up  her  flag,  and  we  exchanged  the  usual  greetings ; 
she  was  a  Norwegian  barque  bound  for  Australia. 
Otherwise  we  did  not  see  more  than  four  or  five  ships 
on  the  whole  voyage,  and  those  were  pretty  far  off. 

Never  since  leaving  Madeira  (September,  1910)  had 


326  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM 


j» 


we  been  troubled  with  animals  or  insects  of  any  kind 
whatever;  but  when  we  were  in  Buenos  Aires  for  the 
first  time,  at  least  half  a  million  flies  came  aboard  to 
look  at  the  vessel.  I  hoped  they  would  go  ashore  when 
the  Fram  sailed;  but  no,  they  followed  us,  until  by 
degrees  they  passed  peacefully  away  on  fly-paper. 

Well,  flies  are  one  thing,  but  we  had  something  else 
that  was  worse — namely,  rats — our  horror  and  dread, 
and  for  the  future  our  deadly  enemies.  The  first  signs 
of  them  I  found  in  my  bunk  and  on  the  table  in  the 
fore-saloon;  they  were  certainly  not  particular.  What 
I  said  on  that  occasion  had  better  not  be  printed, 
though  no  expression  could  be  strong  enough  to  give 
vent  to  one's  annoyance  at  such  a  discovery.  We  set 
traps,  but  what  was  the  use  of  that,  when  the  cargo 
consisted  exclusively  of  provisions? 

One  morning,  as  Ronne  was  sitting  at  work  making 
sails,  he  observed  a  "  shadow  "  flying  past  his  feet,  and, 
according  to  his  account,  into  the  fore-saloon.  The 
cook  came  roaring:  "  There's  a  rat  in  the  fore-saloon  !" 
Then  there  was  a  lively  scene;  the  door  was  shut,  and 
all  hands  started  hunting.  All  the  cabins  were  emptied 
and  rummaged,  the  piano,  too;  everything  was  turned 
upside  down,  but  the  rat  had  vanished  into  thin  air. 

About  a  fortnight  later  I  noticed  a  corpse-like  smell 
in  Hassel's  cabin,  which  was  empty.  On  closer  snifl^ng 
and  examination  it  turned  out  to  be  the  dead  rat,  a  big 
black  one,  inifortunately  a  male  rat.     The  poor  brute, 


WAR  AGAINST  RATS  327 

that  had  starved  to  death,  had  tried  to  keep  itself  ahve 
by  devouring  a  couple  of  novels  that  lay  in  a  locked 
drawer.    How  the  rat  got  into  that  drawer  beats  me. 

On  cleaning  out  the  provision  hold  nests  were  found 
with  several  rats  in  them:  six  were  killed,  but  at  least 
as  many  escaped,  so  now  no  doubt  we  have  a  whole 
colony.  A  reward  was  promised  of  ten  cigars  for  each 
rat;  traps  were  tried  again,  but  all  this  did  very  little 
good.  When  we  were  in  Buenos  Aires  for  the  second 
time  we  got  a  cat  on  board;  it  certainly  kept  the  rats 
down,  but  it  was  shot  on  the  Barrier.  At  Hobart  we 
provided  a  few  traps,  which  caught  a  good  many;  but 
we  shall  hardly  get  rid  of  them  altogether  until  we  have 
landed  most  of  the  provisions,  and  smoked  them  out. 

We  have  also  had  a  lot  of  moth;  at  present  they 
have  done  nothing  beyond  eating  a  couple  of  holes  in 
my  best  trousers. 

During  the  whole  of  this  cruise  we  had  a  fishing-line 
hanging  out,  but  it  hung  for  a  whole  month  without 
there  being  a  sign  of  a  fish,  in  spite  of  the  most  delicate 
little  white  rag  that  was  attached  to  the  hook.  One 
morning  the  keenest  of  our  fishermen  came  up  as  usual 
and  felt  the  line.  Yes,  by  Jove  !  at  last  there  was 
one,  and  a  big  one,  too,  as  he  could  hardly  haul  in  the 
line  by  himself.  There  was  a  shout  for  assistance. 
"  Hi,  you  beggar!  come  and  lend  a  hand;  there's  a  big 
fish  !"  Help  came  in  a  second,  and  they  both  hauled 
for  all  they  were  worth.    "  Ah  !  he's  a  fine,  glistening 


328  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM 


a 


fish;  it'll  be  grand  to  get  fresh  fish  for  dinner  !"  At 
last  the  fish  appeared  over  the  rail;  but,  alas!  it  was 
seen  to  have  no  head.  It  was  an  ordinary  stockfish, 
about  three-quarters  of  a  yard  long,  that  some  joker 
had  hung  on  the  line  during  the  night.  That  we  all 
had  a  hearty  laugh  goes  without  saying,  the  fishermen 
included,  as  they  took  it  all  in  good  part. 

As  a  fishing-boat  the  Fram  is  on  the  whole  not  very 
successful.  The  only  fish  we  caught,  besides  the  above- 
mentioned  stockfish,  was  a  real  live  fish;  but,  unfortu- 
nately, it  fell  off  the  hook  as  it  was  being  hauled  in. 
According  to  the  account  of  eye-witnesses,  this  fish  was 
...  six  feet  long  and  one  broad. 

Now  we  don't  fish  any  more. 

On  August  19  the  hydrographic  observations  were 
brought  to  an  end,  and  a  course  was  laid  for  Buenos 
Aires,  where  we  anchored  in  the  roads  at  midnight  on 
September  1. 

V. 

At  Buenos  Aires. 

To  arrive  at  Buenos  Aires  in  the  early  part  of  1911 
was  not  an  unmixed  pleasure,  especially  when  one  had 
no  money.  The  Fram  Expedition  was  apparently  not 
very  popular  at  that  time,  and  our  cash  balance  amounted 
to  about  forty  pesos  (about  £3  10s.),  but  that  would 
not  go  very  far;  our  supply  of  provisions  had  shrunk  to 


TIMELY  ASSISTANCE  329 

almost  notliing,  and  we  had  not  enough  to  be  able  to 
leave  the  port.  I  had  been  told  that  a  sum  had  been 
placed  to  the  credit  of  the  Fram  for  our  stay  in  Buenos 
Aires,  but  I  neither  saw  nor  heard  anything  of  it 
while  we  were  there,  and  it  was  no  doubt  somewhat 
imaginary. 

If  we  were  to  be  at  all  able  to  go  down  and  take 
off  the  shore  party  money  must  be  found.  We  had 
come  to  the  end  of  sail-cloth  and  ropes,  we  had  too 
little  food  and  a  minimum  of  oil ;  all  this  would  have  to 
be  provided.  At  the  worst  the  oceanographical  cruise 
could  be  cut  out,  and  we  could  lie  still  at  Buenos 
Aires;  then,  as  our  comrades  could  not  very  well  be 
left  to  perish  on  the  ice,  enough  would  have  to  be  sent 
us  from  Norway  to  enable  us  to  go  down  there;  but 
that  would  finish  the  whole  expedition,  as  in  such  a 
case  the  Fram  had  orders  to  go  back  to  Norway, 

As  usual,  however,  the  Frams  luck  helped  her  again. 
A  few  days  before  we  left  Norway  our  distinguished 
compatriot  in  Buenos  Aires,  Don  Pedro  Christophersen, 
had  cabled  that  he  would  supply  us  with  what  pro- 
visions we  might  require,  if,  after  leaving  Madeira,  we 
would  call  at  Buenos  Aires.  Of  course,  he  did  not 
know  at  that  time  that  the  voyage  would  be  extended 
to  include  the  South  Pole,  and  that  the  Fram  on  arrival 
at  Buenos  Aires  would  be  almost  empty  instead  of 
having  a  full  cargo,  but  that  did  not  prevent  his  helping 
us.     I  immediately  called  on  him  and  his  brother,  the 

VOL.  II.  47 


330     THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAJVI  " 

Norwegian  Minister;  fortunately,  they  were  both  very 
enthusiastic  about  our  Chief's  change  of  plan. 

When,  on  a  subsequent  occasion,  I  expressed  my 
astonishment  at  not  hearing  from  home,  I  was  told  that 
the  funds  of  the  Expedition  were  exhausted,  and  Mr. 
Christophersen  promised  me,  on  hearing  what  straits  we 
were  in,  to  pay  all  our  expenses  in  Buenos  Aires,  and 
to  supply  us  with  provisions  and  fuel.  That  brought 
us  out  of  our  difficulties  at  a  bound,  and  we  had  no 
more  need  to  take  thought  for  the  morrow. 

Everyone  on  board  received  a  sum  of  money  for  his 
personal  expenses  from  the  Norwegian  colony  of  the 
River  Plate,  and  we  were  invited  to  their  dinner  on 
Independence  Day,  May  17. 

Our  second  stay  at  Buenos  Aires  was  very  pleasant; 
everyone  was  amiability  itself,  and  festivities  were  even 
got  up  for  us.  We  took  on  board  provisions  that  had 
been  sent  out  from  Norway  by  Mr.  Christophersen's 
orders,  about  50,000  litres  (11,000  gallons)  of  petroleum, 
ship's  stores,  and  so  on;  enough  for  a  year.  But  this 
was  not  all.  Just  before  we  sailed  Mr.  Christophersen 
said  he  would  send  a  relief  expedition,  if  the  Fram 
did  not  return  to  Australia  by  a  certain  date;  but,  as 
everyone  knows,  this  was  happily  unnecessary. 

During  the  three  weeks  we  were  lying  at  the  quay  in 
Buenos  Aires  we  were  occupied  in  getting  everything 
on  board,  and  making  the  vessel  ready  for  sea.  We 
had   finished   this    by   the   afternoon   of   Wednesday, 


WE  LEAVE  FOR  THE  SOUTH        331 

October  4,  and  next  morning  the  Frmn  was  ready  to 
continue  her  second  circumnavigation  of  the  globe. 

In  Buenos  Aires  we  lay  at  the  same  quay  as  the 
Deutschland,  the  German  Antarctic  Expedition's  ship. 

A.  Kutschin  and  the  second  engineer,  J.  Nodtvedt, 
went  home,  and  seaman  J.  Andersen  was  discharged. 


VI. 

From  Buenos  Aires  to  the  Ross  Barrier. 

On  the  trip  from  Buenos  Aires  to  the  Barrier  the 
watches  were  divided  as  follows:  From  eight  to  two: 
T.  Nilsen,  L.  Hansen,  H.  Halvorsen,  and  A.  Olsen. 
From  two  to  eight:  H.  Gjertsen,  A.  Beck,  M.  Ronne, 
and  F.  Steller.  In  the  engine-room:  K.  Sundbeck  and 
H.  Kristensen.  Lastly,  K.  Olsen,  cook.  In  all  eleven 
men. 

It  is  said  that  "well  begun  is  half  done,"  and  it 
almost  seems  as  if  a  bad  beginning  were  likely  to  have 
a  similar  continuation.  When  we  left  the  northern 
basin  on  the  morning  of  October  5,  there  was  a  head 
wind,  and  it  was  not  till  twenty-four  hours  later  that 
we  could  drop  the  pilot  at  the  Recalada  lightship. 
After  a  time  it  fell  calm,  and  we  made  small  progress 
down  the  River  La  Plata,  until,  on  the  night  of  the  6th, 
we  were  clear  of  the  land,  and  the  lights  disappeared  on 
the  horizon. 


332   THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

Properly  speaking,  we  ought  to  have  been  in  the 
west  wind  belt  as  soon  as  we  came  out,  and  the  drift 
of  the  clouds  and  movement  of  the  barograph  were 
examined  at  least  twenty-four  times  a  day,  but  it  still 
remained  calm.  At  last,  after  the  lapse  of  several  days, 
we  had  a  little  fresh  south-westerly  wind  with  hail 
showers,  and  then,  of  course,  I  thought  we  had  made 
a  beginning;  but  unfortunately  it  only  lasted  a  night, 
so  that  our  joy  was  short-lived. 

We  took  with  us  from  Buenos  Aires  fifteen  live 
sheep  and  fifteen  live  little  pigs,  for  wliich  two  houses 
were  built  on  the  after-deck;  as,  however,  one  of  the 
pigs  was  found  dead  on  the  morning  after  the  south- 
westerly breeze  just  mentioned,  I  assumed  that  this 
was  on  account  of  the  cold,  and  another  house  was  at 
once  built  for  them  between  decks  (in  the  work-room), 
where  it  was  very  warm.  They  were  down  here  the 
whole  time;  but  as  their  house  was  cleaned  out  twice 
a  day  and  dry  straw  put  on  the  floor,  they  did  not 
cause  us  much  inconvenience;  besides  which,  their 
house  was  raised  more  than  half  a  foot  above  the  deck 
itself,  so  that  the  space  below  could  always  be  kept 
clean.  The  pigs  thrived  so  well  down  here  that  we 
could  almost  see  them  growing;  on  arrival  at  the 
Barrier  we  had  no  fewer  than  nine  alive. 

The  sheep  had  a  weather-tight  house  with  a  tarpaulin 
over  the  roof,  and  they  grew  fatter  and  fatter;  we  had 
every  opportunity  of  noticing  this,  as  we  killed  one  of 


HEAD  WINDS  AND  CALMS  333 

them  regularly  every  Saturday  until  we  came  into  the 
pack-ice  and  got  seal-meat.  We  had  four  sheep  left  on 
reaching  the  Barrier. 

We  did  wretchedly  in  October — calms  and  east  winds, 
nothing  but  east  winds;  as  regards  distance  it  was  the 
worst  month  we  had  had  since  leaving  Norway,  not- 
withstanding that  the  Frain  had  been  in  dry  dock,  had 
a  clean  bottom  and  a  light  cargo.  When  close-hauled 
with  any  head  sea,  we  scarcely  move;  a  stiff  fair  wind 
is  what  is  wanted  if  we  are  to  get  on.  Somebody  said 
we  got  on  so  badly  because  we  had  thirteen  pigs  on 
board;  another  said  it  was  because  we  caught  so  many 
birds,  and  I  had  caught  no  less  than  fourteen  albatrosses 
and  four  Cape  pigeons.  Altogether  there  is  quite  enough 
of  what  I  will  call  superstition  at  sea.  One  particular 
bird  brings  fine  weather,  another  storms ;  it  is  very  im- 
portant to  notice  which  way  the  whale  swims  or  the 
dolpliin  leaps;  the  success  of  seal-hunting  depends  on 
whether  the  first  seal  is  seen  ahead  or  astern,  and  so  on. 
Enough  of  that. 

October  went  out  and  November  came  in  with  a 
fresh  breeze  from  the  south-south-west,  so  that  we 
did  nine  and  a  half  knots.  This  promised  well  for 
November,  but  the  promise  was  scarcely  fulfilled.  We 
had  northerly  wind  or  southerly  wind  continually, 
generally  a  little  to  the  east  of  north  or  south. 
and  I  believe  I  am  not  saying  too  much  when  I 
state  that  in  the  "west  wind  belt"  with  an  easterly 


334       THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE    '  FRAJM  " 

course  we  lay  close-hauled  on  one  tack  or  the  other  for 
about  two-thirds  of  the  way.  For  only  three  days  out 
of  three  months  did  we  have  a  real  west  mnd,  a  wind 
which,  with  south-westerly  and  north-westerly  winds, 
I  had  reckoned  on  having  for  75  per  cent,  of  the  trip 
from  Buenos  Aires  to  about  the  longitude  of  Tasmania. 

In  my  enthusiasm  over  the  west  wind  in  question, 
I  went  so  far  as  to  write  in  my  diary  at  2  a.m.  on 
IX'ovember  11:  "  There  is  a  gale  from  the  west,  and  we 
are  making  nine  knots  with  foresail  and  topsail.  The  sea 
is  pretty  high  and  breaking  on  both  sides  of  the  vessel, 
so  that  everything  about  us  is  a  mass  of  spray.  In  spite 
of  this,  not  a  drop  of  water  comes  on  deck,  and  it  is  so 
dry  that  the  watch  are  going  about  in  clogs.  For  my 
part  I  am  wearing  felt  slippers,  which  will  not  stand 
wet.  Sea-boots  and  oilskins  hang  ready  in  the  chart- 
house,  in  case  it  should  rain.  On  a  watch  like  to-night, 
when  the  moon  is  kind  enough  to  shine,  everyone  on 
deck  is  in  the  best  of  humours,  whistling,  chattering, 
and  singing.  Somebody  comes  up  with  the  remark  that 
' She  took  that  sea  finely,'  or  'Now  she's  flying  properly.' 
'  Fine  '  is  almost  too  feeble  an  expression ;  one  ought 
to  say  '  lightly  and  elegantly '  when  speaking  of  the 
Frmn.  .  .  .     What  more  can  one  wish?"  etc. 

But  whatever  time  Adam  may  have  spent  in  Paradise, 
we  were  not  there  more  than  three  days,  and  then  the 
same  wretched  state  of  things  began  again.  What  I 
wrote  when  there  was  a  head  wind  or  calm,  I  should  be 


A  TEMPORARY  IMPROVEMENT   335 

sorry  to  reproduce.  Woe  to  him  who  then  came  and 
said  it  was  fine  weather. 

It  was  lucky  for  us  that  the  Fram  sails  so  much  more 
easily  now  than  in  1910,  otherwise  we  should  have  taken 
six  months  to  reach  the  Barrier.  When  we  had  wind, 
we  used  it  to  the  utmost;  but  we  did  not  do  this  with- 
out the  loss  of  one  or  two  things;  the  new  jib-sheet 
broke  a  couple  of  times,  and  one  night  we  carried  away 
the  outer  bobstay  of  the  jib-boom.  The  foresail  and 
topsail  were  neither  made  fast  nor  reefed  during  the 
whole  trip. 

The  last  time  the  jib-sheet  broke  there  was  a  strong 
breeze  from  the  south-west  with  a  heavy  sea;  all  sail 
was  set  with  the  exception  of  the  spanker,  as  the  ship 
would  not  steer  with  that.  There  was  an  extra  pre- 
venter on  the  double  jib-sheet,  but  in  spite  of  that  the 
sheets  broke  and  the  jib  was  split  with  a  fearful  crack. 
Within  a  minute  the  mainsail  and  gaff -topsail  were 
hauled  down,  so  that  the  ship  might  fall  off,  and  the 
jib  hauled  down.  This  was  instantly  unbent  and  a  ncAv 
one  bent.  The  man  at  the  helm,  of  course,  got  the 
blame  for  this,  and  the  first  thing  he  said  to  me  was: 
"  I  couldn't  help  it,  she  was  twisting  on  the  top  of 
a  wave."  We  were  then  making  ten  knots,  and  more 
than  that  we  shall  not  do. 

The  Fram  rolled  well  that  day.  A  little  earlier  in  the 
afternoon,  at  two  o'clock,  when  the  watch  had  gone 
below  to  dinner  and  were  just  eating  the  sweet,  which 


336   THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM 


>» 


on  that  occasion  consisted  of  preserved  pears,  we  felt 
that  there  was  an  unusually  big  lurch  coming.  Although, 
of  course,  we  had  fiddles  on  the  table,  the  plates,  with 
meat,  potatoes,  etc.,  jumped  over  the  fiddles,  which  they 
didn't  care  a  button  for,  into  Beck's  cabin.  I  caught 
one  of  the  pears  in  its  flight,  but  the  plate  with  the  rest 
of  them  went  on  its  way.  Of  course  there  was  a  great 
shout  of  laughter,  which  stopped  dead  as  we  heard  a 
violent  noise  on  deck,  over  our  heads ;  I  guessed  at  once 
it  was  an  empty  water-tank  that  had  broken  loose,  and 
with  my  mouth  full  of  pear  I  yelled  "  Tank!"  and  flew 
on  deck  with  the  whole  watch  below  at  my  heels.  A  sea 
had  come  in  over  the  after-deck,  and  had  lifted  the  tank 
up  from  its  lashings.  All  hands  threw  themselves  upon 
the  tank,  and  held  on  to  it  till  the  water  had  poured  off^ 
the  deck,  when  it  was  again  fixed  in  its  place.  When 
this  was  done,  my  watch  went  below  again  and  lit  their 
pipes  as  if  nothing  had  happened. 

On  November  13  we  passed  the  northernmost  of  the 
Prince  Edward  Islands,  and  on  the  18th  close  to  Penguin 
Island,  the  most  south-westerlv  of  the  Crozets.  In  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  latter  we  saw  a  great  quantity  of 
birds,  a  number  of  seals  and  penguins,  and  even  a  little 
iceberg.  I  went  close  to  the  land  to  check  the 
chronometers,  which  an  observation  and  bearings  of  the 
islands  showed  to  be  correct. 

Our  course  was  then  laid  for  Kerguelen  Island,  but 
we  went  too  far  north  to  see  it,  as  for  two  weeks  the 


CATCHING  BIRDS  337 

wind  was  south-easterly  and  southerly,  and  the  leeway 
we  made  when  sailing  close-hauled  took  us  every  day  a 
little  to  the  north  of  east.  When  we  were  in  the  same 
waters  in  1910,  there  was  gale  after  gale;  then  we  did 
not  put  in  at  Kerguelen  on  account  of  the  force  of  the 
wind;  this  time  we  could  not  approach  the  island 
because  of  the  wind's  direction.  In  no  respect  can  the 
second  trip  be  compared  with  the  first;  I  should  never 
have  dreamed  that  there  could  be  so  much  difference  ui 
the  "  Roaring  Forties  "  in  two  different  years  at  the 
same  season.  In  the  "  Foggy  Fifties  "  the  weather  was 
calm  and  fine,  and  we  had  no  fog  until  lat.  58°  S. 

As  regards  the  distance  sailed,  November,  1911,  is  the 
best  month  the  Fram  has  had. 

In  December,  which  began  with  a  speed  of  one  and  a 
half  knots,  calm,  swell  against  us,  and  the  engine  at  full 
speed,  we  had  a  fair  wind  for  three  days,  all  the  rest 
calms  and  head  winds;  the  first  part  of  the  month  from 
the  north-east  and  east,  so  that  we  came  much  too  far 
south;  even  in  long.  150  E.  we  were  in  lat.  60°  S.  In 
Christmas  week  we  had  calms  and  light  winds  from  the 
south-east,  so  that  we  managed  to  steal  eastward  to 
long.  170°  E.  and  lat.  65°  S.,  where,  on  the  edge  of  the 
pack-ice,  we  had  a  stiff  breeze  from  the  north-north-east, 
that  is,  straight  on  to  the  ice. 

Between  Buenos  Aires  and  the  pack-ice  we  caught,  as 
I  have  said,  a  good  many  birds,  mostly  albatrosses,  and 
about  thirty  skins  were  prepared  by  L.  Hansen.     The 


338  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

largest  albatross  we  got  measured  twelve  feet  between  the 
tips  of  its  wings,  and  the  smallest  bird  was  of  a  land 
species,  not  much  bigger  than  a  humming-bird. 

Talking  of  albatrosses,  it  is  both  amusing  and  interest- 
ing to  watch  their  elegant  flight  in  a  high  wind.  With- 
out a  movement  of  the  wings  they  sail,  now  with,  now 
against,  the  wind ;  at  one  instant  they  touch  the  surface 
of  the  water  with  the  points  of  their  wings,  at  the  next 
they  go  straight  into  the  air  like  an  arrow.  An 
interesting  and  instructive  study  for  an  aviator. 

In  a  wind,  when  there  is  generally  a  number  of  them 
hovering  about  the  vessel,  they  will  dash  down  after 
anything  that  is  thrown  overboard;  but  of  course  it  is 
useless  to  try  to  catch  them  when  the  ship  has  so  much 
way.  This  must  be  done  the  next  day,  when  the  wind 
is  lighter. 

The  birds  are  caught  with  an  iron  triangle,  which 
ought  to  be  enclosed  in  wood,  so  that  it  will  float  on  the 
water.  At  the  apex,  which  is  very  acute,  the  iron  is 
filed  as  sharp  as  a  knife,  and  pork  is  hung  on  each  of  the 
sides.  When  this  is  thrown  in  the  wake  of  the  ship, 
the  bird  settles  on  the  water  to  feed.  The  upper  part  of 
its  beak  is  hooked  like  that  of  a  bird  of  prey,  and  as  the 
albatross  opens  its  beak  and  bites  at  the  pork,  you  give 
a  jerk,  so  that  the  triangle  catches  the  upper  part  of  the 
beak  by  two  small  notches,  and  the  bird  is  left  hanging. 
If  the  line  should  break,  the  whole  thing  simply  falls  off 
and  the  bird  is  unliarmed.    In  hauling  in,  therefore,  you 


CHRISTMAS  339 

have  to  be  very  careful  to  hold  the  line  quite  tight,  even 
if  the  bird  flies  towards  you,  otherwise  it  will  easily  fall 
off.  A  bird  may  be  pulled  half-way  in  several  times,  and 
will  immediately  take  the  bait  again. 

On  the  night  of  December  11  an  unusually  beautiful 
aurora  was  seen ;  it  lasted  over  an  hour,  and  moved  in  a 
direction  from  west  to  east. 

On  the  14th  all  the  white  paint  was  washed;  the 
temperature  was  43°  F.,  and  we  were  in  shirt-sleeves. 

For  a  whole  week  before  Christmas  the  cook  was 
busy  baking  Christmas  cakes.  I  am  bound  to  say  he  is 
industrious;  and  the  day  before  Christmas  Eve  one  of 
the  little  pigs,  named  Tulla,  was  killed.  The  swineherd, 
A.  Olsen,  whose  special  favourite  this  pig  was,  had  to 
keep  away  during  the  operation,  that  we  might  not 
witness  his  emotion. 

Early  on  the  morning  of  Christmas  Eve  we  saw  the 
three  first  icebergs ;  there  was  an  absolute  calm  all  day, 
with  misty  air. 

To  keep  Christmas  the  engine  was  stopped  at  5  p.m., 
and  then  all  hands  came  to  dinner.  Unfortunately  we 
had  no  gramophone  to  sing  to  us,  as  in  1910;  as  a 
substitute  the  "  orchestra  "  played  "  Glade  Jul.  hellige 
Jul,"  when  all  were  seated.  The  orchestra  was  com- 
posed of  Beck  on  the  violin,  Sundbeck  on  the  mandolin, 
and  the  undersigned  on  the  flute.  I  puffed  out  my 
cheeks  as  much  as  I  could,  and  that  i^  not  saying  a 
little,  so  that  the  others  might  see  how  proficient  I  was. 


340  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

I  hardly  think  it  was  much  of  a  musical  treat ;  but  the 
public  was  neither  critical  nor  ceremonious,  and  the 
2)revalent  costume  w^as  jerseys.  The  dinner  consisted  of 
soup,  roast  pork,  with  fresh  potatoes  and  whortleberries, 
ten-years-old  aquavit  and  Norwegian  bock  beer,  followed 
by  wine-jelly  and  "  kransekake,"  with — champagne. 
The  toasts  of  their  Majesties  the  King  and  Queen,  Don 
Pedro  Christophersen,  Captain  Amundsen,  and  the 
Fram  were  drunk. 

I  had  decorated  the  saloon  in  a  small  way  with 
artificial  flowers,  embroideries,  and  flags,  to  give  a  little 
colour.  Dinner  was  followed  by  cigars  and  the  distribu- 
tion of  Christmas  presents.  L.  Hansen  played  the 
accordion,  and  Lieutenant  Gjertsen  and  Ronne  danced 
*'  folk  dances  ";  the  latter  was,  as  usual,  so  amusing  that 
he  kept  us  in  fits  of  laughter. 

At  ten  o'clock  it  was  all  over,  the  engine  was  started 
again,  one  watch  w^ent  to  bed  and  the  other  on  deck; 
Olsen  cleaned  out  the  pigsty,  as  usual  at  this  time  of 
night.    That  finished  Christmas  for  this  year. 

As  has  been  said  before.  Sir  James  Ross  was  down 
here  in  the  1840's.  Two  years  in  succession  he  sailed 
from  the  Pacific  into  Ross  Sea  with  two  ships  that  had 
no  auxiliary  steam-power.  I  assumed,  therefore,  that  if 
he  could  get  through  so  easily,  there  must  be  some 
place  between  South  Victoria  Land  and  the  Barrier  (or 
land )  on  the  other  side,  where  there  was  little  or  no  ice. 
Following   this   assumption,   I    intended  to    go    down 


SKIRTING  THE  ICE  341 

to  the  western  pack-ice  (that  lying  off  South  Victoria 
Land)  and  steer  along  it  till  we  were  in  Ross  Sea,  or,  at 
all  events,  until  we  found  a  place  where  we  could  easily 
get  through.  It  is  quite  possible  that  Ross  was  very 
lucky  in  the  time  at  which  he  encountered  the  ice,  and 
that  he  only  sailed  in  clear  weather.  We  had  no  time 
to  spare,  however,  but  had  to  make  use  of  whatever 
wind  there  was,  even  if  we  could  not  see  very  far. 

As  early  as  December  28,  at  5  p.m.,  in  lat.  65°  S. 
and  long.  171'5°  E.,  it  was  reported  that  we  were 
off  the  pack.  I  was  a  good  deal  surprised,  as  recent 
expeditions  had  not  met  the  pack  until  66*5°  S.,  or 
about  one  hundred  nautical  miles  farther  south,  nor  had 
there  been  any  sign  of  our  being  so  near  the  ice.  The 
wind  for  the  last  few  days  had  been  south-easterly,  but 
for  the  moment  it  was  calm;  we  therefore  held  on  to 
the  east  along  the  edge  of  the  pack,  with  the  ice  to 
starboard.  About  midnight  the  wind  freshened  from  the 
north,  and  we  lay  close-hauled  along  the  edge  of  the 
ice  till  midday  on  the  29th,  when  the  direction  of  the 
ice  became  more  southerly.  The  northerly  wind,  which 
gradually  increased  to  a  stiff  breeze,  was  good  enough 
for  getting  us  on,  but  it  must  inevitably  bring  fog  and 
snow  in  its  train.  These  came,  sure  enough,  as  thick 
as  a  wall,  and  for  a  couple  of  days  we  sailed  perfectly 
blindly. 

Outside  the  pack-ice  proper  lie  long  streams  of  floes 
and  loose  scattered  lumps,  which  become  more  frequent 


342  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

as  one  nears  the  pack.  For  two  days  we  sailed  simply 
by  the  lumps  of  ice;  the  more  of  them  we  saw,  the 
more  easterly  was  our  course,  until  they  began  to 
decrease,  when  we  steered  more  to  the  south.  In 
this  way  we  went  in  forty-eight  hom'S  from  lat.  65°  S. 
and  long.  174°  E.  to  lat.  69°  S.  and  long.  178°  E., 
a  distance  of  about  two  hundred  and  fifty  nautical 
miles,  without  entering  the  pack.  Once  we  very 
nearlj^  went  into  the  trap,  but  fortunately  got  out 
again.  The  wind  was  so  fresh  that  we  did  as  much  as 
eight  and  a  half  knots;  when  sailing  at  such  a  rate 
through  a  loose  stream  of  ice,  we  sometimes  ran  upon  a 
floe,  which  went  under  the  ship's  bottom,  and  came  up 
alongside  the  other  way  up. 

During  the  afternoon  of  the  31st  the  streams  of  ice 
became  closer  and  closer,  and  then  I  made  the  mistake 
of  continuing  to  sail  to  the  eastward;  instead  of  this, 
I  ought  to  have  stood  off,  and  steered  due  south  or 
to  the  west  of  south,  with  this  ice  on  our  poj't  side. 
The  farther  we  advanced,  the  more  certain  I  was  that 
we  had  come  into  the  eastern  pack-ice.  It  must  be 
remembered,  however,  that  owing  to  fog  and  thick 
snow  we  had  seen  nothing  for  over  two  days.  Observa- 
tions there  were  none,  of  course;  our  speed  had  varied 
between  two  and  eight  and  a  half  knots,  and  we  had 
steered  all  manner  of  courses.  That  our  dead  reckoning 
was  not  very  correct  in  such  circimistances  goes  with- 
out saying,  and  an  observation  on  January  2  showed 


SLOW  PROGRESS  343 

us  that  we  were  somewhat  farther  to  the  east  than  we 
had  reckoned.  On  the  evening  of  December  31  the  fog 
Hfted  for  a  wliile,  and  we  saw  nothing  but  ice  all  round. 
Our  course  was  then  set  due  south.  We  had  come 
right  down  in  lat.  69' 5°  S.,  and  I  hoped  soon  to  be 
clear  altogether;  in  1910  we  got  out  of  the  ice  in  70°  S., 
and  were  then  in  the  same  longitude  as  now. 

Now,  indeed,  our  progress  began  to  be  slow,  and  the 
old  year  went  out  in  a  far  from  pleasant  fashion.  The 
fog  was  so  thick  that  I  may  safely  say  we  did  not  see 
more  than  fifty  yards  from  the  ship,  whereas  we  ought 
to  have  had  the  midnight  sun ;  ice  and  snow-sludge  were 
so  thick  that  at  times  we  lay  still.  The  wind  had, 
unfortunately,  fallen  off,  but  we  still  had  a  little 
breeze  from  the  north,  so  that  both  sails  and  engine 
could  be  used.  We  went  simply  at  haphazard;  now 
and  then  we  were  lucky  enough  to  come  into  great 
open  channels  and  even  lakes,  but  then  the  ice  closed 
again  absolutely  tight.  It  could  hardly  be  called  real  ice, 
however,  but  was  rather  a  snow-sludge,  about  two  feet 
thick,  and  as  tough  as  dough;  it  looked  is  if  it  had  all 
just  been  broken  off  a  single  thick  mass.  The  floes  lay 
close  together,  and  we  could  see  how  one  floe  fitted 
into  the  other.  The  ice  remained  more  or  less  close 
until  we  were  right  down  in  lat.  73°  S.  and  long.  179° 
W.;  the  last  part  of  it  was  old  drift-ice. 

From  here  to  the  Bay  of  Whales  we  saw  a  few 
scattered  streams  of  floes  and  some  icebergs. 


344  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

A  few  seals  were  shot  in  the  ice,  so  that  we  had  fresh 
meat  enough,  and  could  save  the  sheep  and  pigs  until 
the  shore  party  came  on  board.  I  was  sure  they  would 
appreciate  fresh  roast  pork. 

The  chart  of  Ross  Sea  has  been  drawn  chiefly  as 
a  guide  to  future  expeditions.  It  may  be  taken  as 
certain  that  the  best  place  to  go  through  the  ice  is 
between  long.  176°  E.  and  180°,  and  that  the  best 
time  is  about  the  beginning  of  February. 

Take,  for  instance,  our  southward  route  in  1911-1912: 
as  has  been  said,  the  ice  was  -met  with  as  early  as 
in  65°  S.,  and  we  were  not  clear  of  it  till  about  73°  S.; 
between  68°  S.  and  G9°  S.  the  line  is  interrupted,  and  it 
was  there  that  I  ought  to  have  steered  to  the  south. 

Now  follow  the  course  from  the  Bay  of  Whales 
in  1912.  Only  in  about  75°  S.  was  ice  seen  (almost 
as  in  1911),  and  we  followed  it.  After  that  time  we 
saw  absolutely  no  more  ice,  as  the  chart  shows;  there- 
fore in  the  course  of  about  a  month  and  a  half  all  the  ice 
that  we  met  when  going  south  had  drifted  out. 

The  stippled  line  shows  how  I  assume  the  ice  to  have 
lain;  the  heavy  broken  line  shows  what  our  course 
ought  to  have  been. 

The  midnight  sun  was  not  seen  till  the  night  of 
January  7,  1912,  to  the  south  of  lat.  77°  S.;  it  was 
already  9*5°  above  the  horizon. 

On  the  night  of  January  8  we  arrived  off  the 
Barrier  in  extremely  bitter  weather.     South-westerly 


To  face  page  344,  Vol.  II. 


BACK  IN  THE  BAY  OF  WHALES      345 

and  southerly  winds  had  held  for  a  few  days,  with  fair 
weather;  but  that  night  there  was  thick  snow,  and  the 
wind  gradually  fell  calm,  after  which  a  fresh  breeze 
sprang  up  from  the  south-east,  with  biting  snow,  and 
at  the  same  time  a  lot  of  drift-ice.  The  engine  went 
very  slowly,  and  the  ship  kept  head  to  wind.  About 
midnight  the  weather  cleared  a  little,  and  a  dark  line, 
which  proved  to  be  the  Barrier,  came  in  sight.  The 
engine  went  ahead  at  full  speed,  and  the  sails  were  set, 
so  that  we  might  get  under  the  lee  of  the  perpendicular 
wall.  By  degrees  the  ice-blink  above  the  Barrier  be- 
came lighter  and  lighter,  and  before  very  long  we  were 
so  close  under  it  that  we  only  just  had  room  to  go 
about.  The  Barrier  here  runs  east  and  west,  and  with 
a  south-easterly  wind  we  went  along  it  to  the  east. 
The  watch  that  had  gone  below  at  eight  o'clock,  when 
we  were  still  in  open  sea,  came  up  again  at  two  to  find 
us  close  to  the  long-desired  wall  of  ice. 

Some  hours  passed  in  the  same  way,  but  then,  of 
course,  the  wind  became  easterly — dead  ahead — so  that 
we  had  tack  after  tack  till  6  p.m.  the  same  day,  when 
we  were  at  the  western  point  of  the  Bay  of  Whales. 

The  ice  lay  right  out  to  West  Cape,  and  we  sailed 
across  the  mouth  of  the  bay  and  up  under  the  lee  of  the 
eastern  Barrier,  in  order,  if  possible,  to  find  slack  ice 
or  open  water;  but  no,  the  fast  ice  came  just  as  far 
on  that  side.  It  turned  out  that  we  could  not  get 
farther  south  than  78°  30' — that  is,  eleven  nautical  miles 

VOL,  II.  48 


346  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM 


>j 


farther  north  than  the  previous  year,  and  no  less  than 
fifteen  nautical  miles  from  Framheim,  taking  into  con- 
sideration the  turn  in  the  bay. 

We  were  thus  back  at  the  same  place  we  had  left  on 
February  14, 1911,  and  had  since  been  round  the  world. 
The  distance  covered  on  this  voyage  of  circumnavigation 
was  25,000  nautical  miles,  of  which  8,000  belong  to  the 
oceanographical  cruise  in  the  South  Atlantic. 

We  did  not  lie  under  the  lee  of  the  eastern  Barrier 
for  more  than  four  hours ;  the  wind,  which  had  so  often 
been  against  us,  was  true  to  its  principles  to  the  last. 
Of  course  it  went  to  the  north  and  blew  right  up  the 
bay;  the  drift-ice  from  Ross  Sea  came  in,  and  at  mid- 
night (January  9-10)  we  stood  out  again. 

I  had  thought  of  sending  a  man  up  to  Framheim  to 
report  that  we  had  arrived,  but  the  state  of  the  weather 
did  not  allow  it.  Besides,  I  had  only  one  pair  of  private 
ski  on  board  and  should  therefore  onlv  have  been  able 
to  send  one  man.  It  would  have  been  better  if  several 
had  gone  together. 

During  the  forenoon  of  the  10th  it  gradually  cleared, 
the  wind  fell  light  and  we  stood  inshore  again.  As  at 
the  same  time  tlie  barometer  was  rising  steadily. 
Lieutenant  Gjertsen  went  ashore  on  ski  about  one 
o'clock. 

Later  in  the  afternoon  a  dog  came  running  out  across 
the  sea-ice,  and  I  thought  it  had  come  down  on 
Lieutenant  Gjertsen's  track;  but  I  was  afterwards  told 


THE  "  KAINAN  MARU  "  APPEARS     347 

it  was  one  of  the  half -wild  dogs  that  ran  about  on  the 
ice  and  did  not  show  themselves  up  at  the  hut. 

Meanwhile  the  wind  freshened  again;  we  had  to  put 
out  for  another  twenty-four  hours  and  lay  first  one  way 
and  then  the  other  with  shortened  sail;  then  there  was 
fine  weather  again  and  we  came  in.  At  4  p.m.  on  the 
11th  Lieutenant  Gjertsen  returned  with  Lieutenant 
Prestrud,  Johansen  and  Stubberud.  Of  course  we  were 
very  glad  to  see  one  another  again  and  all  sorts  of 
questions  were  asked  on  both  sides.  The  Chief  and  the 
southern  party  were  not  yet  back.  They  stayed  on 
board  till  the  12th,  got  their  letters  and  a  big  pile  of 
newspapers  and  went  ashore  again;  we  followed  them 
with  the  glasses  as  far  as  possible,  so  as  to  take  them  on 
board  again  if  they  could  not  get  across  the  cracks  in 
the  ice. 

During  the  days  that  followed  we  lay  moored  to  the 
ice  or  went  out,  according  to  the  weather. 

At  7  p.m.  on  the  16th  we  were  somewhat  surprised 
to  see  a  vessel  bearing  down.  For  my  part,  I  guessed 
her  to  be  the  Aurora^  Dr.  Mawson's  ship.  She  came 
very  slowly,  but  at  last  what  should  we  see  but  the 
Japanese  flag!  I  had  no  idea  that  expedition  was  out 
again.  The  ship  came  right  in,  went  past  us  twice  and 
moored  alongside  the  loose  ice.  Immediately  after- 
wards ten  men  armed  with  picks  and  shovels  went  up 
the  Barrier,  while  the  rest  rushed  wildly  about  after 
penguins,  and  their  shots  were  heard  all  night.    Next 


348  THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

morning  the  commander  of  the  Kainan  Maru,  whose 
name  was  Homura,  came  on  board.  The  same  day  a 
tent  was  set  up  on  the  edge  of  the  Barrier,  and  cases, 
sledges,  and  so  on,  were  put  out  on  the  ice.  Kainan 
Maru  means,  I  have  been  told,  "the  ship  that  opens 
the  South." 

Prestrud  and  I  went  on  board  her  later  in  the  day,  to 
see  what  she  was  like,  but  we  met  neither  the  leader  of 
the  expedition  nor  the  captain  of  the  ship.  Prestrud 
had  the  cinematograph  apparatus  with  him,  and  a  lot  of 
photographs  were  also  taken. 

The  leader  of  the  Japanese  expedition  has  written 
somewhere  or  other  that  the  reason  of  Shackleton's 
losing  all  his  ponies  was  that  the  ponies  were  not  kept 
in  tents  at  night,  but  had  to  lie  outside.  He  thought 
the  ponies  ought  to  be  in  the  tents  and  the  men  outside. 
From  this  one  would  think  they  were  great  lovers  of 
animals,  but  I  must  confess  that  was  not  the  impression 
I  received.  They  had  put  penguins  into  little  boxes  to 
take  them  alive  to  Japan  !  Round  about  the  deck  lay 
dead  and  half -dead  skua  gulls  in  heaps.  On  the  ice 
close  to  the  vessel  was  a  seal  ripped  open,  with  part  of 
its  entrails  on  the  ice;  but  the  seal  was  still  alive. 
Neither  Prestrud  nor  I  had  any  sort  of  weapon  that  we 
could  kill  the  seal  with,  so  we  asked  the  Japanese  to  do 
it,  but  they  only  grinned  and  laughed.  A  little  way  off 
two  of  them  were  coming  across  the  ice  with  a  seal  in 
front  of  them;  they  drove  it  on  with  two  long  poles. 


THE  SOUTHERN  PARTY  ARRIVES    349 

with  which  they  pricked  it  when  it  would  not  go.  If  it 
fell  into  a  crack,  they  dug  it  up  again  as  you  would  see 
men  quarrying  stone  at  home ;  it  had  not  enough  life  in 
it  to  be  able  to  escape  its  tormentors.  All  this  was 
accompanied  by  laughter  and  jokes.  On  arrival  at  the 
ship  the  animal  was  nearly  dead,  and  it*  was  left  there 
till  it  expired. 

On  the  19th  we  had  a  fresh  south-westerly  wind  and 
a  lot  of  ice  went  out.  The  Japanese  were  occupied 
most  of  the  night  in  going  round  among  the  floes  and 
picking  up  men,  dogs,  cases,  and  so  on,  as  they  had  put 
a  good  deal  on  to  the  ice  in  the  course  of  the  day.  As 
the  ice  came  out,  so  the  Fram  went  in,  right  up  to 
lat.  78°  35'  S.,  while  the  Kainan  Maru  drifted  farther 
and  farther  out,  till  at  last  she  disappeared.  Nor  did 
we  see  the  vessel  again,  but  a  couple  of  men  with  a  tent 
stayed  on  the  Barrier  as  long  as  we  were  in  the  bay. 

On  the  night  of  the  24th  there  was  a  stiff  breeze  from 
the  west,  and  we  drifted  so  far  out  in  the  thick  snow 
that  it  was  only  on  the  afternoon  of  the  27th  that  we 
could  make  our  way  in  again  through  a  mass  of  ice.  In 
the  course  of  these  two  days  so  much  ice  had  broken  up 
that  we  came  right  in  to  lat.  78°  39'  S.,  or  almost  to 
Framheim,  and  that  was  very  lucky.  As  we  stood  in 
over  the  Bay  of  Whales,  we  caught  sight  of  a  big 
Norwegian  naval  ensign  flying  on  the  Barrier  at  Cape 
Man's  Head,  and  I  then  knew  that  the  southern  party 
had  arrived.    We  went  therefore  as  far  south  as  possible 


350     THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRA^I  " 

and  blew  our  powerful  siren;  nor  was  it  very  long 
before  eight  men  came  tearing  down.  There  was  great 
enthusiasm.  The  first  man  on  board  was  the  Chief;  I 
was  so  certain  he  had  reached  the  goal  that  I  never 
asked  him.  Not  till  an  hour  later,  when  we  had 
discussed  all  kinds  of  other  things,  did  I  enquire: 
"  Well,  of  course  you  have  been  at  the  South  Pole?" 

We  lay  there  for  a  couple  of  days ;  on  account  of  the 
short  distance  from  Framheim,  provisions,  outfit,  etc., 
were  brought  on  board.  If  such  great  masses  of  ice  had 
not  drifted  out  in  the  last  few  days,  it  would  probably 
have  taken  us  a  week  or  two  to  get  the  same  quantity 
on  board. 

At  9.30  p.m.  on  January  30,  1912,  in  a  thick  fog,  we 
took  our  moorings  on  board  and  waved  a  last  farewell 
to  the  mighty  Barrier. 


VII. 

From  the  Barrier  to  Buenos  Aires,  via  Hob  art. 

The  first  day  after  our  departure  from  the  Barrier 
everything  we  had  taken  on  board  was  stowed  away, 
so  that  one  would  not  have  thought  our  numbers  were 
doubled,  or  that  we  had  taken  several  himdred  cases 
and  a  lot  of  outfit  on  board.  The  change  was  only 
noticed  on  deck,  where  thirty-nine  powerful  dogs  made 
an  uproar  all  day  long,  and  in  the  fore-saloon,  which 


«. 

^ 


iGOING  NORTHWARD  351 

was  entirely  changed.  This  saloon,  after  being  deserted 
for  a  year,  was  now  full  of  men,  and  it  was  a  pleasure 
to  be  there;  especially  as  everyone  had  something  to 
tell — the  Chief  of  his  trip,  Prestrud  of  his,  and  Gjertsen 
and  I  of  the  Fram's. 

However,  there  was  not  very  much  time  for  yarning. 
The  Chief  at  once  began  writing  cablegrams  and  lectures, 
which  Prestrud  and  I  translated  into  English,  and  the 
Chief  then  copied  again  on  a  typewriter.  In  addition 
to  this  I  was  occupied  the  whole  time  in  drawing 
charts,  so  that  on  arrival  at  Hobart  everything  was 
ready;  the  time  passed  quickly,  though  the  voyage  was 
fearfully  long. 

As  regards  the  pack-ice  we  were  extremely  lucky. 
It  lay  in  exactly  the  same  spot  where  we  had  met  with 
it  in  1911 — that  is,  in  about  lat.  75°  S.  We  went  along 
the  edge  of  it  for  a  very  short  time,  and  then  it  was 
done  with.  To  the  north  of  75°  we  saw  nothing  but 
a  few  small  icebergs. 

We  made  terribly  slow  progress  to  the  northward, 
how  slow  may  perhaps  be  understood  if  I  quote  my 
diary  for  February  27: 

"  This  trip  is  slower  than  anything  we  have  had 
before;  now  and  then  we  manage  an  average  rate  of 
two  knots  an  hour  in  a  day's  run.  In  the  last  four 
days  we  have  covered  a  distance  that  before  would 
have  been  too  little  for  a  single  day.  We  have  been 
at  it  now  for  nearly  a  month,  and  are  still  only  between 


352     THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRA]\I 


>» 


lat.  52°  and  53°  S,  Gales  from  the  north  are  almost 
the  order  of  the  day,"  etc.  However,  it  is  an  ill  wind 
that  hlows  nobody  any  good,  and  the  time  was  well 
employed  with  all  we  had  to  do. 

After  a  five  weeks'  struggle  we  at  last  reached  Hobart 
and  anchored  in  the  splendid  harbour  on  ^March  7. 

Our  fresh  provisions  from  Buenos  Aires  just  lasted 
out ;  the  last  of  the  fresh  potatoes  were  finished  a  couple 
of  days  before  our  arrival,  and  the  last  pig  was  killed 
when  we  had  been  at  Hobart  two  days. 

The  Fram  remained  here  for  thirteen  days,  which 
were  chiefly  spent  in  repairing  the  propeller  and  clean- 
ing the  engine;  in  addition  to  this  the  topsail-yard, 
which  was  nearly  broken  in  the  middle,  was  spliced, 
as  we  had  no  opportunity  of  getting  a  new  one. 

The  first  week  was  quiet  on  board,  as,  owing  to  the 
circumstances,  there  was  no  communication  with  the 
shore;  but  after  that  the  ship  was  full  of  visitors,  so 
that  we  were  not  very  sorry  to  get  away  again. 

Twenty-one  of  our  dogs  were  presented  to  Dr.  ^lawson, 
the  leader  of  the  Australian  expedition,  and  only  those 
dogs  that  had  been  to  the  South  Pole  and  a  few  puppies, 
eighteen  in  all,  were  left  on  board. 

While  we  lay  in  Hobart,  Dr.  Mawson's  ship,  the 
Aurora,  came  in.  I  went  aboard  her  one  day,  and 
have  thus  been  on  board  the  vessels  of  all  the  present 
Antarctic  expeditions.  On  the  Terra  Nova,  the  British, 
on  February  4,  1911,  in  the  Bay  of  Whales;  on  the 


WE  LEAVE  HOBART  353 

Deutschland,  the  German,  in  September  and  October, 
1911,  in  Buenos  Aires;  on  the  Kainan  Maru,  the 
Japanese,  on  January  17,  1912,  in  the  Bay  of  Whales; 
and  finally  on  the  Aurora  in  Hobart.  Not  forgetting 
the  Fram,  which,  of  course,  I  think  best  of  all. 

On  March  20  the  Fram  weighed  anchor  and  left 
Tasmania. 

We  made  very  poor  progress  to  begin  with,  as  we 
had  calms  for  nearly  three  weeks,  in  spite  of  its  being 
the  month  of  March  in  the  west  wind  belt  of  the  South 
Pacific.  On  the  morning  of  Easter  Sunday,  April  7, 
the  wind  first  freshened  from  the  north-west  and  blew 
day  after  day,  a  stiff  breeze  and  a  gale  alternately,  so 
that  we  went  splendidly  all  the  way  to  the  Falkland 
Islands,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  topsail  was  reefed 
for  nearly  five  weeks  on  account  of  the  fragile  state  of 
the  yard.  I  believe  most  of  us  wanted  to  get  on  fast; 
the  trip  was  now  over  for  the  present,  and  those  who 
had  families  at  home  naturally  wanted  to  be  with  them 
as  soon  as  they  could;  perhaps  that  was  why  we  went 
so  well. 

On  April  1  Mrs.  Snuppesen  gave  birth  to  eight  pups ; 
four  of  these  were  killed,  while  the  rest,  two  of  each 
sex,  were  allowed  to  live. 

On  Maundy  Thursday,  April  4,  we  were  in  long.  180° 
and  changed  the  date,  so  that  we  had  two  Maundy 
Thursdays  in  one  week;  this  gave  us  a  good  many 
holidays  running,  and  I  cannot  say  the  effect  is  alto- 


354   THE  VOYAGE  OF  THE  "  FRAM  " 

gether  cheerful;  it  was  a  good  thing  when  Easter 
Tuesday  came  round  as  an  ordinary  week-day. 

On  ]May  6  we  passed  Cape  Horn  in  very  fair  weather ; 
it  is  true  we  had  a  snow-squall  of  hurricane  violence, 
but  it  did  not  last  much  more  than  half  an  hour.  For 
a  few  days  the  temperature  was  a  little  below  freezing- 
point,  but  it  rose  rapidly  as  soon  as  we  were  out  in  the 
Atlantic. 

From  Hobart  to  Cape  Horn  we  saw  no  ice. 

After  passing  the  Falkland  Islands  we  had  a  head 
wind,  so  that  the  last  part  of  the  trip  was  nothing  to 
boast  of. 

On  the  night  of  May  21  we  passed  JNIontevideo,  where 
the  Chief  had  arrived  a  few  hours  before.  From  here 
up  the  River  La  Plata  we  went  so  slowly  on  account 
of  head  wind  that  we  did  not  anchor  in  the  roads  of 
Buenos  Aires  till  the  afternoon  of  the  23rd,  almost 
exactly  at  the  same  time  as  the  Chief  landed  at  Buenos 
Aires.  When  I  went  ashore  next  morning  and  met 
Mr.  P.  Christophersen,  he  was  in  great  good-humour. 
"  This  is  just  like  a  fairy  tale,"  he  said;  and  it  could  not 
be  denied  that  it  was  an  amusing  coincidence.  The 
Chief,  of  course,  was  equally  pleased. 

On  the  25th,  the  Argentine  National  Fete,  the  Fram 
was  moored  at  the  same  quay  that  we  had  left  on 
October  5,  1911.  At  our  departure  there  were  exactly 
seven  people  on  board  to  say  good-bye,  but,  as  far  as 
I  could  see,  there  were  more  than  this  when  we  arrived ; 


THE  END  355 

and  I  was  able  to  make  out,  from  newspapers  and  other 
sources,  that  in  the  course  of  a  couple  of  months  the 
third  2^ra7?i  Expedition  had  grown  considerably  in  popu- 
larity. 

In  conclusion  I  will  give  one  or  two  data.  Since  the 
Fram  left  Christiania  on  June  7,  1910,  we  have  been 
two  and  a  half  times  round  the  globe;  the  distance 
covered  is  about  54,400  nautical  miles ;  the  lowest  read- 
ing of  the  barometer  during  this  time  was  27'56  inches 
(700  millimetres)  in  March,  1911,  in  the  South  Pacific, 
and  the  highest  30*82  inches  (783  millimetres )  in  October, 
1911,  in  the  South  Atlantic. 

On  June  7,  1912,  the  second  anniversary  of  our 
leaving  Christiania,  all  the  members  of  the  Expedition, 
except  the  Chief  and  myself,  left  for  Norway,  and 
the  first  half  of  the  Expedition  was  thus  brought  to 
a  fortunate  conclusion. 


APPENDIX   I 

THE  "FRAM" 
By  Commodore  Christian  Blom 

Colin  Archer  says  in  his  description  of  the  Fram,  in  Fridtjof 
Nansen's  account  of  the  Norwegian  Arctic  Expedition,  1893-1896, 
that  the  successful  result  of  an  expedition  such  as  that  planned  and 
carried  out  by  Dr.  Nansen  in  the  years  1893-1896  must  depend  on 
the  care  with  which  all  possible  contingencies  are  foreseen,  and 
precautions  taken  to  meet  them,  and  the  choice  of  every  detail  of 
the  equipment  with  special  regard  to  the  use  to  which  it  will  be 
put.  To  no  part  of  the  equipment,  he  says,  could  this  apply  with 
greater  force  than  to  the  ship  which  was  to  carry  Dr.  Nansen  and 
his  companions  on  their  adventurous  voyage. 

Colin  Archer  then  built  the  ship — Fram  was  her  name — and  she 
showed — first  on  Fridtjof  Nansen's  famous  voyage,  and  afterwards 
on  Sverdrup's  long  wintering  expedition  in  Ellesmere  Land,  that 
she  answered  her  purpose  completely,  nay,  she  greatly  exceeded  the 
boldest  expectations. 

Then  Roald  Amundsen  decided  to  set  out  on  a  voyage  not  less  ad- 
venturous than  the  two  former,  and  he  looked  about  for  a  suitable 
ship.  It  was  natural  that  he  should  think  of  the  Framy  but  she 
was  old — about  sixteen  years — and  had  been  exposed  to  many  a 
hard  buffet;  it  was  said  that  she  was  a  good  deal  damaged  by 
decay. 

Roald  Amundsen,  however,  did  not  allow  himself  to  be  dis- 
couraged by  these  misgivings,  but  wished  to  see  for  himself  what 

356 


THE    "FRAM"  357 

kind  of  a  craft  the  From  was  after  her  two  commissions.  He 
therefore  came  down  to  Horten  with  Colin  Archer  on  June  1,  1908, 
and  made  a  thorough  examination  of  the  vessel.  He  then,  in  the 
spring  of  1909,  requested  the  Naval  Dockyard  at  Horten  to  repair 
the  ship  and  carry  out  the  alterations  he  considered  necessary  for 
his  enterprise. 

Before  giving  an  accoimt  of  the  repairs  and  alterations  to  the 
vessel  in  1909-1910,  we  shall  briefly  recapitulate,  with  the  author's 
permission,  a  part  of  the  description  of  the  Fram  in  Fridtjof 
Nansen's  work,  especially  as  regards  the  constructive  peculiarities 
of  the  vessel. 

The  problem  which  it  was  sought  to  solve  in  the  construction  of 
the  Fram  was  that  of  providing  a  ship  which  could  survive  the 
crushing  embrace  of  the  Arctic  drift-ice.  To  fit  her  for  this  was 
the  object  before  which  all  other  considerations  had  to  give  way. 

But  apart  from  the  question  of  mere  strength  of  construction, 
there  were  problems  of  design  and  model  which,  it  was  thought, 
would  play  an  important  part  in  the  attainment  of  the  chief  object. 
It  is  sometimes  prudent  in  an  encounter  to  avoid  the  full  force  of  a 
blow  instead  of  resisting  it,  even  if  it  could  be  met  without  damage; 
and  there  was  reason  to  think  that  by  a  judicious  choice  of  model 
something  might  be  done  to  break  the  force  of  the  ice-pressure,  and 
thus  lessen  its  danger.  Examples  of  this  had  been  seen  in  small 
Norwegian  vessels  that  had  been  caught  in  the  ice  near  Spitzbergen 
and  Novaya  Zemlya.  It  often  happens  that  they  are  lifted  right 
out  of  the  water  by  the  pressure  of  the  ice  without  sustaining 
serious  damage;  and  these  vessels  are  not  particularly  strong,  but 
have,  like  most  small  sailing-ships,  a  considerable  dead  rising  and 
sloping  sides.  The  ice  encounters  these  sloping  sides  and  presses  in 
under  the  bilge  on  both  sides,  until  the  ice-edges  meet  under  the 
keel,  and  the  ship  is  raised  up  into  the  bed  that  is  formed  by  the 
ice  itself. 

In  order  to  turn  this  principle  to  account,  it  was  decided  to 
depart  entirely  from  the  usual  flat-bottomed  frame-section,  and  to 


358 


APPENDIX  I 


adopt  a  form  that  would  ofPer  no  vulnerable  point  on  the  ship's 
side,  but  would  cause  the  increasing  horizontal  pressure  of  the  ice 
to  effect  a  raising  of  the  ship,  as  described  above.  In  the  construc- 
tion of  the  Fram  it  was  sought  to  solve  this  problem  by  avoiding 
plane  or  concave  surfaces,  thus  giving  the  vessel  as  far  as  possible 
round  and  full  lines.  Besides  increasing  the  power  of  resistance  to 
external  pressure,  this  form  has  the  advantage  of  making  it  easy 
for  the  ice  to  glide  along  the  bottom  in  any  direction. 

The  Fram  was  a  three-masted  fore-and-aft  schooner  with  an 
auxiliary  engine  of  200  indicated  horse-power,  which  was  calculated 
to  give  her  a  speed  of  6  knots,  when  moderately  loaded,  with  a  coal 
consumption  of  2'8  tons  a  day. 

The  vessel  was  designed  to  be  only  large  enough  to  carry  the 
necessary  coal-supply,  provisions,  and  other  equipment  for  a  period 
of  five  years,  and  to  give  room  for  the  crew. 

Her  principal  dimensions  are: 


Length  of  keel 
Length  of  waterline 
Length  over  all 
Beam  on  waterline 
Greatest  beam 
Depth 


103-3  English  feet. 

119 

128 

34 

36 

172 


Her  displacement,  with  a  draught  of  15*6  feet,  is  800  tons.  The 
measurements  are  taken  to  the  outside  of  the  planks,  but  do  not 
include  the  ice-skin.  By  Custom-house  measurement  she  was 
found  to  be  402  gross  tons  register,  and  307  tons  net. 

The  ship,  with  engines  and  boilers,  was  calculated  to  weigh 
about  420  tons.  With  the  draught  above  mentioned,  which  gives 
a  freeboard  of  3  feet,  there  would  thus  be  380  tons  available  for 
cargo.  This  weight  was  actually  exceeded  by  100  tons,  which  left 
a  freeboard  of  only  20  inches  when  the  ship  sailed  on  her  first 
voyage.  This  additional  immersion  could  only  have  awkward 
effects  when  the  ship  came  into  the  ice,  as  its  effect  would  then  be 
to  retard  the  lifting  by  the  ice,  on  which  the  safety  of  the  ship  was 


THE    "FRAM"  359 

believed  to  depend  In  a  great  measure.  Not  only  was  there  a 
greater  weight  to  lift,  but  there  was  a  considerably  greater  danger 
of  the  walls  of  ice,  that  would  pile  themselves  against  the  ship's 
sides,  falling  over  the  bulwarks  and  covering  the  deck  before  the 
ice  began  to  raise  her.  The  load  would,  however,  be  lightened  by 
the  time  the  ship  was  frozen  fast.  Events  showed  that  she  was 
readily  lifted  when  the  ice-pressure  set  in,  and  that  the  danger  of 
injury  from  falling  blocks  of  ice  was  less  than  had  been  expected. 
The  Fr ant's  keel  is  of  American  elm  in  two  lengths,  14  inches 
square;  the  room  and  space  is  2  feet.  The  frame-timbers  are 
almost  all  of  oak  obtained  from  the  Naval  Dockyard  at  Horten, 
where  they  had  lain  for  many  years,  thus  being  perfectly  seasoned. 
The  timbers  were  all  grown  to  shape.  The  frames  consist  of  two 
tiers  of  timbers  everywhere,  each  timber  measuring  10  to  11  inches 
fore  and  aft;  the  two  tiers  of  timbers  are  fitted  together  and 
bolted,  so  that  they  form  a  solid  and  compact  whole.  The  joints 
of  the  frame  -  timbers  are  covered  with  iron  plates.  The  lining 
consists  of  pitch-pine  in  good  lengths  and  of  varying  thickness  from 
4  to  6  inches.  The  keelson  is  also  of  pitch-pine,  in  two  layers,  one 
above  the  other;  each  layer  15  inches  square  from  the  stem  to  the 
engine-room.  Under  the  boiler  and  engine  there  was  only  room 
for  one  keelson.  There  are  two  decks.  The  beams  of  the  main- 
deck  are  of  American  or  German  oak,  those  of  the  lower  deck  and 
half-deck  of  pitch-pine  and  Norwegian  fir.  All  the  deck  planks  are 
of  Norwegian  fir,  4  inches  in  the  main-deck  and  3  inches  elsewhere. 
The  beams  are  fastened  to  the  ship's  sides  by  knees  of  Norwegian 
spruce,  of  which  about  450  were  used.  Wooden  knees  were,  as 
a  rule,  preferred  to  iron  ones,  as  they  are  more  elastic.  A  good 
many  iron  knees  were  used,  however,  where  wood  was  less  suitable. 
In  the  boiler  and  engine  room  the  beams  of  the  lower  deck  had  to 
be  raised  about  3  feet  to  give  sufficient  height  for  the  engines. 
The  upper  deck  was  similarly  raised  from  the  stern-post  to  the 
mainmast,  forming  a  half-deck,  under  which  the  cabins  were  placed. 
On  this  half-deck,  immediately  forward  of  the  funnel,  a  deck-house 


360  APPENDIX  I 

was  placed,  arranged  as  a  chart-house,  from  which  two  companions 
(one  on  each  side)  led  down  to  the  cabins.  Besides  the  ice-skin, 
there  is  a  double  layer  of  outside  planking  of  oak.  The  two  first 
strakes  (garboard  strakes),  however,  are  single,  7  inches  thick,  and 
are  bolted  both  to  the  keel  and  to  the  frame-timbers.  The  first 
(inner)  layer  of  planks  is  3  inches  thick,  and  is  only  fastened  with 
nails;  outside  this  comes  a  layer  of  4-inch  planks,  fastened  with 
oak  trenails  and  through  bolts,  as  usual.  The  two  top  strakes  are 
single  again,  and  6  inches  thick.  The  ice-skin  is  of  greenheart,  and 
covers  the  whole  ship's  side  from  the  keel  to  18  inches  from  the 
sheer  strake.  It  is  only  fastened  with  nails  and  jagged  bolts. 
Each  layer  of  planks  was  caulked  and  pitched  before  the  next  one 
was  laid.  Thus  only  about  3  or  4  inches  of  the  keel  projects 
below  the  planking,  and  this  part  of  the  keel  is  rounded  off  so  as 
not  to  hinder  the  ice  from  passing  under  the  ship's  bottom.  The 
intervals  between  the  timbers  were  filled  with  a  mixture  of  coal-tar, 
pitch,  and  sawdust,  heated  together  and  put  in  warm.  The  ship's 
side  thus  forms  a  compact  mass  varying  in  thickness  from  28  to  32 
inches.  As  a  consequence  of  all  the  intervals  between  the  timbers 
being  filled  up,  there  is  no  room  for  bilge-water  under  the  lining. 
A  loose  bottom  was  therefore  laid  a  few  inches  above  the  lining  on 
each  side  of  the  keelson.  In  order  to  strengthen  the  ship's  sides 
still  more,  and  especially  to  prevent  stretching,  iron  braces  were 
placed  on  the  lining,  running  from  the  clamps  of  the  top  deck 
down  to  well  past  the  floor-timbers. 

The  stem  consists  of  three  massive  oak  beams,  one  inside  the 
other,  forming  together  4  feet  of  solid  oak  fore  and  aft,  with  a 
breadth  of  15  inches.  The  three  external  plankings  as  well  as  the 
lining  are  all  rabbeted  into  the  stem.  The  propeller-post  is  in 
two  thicknesses,  placed  side  by  side,  and  measures  26  inches 
athwurt-ship  and  14  inches  fore  and  aft.  It  will  be  seen  from  the 
plan  that  the  overhang  aft  runs  out  into  a  point,  and  that 
there  is  thus  no  transom.  To  each  side  of  the  stern-post  is  fitted 
a  stout  stern-timber  parallel  to  the  longitudinal  midship  section. 


THE    "FRAM"  361 

forming,  so  to  speak,  a  double  stern-post,  and  the  space  between 
them  forms  a  well,  which  goes  right  up  through  the  top  deck. 
The  rudder-post  is  placed  in  the  middle  of  this  well,  and  divides 
it  into  two  parts,  one  for  the  propeller  and  one  for  the  rudder. 
In  this  way  it  is  possible  to  lift  both  the  rudder  and  the  screw  out 
of  the  water.  The  rudder  is  so  hung  that  the  rudder-stock,  which 
is  cylindrical,  turns  on  its  own  axis,  to  prevent  the  rudder  being 
jammed  if  the  well  should  be  filled  with  ice.  Aft  of  the  rudder- 
well  the  space  between  the  stern-timbers  is  filled  with  solid  wood, 
and  the  whole  is  securely  bolted  together  with  bolts  running 
athwart-ship.  The  frame-timbers  join  the  stern-timbers  in  this 
part,  and  are  fastened  to  them  by  means  of  knees.  The  stem  and 
stern-post  are  connected  to  the  keelson  and  to  the  keel  by  stout 
knees  of  timber,  and  both  the  ship's  sides  are  bound  together  with 
solid  breasthooks  and  crutches  of  wood  or  iron. 

Although  the  Fram,  was  not  specially  built  for  ramming,  it  was 
probable  that  now  and  then  she  would  be  obliged  to  force  her  way 
through  the  ice.  Her  bow  and  stern  were  therefore  shod  in  the 
usual  way.  On  the  forward  side  of  the  stem  a  segment-shaped 
iron  was  bolted  from  the  bobstay-bolt  to  some  way  under  the  keel. 
Outside  this  iron  plates  (3  x  ^  inches)  were  fastened  over  the 
stem,  and  for  6  feet  on  each  side  of  it.  These  iron  plates  were 
placed  close  together,  and  thus  formed  a  continuous  armour- 
plating  to  a  couple  of  feet  from  the  keel.  The  sharp  edge  of  the 
stern  was  protected  in  the  same  way,  and  the  lower  sides  of  the 
well  were  lined  with  thick  iron  plates.  The  rudder-post,  which 
owing  to  its  exposed  position  may  be  said  to  form  the  Achilles' 
heel  of  the  ship,  was  strengthened  with  three  heavy  pieces  of  iron, 
one  in  the  opening  for  the  screw  and  one  on  each  side  of  the  two 
posts  and  the  keel,  and  bolted  together  with  bolts  running  athwart- 
ship. 

Extraordinary  precautions  were  taken  for  strengthening  the 
ship's  sides,  which  were  particularly  exposed  to  destruction  by  ice- 
pressure,  and  which,  on  account  of  their  form,  compose  the  weakest 

VOL.  II.  49 


362  APPENDIX  I 

part  of  the  hull.  These  precautions  will  best  be  seen  in  the 
sections  (Figs.  3  and  4).  Under  each  beam  in  both  decks  were 
placed  diagonal  stays  of  fir  (6  x  10  inches),  almost  at  right  angles 
to  the  ship's  sides,  and  securely  fastened  to  the  sides  and  to  the 
beams  by  wooden  knees.  There  are  68  of  these  stays  distributed 
©ver  the  ship.  In  addition,  there  are  under  the  beams  three  rows 
of  vertical  stanchions  between  decks,  and  one  row  in  the  lower 
hold  from  the  keelson.  These  are  connected  to  the  keelson,  to  the 
beams,  and  to  each  other  by  iron  bands.  The  whole  of  the  ship's 
interior  is  thus  filled  with  a  network  of  braces  and  stays,  arranged 
in  such  a  way  as  to  transfer  and  distribute  the  pressure  from 
without,  and  give  rigidity  to  the  whole  construction.  In  the 
Aigine  and  boiler  room  it  was  necessary  to  modify  the  arrange- 
ment of  stays,  so  as  to  give  room  for  the  engines  and  boiler. 
All  the  iron,  with  the  exception  of  the  heaviest  forgings,  is 
galvanized. 

When  Otto  Sverdrup  was  to  use  the  Fram  for  his  Polar  expedi- 
tion, he  had  a  number  of  alterations  carried  out.  The  most  im- 
portant of  these  consisted  in  laying  a  new  deck  in  the  fore  part  of 
the  ship,  from  the  bulkhead  forward  of  the  engine-room  to  the 
stem,  at  a  height  of  7  feet  4  inches  (to  the  upper  side  of  the 
planks)  above  the  old  fore-deck.  The  space  below  the  new  deck 
was  fitted  as  a  fore-cabin,  with  a  number  of  state-rooms  leading 
out  of  it,  a  large  workroom,  etc.  The  old  chart-house  immediately 
forward  of  the  funnel  was  removed,  and  in  its  place  a  large  water- 
tank  was  fitted.  The  foremast  was  raised  and  stepped  in  the 
lower  deck.  A  false  keel,  10  inches  deep  and  12  inches  broad, 
was  placed  below  the  keel.  A  number  of  minor  alterations  were 
also  carried  out. 

After  the  Fram  returned  in  1902  from  her  second  expedition 
under  Captain  Sverdrup,  she  was  sent  down  to  Horten  to  be  laid 
up  in  the  Naval  Dockyard. 

Not  long  after  the  vessel  had  arrived  at  the  dockyard.  Captain 
Sverdrup  proposed  various  repairs  and  alterations.     The  repairs 


THE    "FRAM"  363 

were  carried  out  in  part,  but  the  alterations  were  postponed  pend- 
ing a  decision  as  to  the  future  employment  of  the  vessel. 

The  Fram  then  lay  idle  in  the  naval  harbour  until  1905,  when 
she  was  used  by  the  marine  artillery  as  a  floating  magazine.  In 
the  same  year  a  good  deal  of  the  vessel's  outfit  (amongst  other 
things  all  her  sails  and  most  of  her  rigging)  was  lost  in  a  fire  in 
one  of  the  naval  storehouses,  where  these  things  were  stored. 

In  1903  the  ship's  keel  and  stem  (which  are  of  elm  and  oak) 
were  sheathed  with  zinc,  while  the  outer  sheathing  (ice-skin), 
which  is  of  greenheart,  was  kept  coated  with  coal-tar  and  copper 
composition.  In  1907  the  whole  outer  sheathing  below  the  water- 
line  was  covered  with  zinc;  this  was  removed  in  1910  when  the 
ship  was  prepared  for  her  third  commission  under  Roald  Amundsen. 

In  1907  a  thorough  examination  of  the  vessel  was  made,  as 
it  was  suspected  that  the  timber  inside  the  thick  cork  insulation 
that  surrounded  the  cabins  had  begun  to  decay. 

On  previous  expeditions  the  cabins,  provision  hold  aft,  and 
workrooms  forward  of  the  fore-cabin,  had  been  insulated  with 
several  thicknesses  of  wooden  panelling.  The  interstices  were 
filled  with  finely-divided  cork,  alternately  with  remdeer  hair  and 
thick  felt  and  linoleum.  In  the  course  of  years  damp  had  pene- 
trated into  the  non-conducting  material,  with  the  result  that 
fungus  and  decay  had  spread  in  the  surrounding  woodwork.  Thus 
it  was  seen  during  the  examination  in  1907  that  the  panelling  and 
ceiling  of  the  cabins  in  question  were  to  a  great  extent  rotten 
or  attacked  by  fungus.  In  the  same  way  the  under  side  of  the 
upper  deck  over  these  cabins  was  partly  attacked  by  fungus,  as 
were  its  beams,  knees,  and  carlings.  The  lower  deck,  on  the  other 
hand,  was  better  preserved.  The  filling-in  timbers  of  spruce  or  fir 
between  the  frame-timbers  in  the  cabins  were  damaged  by  fungus, 
while  the  frame-timbers  themselves,  which  were  of  oak,  were  good. 
The  outer  lining  outside  the  insulated  parts  was  also  somewhat 
damaged  by  fungus. 

In  the  coal-bunkers  over  the  main-deck  the  spruce  knees  were 


364  APPENDIX  I 

partly  rotten,  as  were  some  of  the  beams,  while  the  Imlng  was  here 
fairly  good. 

The  masts  and  main-topmast  were  somewhat  attacked  by  decay, 
while  the  rest  of  the  spars  were  good. 

During  and  after  the  examination  all  the  panelling  and  insulation 
was  removed,  the  parts  attacked  by  fungus  or  decay  were  also  re- 
moved, and  the  woodwork  coated  with  carbolineum  or  tar.  The  masts 
and  various  stores  and  fittings  were  taken  ashore  at  the  same  time. 

It  was  found  that  the  rest  of  the  vessel — that  is,  the  whole  of 
the  lower  part  of  the  hull  right  up  to  the  cabin  deck — was  per- 
fectly sound,  and  as  good  as  new.  Nor  was  there  any  sign  of 
strain  anywhere.  It  is  difficult  to  imagine  any  better  proof  of  the 
excellence  of  the  vessel's  construction;  after  two  protracted  ex- 
peditions to  the  most  northern  regions  to  which  any  ship  has  ever 
penetrated,  where  the  vessel  was  often  exposed  to  the  severest  ice- 
pressure,  and  in  spite  of  her  being  (in  1907)  fifteen  years  old,  the 
examination  showed  that  her  actual  hull,  the  part  of  the  ship  that 
has  to  resist  the  heavy  strain  of  water  and  ice,  was  in  just  as  good 
condition  as  when  she  was  new. 

The  vessel  was  then  left  in  this  state  until,  as  already  men- 
tioned, Roald  Amundsen  and  her  builder,  Colin  Archer,  came 
down  to  the  dockyard  on  June  1,  1908,  and  with  the  necessary 
assistance  made  an  examination  of  her. 

After  some  correspondence  and  verbal  conferences  between 
Roald  Amundsen  and  the  dockyard,  the  latter,  on  March  9,  1909, 
made  a  tender  for  the  repairs  and  alterations  to  the  Fram.  The 
repairs  consisted  of  making  good  the  damage  to  the  topsides 
referred  to  above. 

The  alterations  were  due  in  the  first  instance  to  the  circum- 
stance that  the  steam-engine  and  boiler  (the  latter  had  had  its 
flues  burnt  out  on  Sverdrup's  expedition)  were  to  be  replaced  by 
an  oil-motor;  as  a  consequence  of  this  the  coal-bunkers  would 
disappear,  while,  on  the  other  hand,  a  large  number  of  oil-tanks, 
capable  of  containing  about  90  tons  of  oil,  were  to  be  put  in. 


THE    "FRAM"  365 

It  was  also  considered  desirable  to  rig  square-sails  on  the  foremast 
in  view  of  the  great  distances  that  were  to  be  sailed  on  the  pro- 
posed expedition. 

The  present  arrangement  of  the  vessel  will  best  be  followed  by 
referring  to  the  elevation  and  plan  (Figs.  1  and  2). 

In  the  extreme  after-part  of  the  lower  hold  is  placed  the 
180  horse-power  Diesel  engine,  surrounded  by  its  auxiliary 
machinery  and  air-reservoirs. 

In  addition,  some  of  the  tanks  containing  the  fuel  itself  are 
placed  in  the  engine-room  (marked  O) ;  the  other  tanks  shown  in 
the  engine-room  (marked  9)  serve  for  storing  lubricating  oil.  The 
existing  engine-room  was  formerly  the  engine  and  boiler  room, 
with  coal-bunkers  on  both  sides  in  the  forward  part.  Forward  of 
the  watertight  bulkhead  of  the  engine-room  we  have,  in  the  lower 
hold,  the  main  store  of  oil-fuel,  contained  in  tanks  (marked  0)  of 
various  sizes,  on  account  of  their  having  to  be  placed  among  the 
numerous  diagonal  stays.  The  tanks  are  filled  and  emptied  by 
means  of  a  pump  and  a  petroleum  hose  through  a  manhole  in  the 
top,  over  which,  again,  are  hatches  in  the  deck  above;  no  connect- 
ing pipes  are  fitted  between  the  different  tanks,  for  fear  they  might 
be  damaged  by  frost  or  shock,  thus  involving  a  risk  of  losing  oil. 
The  main  supply  tank  for  fuel  is  placed  over  the  forward  side  of 
the  engine-room,  where  it  is  supported  on  strong  steel  girders; 
inside  this  tank,  again,  there  are  two  smaller  ones — settling  tanks — 
from  which  the  oil  is  conveyed  in  pipes  to  the  engine-pumps. 
The  main  tank  is  of  irregular  shape — as  will  be  seen  from  the 
drawing — since  a  square  piece  is  taken  out  of  its  starboard  after- 
corner  for  a  way  down  into  the  engine-room.  Besides  this  way 
down,  an  emergency  way  leads  up  from  the  engine-room,  right  aft, 
to  one  of  the  after-cabins.  The  oil  hold  is  closed  forward  by  a 
watertight  bulkhead,  which  goes  up  to  the  main-deck.  The  hold 
forward  of  the  oil-supply  is  unaltered,  and  serves  for  stowing  cargo 
(mainly  provisions),  as  does  the  hold  above  the  oil-supply  and 
below  the  main-deck. 


366  APPENDIX  I 

On  the  main-deck  right  aft  we  now  find  a  space  arranged  on 
each  side  of  the  well  for  the  propeller  and  rudder;  the  lower  part 
of  this  space  is  occupied  by  two  tanks  for  lamp-oil,  and  above  the 
tanks  is  a  thin  partition,  which  forms  the  floor  of  two  small  sail- 
rooms,  with  hatches  to  the  deck  above.  Around  the  mizzenmast 
is  the  after-saloon,  with  eight  cabins  leading  out  of  it.  From  the 
forward  end  of  the  after-saloon  two  passages  lead  to  the  large 
workroom  amidships.  These  passages  run  past  what  were  for- 
merly coal-bunkers,  but  are  now  arranged  as  cabins,  intended  only 
to  be  used  in  milder  climates,  as  they  are  not  provided  with  any 
special  insulation.  From  the  port  passage  a  door  leads  to  the 
engine-room  companion.  In  the  after-part  of  the  large  workroom 
is  the  galley.  This  room  is  entirely  hned  with  zinc,  both  on  walls 
and  ceiling  (on  account  of  the  danger  of  fire),  while  the  deck  is 
covered  with  lead,  on  which  tiles  are  laid  in  cement.  Forward  of 
the  galley  is  the  main  hatch,  and  two  large  water- tanks  are  fitted 
here,  one  on  each  side.  The  remainder  of  the  workroom  affords 
space  for  carpenter's  benches,  turning-lathes,  a  forge,  vices,  etc. 
From  the  workroom  two  doors  lead  into  the  fore-saloon  with  its 
adjoining  cabins.  Amundsen's  cabin  is  the  farthest  forward  on  the 
starboard  side,  and  communicates  with  an  instrument-room.  From 
the  fore-saloon  a  door  leads  out  forward,  past  a  sixth  cabin. 

In  the  space  forward  on  the  main-deck  we  have  the  fore-hatch, 
and  by  the  side  of  this  a  room  entirely  lined  with  zinc  plates, 
which  serves  for  storing  furs.  Forward  of  the  fur  store  is  fitted  a 
15  horse-power  one-cylinder  Bolinder  motor  for  working  the  cap- 
stan; the  main  features  of  its  working  will  be  seen  in  the  drawing. 
There  are  two  independent  transmissions:  by  belt  and  by  chain. 
The  former  is  usually  employed.  The  chain  transmission  was  pro- 
vided as  a  reserve,  since  it  was  feared  that  belt-driving  might 
prove  unserviceable  in  a  cold  climate.  This  fear,  however,  has 
hitherto  been  ungrounded. 

Forward  of  the  motor  there  is  a  large  iron  tank  to  supply  water 
for  cooling  it.     In  the  same  space  are  chain-pipes  to  the  locker 


THE       TRAM"  367 

below  and  the  heel  of  the  bowsprit.  This  space  also  serves  as 
cable-tier. 

On  the  upper  deck  we  find  aft  the  opening  of  the  rudder-well 
and  that  of  the  propeller-well,  covered  with  gratings.  A  piece 
was  added  to  the  lower  part  of  the  rudder  to  give  more  rudder 
area. 

Forward  of  the  propeller-well  comes  the  reserve  steering-gear, 
almost  in  the  same  position  formerly  occupied  by  the  only  steering- 
gear;  the  ordinary  steering-gear  is  now  moved  to  the  bridge. 
The  old  engine-room  companion  aft  is  now  removed,  and  forward 
of  the  after-wheel  is  only  the  skylight  of  the  after-saloon.  Up 
through  the  latter  comes  the  exhaust-pipe  of  the  main  engine. 
Forward  of  and  round  the  mizzenmast  is  the  bridge,  which  is 
partly  formed  by  the  roofs  of  the  large  chart-house  and  labora- 
tory amidships  and  the  two  houses  on  each  side.  The  chart-house 
occupies  the  place  of  the  old  boiler-room  ventilator,  and  abuts  on 
the  fore-deck.  (It  is  thus  a  little  aft  of  the  place  occupied  by 
the  chart-house  on  Nansen's  expedition.)  It  is  strongly  built  of 
timbers  standing  upright,  securely  bolted  to  the  deck.  On  both 
sides  of  this  timber  work  there  are  panels,  2  inches  thick  on  the 
outside  and  1  inch  on  the  inside,  and  the  space  between  is  filled 
with  finely-divided  cork.  Floor  and  roof  are  insulated  in  a  similar 
way,  as  is  also  the  door;  the  windows  are  double,  of  thick  plate- 
glass.  Inside  the  chart-house,  besides  the  usual  fittings  for  its  use 
as  such,  there  is  a  companion-way  to  the  engine-room,  and  a  hatch 
over  the  manhole  to  the  main  supply  tank  for  oil-fuel.  The  open- 
ing in  the  deck  has  a  hatch,  made  like  the  rest  of  the  deck  (in  two 
thicknesses,  with  cork  insulation  between) ;  the  intention  is  to  cut 
off  the  engine-room  altogether,  and  remove  the  entrance  of  this 
companion  during  the  drift  in  the  ice  through  the  Polar  sea. 
The  side  houses  are  constructed  of  iron,  and  are  not  panelled; 
they  are  intended  for  w.c.  and  lamp-room.  On  the  roof  of  the 
chart-house  are  the  main  steering-gear  and  the  engine-room  tele- 
graph.    On  the  port  side,  on  the  forward  part  of  the  after-deck. 


368  APPENDIX  I 

a  Downton  pump  is  fitted,  which  can  either  be  worked  by  hand  or 
by  a  small  motor,  which  also  serves  to  drive  the  sounding-machine, 
and  is  set  up  on  the  after-deck.  Forward  of  the  starboard  side 
house  is  the  spare  rudder,  securely  lashed  to  deck  and  bulwarks. 
On  each  side  of  the  chart-house  a  bridge  leads  to  the  fore-deck, 
with  ways  down  to  the  workroom  and  fore-saloon.  On  the  fore- 
deck,  a  little  forward  of  the  mainmast,  we  find  the  two  ship's 
pumps  proper,  constructed  of  wood.  The  suction-pipe  is  of  wood, 
covered  on  the  outside  with  lead,  so  as  to  prevent  leakage  through 
possible  cracks  in  the  wood;  the  valves  are  of  leather,  and  the 
piston  of  wood,  with  a  leather  covering.  The  pump-action  is  the 
usual  nickel  action,  that  was  formerly  general  on  our  ships,  and  is 
still  widely  used  on  smacks.  These  simple  pumps  have  been  shown 
by  experience  to  work  better  than  any  others  in  severe  cold.  The 
fore-deck  also  has  skylights  over  the  fore-saloon,  the  main  and 
fore  hatches,  and  finally  the  capstan.  This  is  of  the  ordinary 
horizontal  type,  from  Pusnes  Engineering  Works;  it  is  driven  by 
the  motor  below,  as  already  mentioned.  The  capstan  can  also  be 
used  as  a  winch,  and  it  can  be  worked  by  hand-power. 

The  Fram  carries  six  boats :  one  large  decked  boat  (29  x  9  x 
4  feet) — one  of  the  two  large  boats  carried  on  Nansen's  expedition — 
placed  between  the  mainmast  and  the  foremast,  over  the  skylight ; 
three  whale-boats  (20  x  6  feet),  and  one  large  and  one  small 
pram;  the  two  last  are  carried  on  davits  as  shown  in  the  drawing. 
One  of  these  whale-boats  was  left  behind  on  the  Ice  Barrier,  where 
it  was  buried  in  snow  when  the  ship  left.  It  was  brought  ashore 
that  the  wintering  party  might  have  a  boat  at  their  disposal  after 
the  Fram  had  sailed. 

For  warming  the  vessel  it  is  intended  to  use  only  petroleum. 
For  warming  the  laboratory  (chart-house)  there  is  an  arrangement 
by  which  hot  air  from  the  galley  is  brought  up  through  its  forward 
wall. 

The  vessel  was  provided  with  iron  chain  plates  bolted  to  the 
timbers  above  the  ice-skin.     The  mizzenmast  is  new.     There  was  a 


THE    "FRAM"  369 

crack  in  the  beam  that  forms  the  support  for  the  mizzenmast;  it 
was  therefore  strengthened  with  two  heavy  iron  plates,  secured  by 
through-bolts.  Two  strong  steel  stanchions  were  also  placed  on 
each  side  of  the  engine,  carried  down  to  the  frame- timbers.  The 
old  mizzenmast  has  been  converted  into  a  bowsprit  and  jib-boom  in 
one  piece.  There  are  now  standing  gaffs  on  all  three  masts.  The 
sail  area  is  about  6,640  square  feet. 

All  the  cabins  are  insulated  in  the  same  way  as  before,  though  it 
has  been  found  possible  to  simplify  this  somewhat.  In  general  the 
insulation  consists  of: 

1.  In  the  cabins,  against  the  ship's  side  and  under  the  upper 
deck,  there  is  first  a  layer  of  cork,  and  over  that  a  double  panelling 
of  wood  with  tarred  felt  between. 

2.  Above  the  orlop  deck  aft  there  is  a  layer  of  cork,  and  above 
this  a  floor  of  boards  covered  with  linoleum. 

3.  Under  the  orlop  deck  forward  there  is  wooden  panelling,  with 
linoleum  over  the  deck. 

Bulkheads  abutting  on  parts  of  the  ship  that  are  not  warmed 
consist  of  three  thicknesses  of  boards  or  planks  with  various  non- 
conducting materials,  such  as  cork  or  felt,  between  them. 

When  the  vessel  was  docked  before  leaving  Horten,  the  zinc 
sheathing  was  removed,  as  already  stated,  since  fears  were  enter- 
tained that  it  would  be  torn  by  the  ice,  and  would  then  prevent  the 
ice  from  slipping  readily  under  the  bottom  during  pressure.  The 
vessel  has  two  anchors,  but  the  former  port  anchor  has  been  replaced 
by  a  considerably  heavier  one  (1  ton  1|  hundredweight),  with  a 
correspondingly  heavier  chain-cable.  This  was  done  with  a  special 
view  to  the  voyage  round  Cape  Horn. 

In  order  to  trim  the  ship  as  much  as  possible  by  the  stern,  which 
was  desirable  on  account  of  her  carrying  a  weather  helm,  a  number 
of  heavy  spare  stores,  such  as  the  old  port  anchor  and  its  cable, 
were  stowed  aft,  and  the  extreme  after-peak  was  filled  with  cement 
containing  round  pieces  of  iron  punched  out  of  plates. 

Along  the  railing  round  the  fore-deck  strong  netting  has  been 


370  APPENDIX  I 

placed  to  prevent  the  dogs  falling  overboard.  For  the  upper  deck 
a  loose  wooden  grating  has  been  made,  so  that  the  dogs  shall  not 
lie  on  the  wet  deck.  Awnings  are  provided  over  the  whole  deck, 
with  only  the  necessary  openings  for  working  the  ship.  In  this 
way  the  dogs  have  been  given  dry  and,  as  far  as  possible,  cool 
quarters  for  the  voyage  through  the  tropics.  It  is  proposed  to  use 
the  ship's  spars  as  supports  for  a  roof  of  boards,  to  be  put  up 
during  the  drift  through  the  ice  as  a  protection  against  falling 
masses  of  ice. 

The  Frairi's  new  engine  is  a  direct  reversible  Marine-Polar- 
Motor,  built  by  the  Diesel  Motor  Co.,  of  Stockliolm.  It  is  a  Diesel 
engine,  with  four  working  and  two  air-pump  cylinders,  and 
develops  normally  at  280  revolutions  per  minute  180  effective  horse- 
power, with  a  consumption  of  oil  of  about  7f  ounces  per  effective 
horse-power  per  hour.  With  this  comparatively  small  consumption, 
the  Frarns  fuel  capacity  will  carry  her  much  farther  than  if  she  had 
a  steam-engine,  a  consideration  of  great  importance  in  her  forth- 
coming long  voyage  in  the  Arctic  Sea.  With  her  oil  capacity  of 
about  90  tons,  she  will  thus  be  able  to  go  uninterruptedly  for 
about  2,273  hours,  or  about  95  days.  If  we  reckon  her  speed 
under  engine  power  alone  at  4|  knots,  she  will  be  able  to  go  about 
10,000  nautical  miles  without  replenishing  her  oil-supply.  It  is  a 
fault  in  the  new  engine  that  its  number  of  revolutions  is  very  high, 
which  necessitates  the  use  of  a  propeller  of  small  diameter  (5  feet 
9  inches),  and  thus  of  low  efficiency  in  the  existing  conditions. 
This  is  the  more  marked  on  account  of  the  unusual  thickness  of  the 
Frarns  propeller-post,  which  masks  the  propeller  to  a  great  extent. 
The  position  of  the  engine  will  be  seen  in  Fig.  1.  The  exhaust 
gases  from  the  engine  are  sent  up  by  a  pipe  through  the  after- 
saloon,  through  its  skylight,  and  up  to  a  large  valve  on  the  bridge; 
from  this  valve  two  horizontal  pipes  run  along  the  after  side  of  the 
bridge,  one  to  each  side.  By  means  of  the  valve  the  gases  can  be 
diverted  to  one  side  or  the  other,  according  to  the  direction  of  the 
wind. 


-ELEVATION. 


FIG.    i. — PLAN    OF    UPPER    DECK. 


FIG.   3. — SECTION    AMIDSHIPS. 


A.  Workrouin. 
IJ.  Ch  irL-houso. 
C.  Fur  6ti>ragc  room. 
I.  [nsulaiiun, 
K.  Galley. 
L,  Cabin u. 

M.  Provlaion  and  lUfiju  hold. 
N.  Huti'lies. 
O.  Oil-fuel  tanks. 

S.    CjlLlOllD. 

W.  WaU-rtiglit  bulkhead. 


.  Motijr  for  cttpstan,  with  wat^r-tank  for  cooling. 

,  Capsbui. 

.  Frame-timbera. 

.  Juiictiou  of  keel  and  etcm. 

,  Deck  btanchiona, 

.  Diagonal  stays. 

.  Main  ongine. 

.  Silencer. 

,  LuLricating-oil  binks. 

Fly-wheel, 
,  Axle. 


FIO.    4. — SECTION    AT    THE    ENGINE-ROOM. 

12.  Exhau8l>pipe. 

13.  Bilge-pump. 

14.  Skylight. 

15.  Engine-room  companion. 
IQ.  Piano. 

17.  Sofa. 

IB.  Propeller-well. 

19.  Rndder-wcll, 

20.  Steering -geiir. 

■21.  Store  for  paraffiu-tanka  below  and  aiiU-room  above. 


At  end  of  Appendix  /.,  ('"(.  //. 


THE  "FRAM"  371 

Besides  the  usual  auxiliary  engines,  the  main  engine  drives  a 
large  centrifugal  bilge-pump,  an  ordinary  machine  bilge-pump,  and 
a  fan  for  use  in  the  tropics. 

When  the  Fram  left  Christiania  in  the  spring  of  1910,  after 
taking  her  cargo  on  board,  she  drew  17  feet  forward  and  19  feet 
5  inches  aft.  This  corresponds  to  a  displacement  (measured  outside 
the  ice-skin)  of  about  1,100  tons.  The  ice-skin  was  then  12|  inches 
above  the  waterline  amidships. 


APPENDIX  II 

REMARKS  ON  THE  METEOROLOGICAL  OBSERVA- 
TIONS AT  FRAMHEIM 

By   B.    J.    BlRKELAND 

On  account  of  the  improvised  character  of  the  South  Polar  Expedi- 
tion, the  meteorological  department  on  the  Fram  was  not  so 
complete  as  it  ought  to  have  been.  It  had  not  been  possible  to 
provide  the  aerological  outfit  at  the  time  of  sailing,  and  the 
meteorologist  of  the  expedition  was  therefore  left  behind  in 
Norway.  But  certain  things  were  wanting  even  to  complete  the 
equipment  of  an  ordinary  meteorological  station,  such  as  minimum 
thermometers  and  the  necessary  instructions  that  should  have 
accompanied  one  or  two  of  the  instruments.  Fortunately,  among 
the  veterans  of  the  expedition  there  were  several  practised  observers, 
and, notwithstanding  all  drawbacks,a  fine  series  of  observations  was 
obtained  during  ten  months' stay  in  winter-quarters  on  the  Antarctic 
continent.  These  observations  wall  provide  a  valuable  supplement 
to  the  simultaneous  records  of  other  expeditions,  especially  the 
British  in  McMurdo  Sound  and  the  German  in  Weddell  Sea,  above 
all  as  regards  the  hypsometer  observations  (for  the  determination  of 
altitude)  on  sledge  journeys.  It  may  be  hoped,  in  any  case,  that  it 
will  be  possible  to  interpolate  the  atmospheric  pressure  at  sea-level 
in  all  parts  of  the  Antarctic  continent  that  were  traversed  by  the 
sledging  expeditions.  For  this  reason  the  publication  of  a  pro- 
visional working  out  of  the  observations  is  of  great  importance  at 
the  present  moment,  although  the  general  public  will,  perhaps,  look 

372 


METEOROLOGY  373 

upon  the  long  rows  of  figures  as  tedious  and  superfluous.  The 
complete  working  out  of  these  observations  can  only  be  published 
after  a  lapse  of  some  years. 

As  regards  the  accuracy  of  the  figures  here  given,  it  must  be 
noted  that  at  present  we  know  nothing  about  possible  alterations 
in  the  errors  of  the  different  instruments,  as  it  will  not  be  possible 
to  have  the  instruments  examined  and  compared  until  we  arrive  at 
San  Francisco  next  year.  We  have  provisionally  used  the  errors 
that  were  determined  at  the  Norwegian  Meteorological  Institute 
before  the  expedition  sailed;  it  does  not  appear,  however,  that  they 
have  altered  to  any  great  extent. 

The  meteorological  outfit  on  the  Fram  consisted  of  the  following 
instruments  and  apparatus: 

Three  mercury  barometers,  namely: 

One  normal  barometer  by  Fuess,  No.  361. 

One  Kew  standard  barometer  by  Adie,  No.  839. 

One  Kew  marine  barometer  by  Adie,  No.  764. 

Five  aneroid  barometers: 

One  large  instrument  with  thermometer  attached,  without 

name  or  number. 
Two   pocket   aneroids   by   Knudsen,    Copenhagen,   one 

numbered  1,503. 
Two  pocket  aneroids  by  Gary,  London,  Nos.  1,367  and 

1,368,  for  altitudes  up  to  5,000  metres  (16,350  feet). 
Two  hypsometers  by  Casella,  with  several  thermometers. 

Mercury  thermometers: 

Twelve  ordinary  standard  (psychrometer-)  thermometers, 

divided  to  fifths  of  a  degree  (Centigrade). 
Ten  ordinary  standard  thermometers,  divided  to  degrees. 
Four  sling  thermometers,  divided  to  half  degrees. 
Three  maximum  thermometers,  divided  to  degrees. 
One  normal  thermometer  by  Mollenkopf,  No.  25. 


374  APPENDIX  II 

Toluene  thermometers: 

Eighteen  sHng  thermometers,  divided  to  degrees. 
Three  normal  thermometers — by  Tounelot,  No.  4,993,  and 
Baudin,  Nos.  14,803  and  14,804. 

Two  torsion  hair  hygrometers  of  Russeltvedt's  construction, 
Nos.  12  and  14. 

One  cup  and  cross  anemometer  of  Professor  Mohn's  construc- 
tion, with  spare  cross. 

One  complete  set  of  precipitation  gauges,  with  Nipher's  shield, 
gauges  for  snow  density,  etc. 

Registering  instruments: 

Two  barographs. 
Two  thermographs. 
One  hair  hygrograph. 

A  number  of  spare  parts,  and  a  supply  of  paper  and  ink 
for  seven  years. 

In  addition,  various  books  were  taken,  such  as  Mohn's  "Meteorol- 
ogy," the  Meteorological  Institute's  "Guide,"  psychrometric  tables, 
Wiebe's  steam-pressure  tables  for  hypsometer  observations,  etc. 

The  marine  barometer,  the  large  aneroid,  and  one  of  the 
barographs,  the  four  mercury  sling  thermometers,  and  two  whole- 
degree  standard  thermometers,  were  kept  on  board  the  Frayyi, 
where  they  were  used  for  the  regular  observations  every  four  hours 
on  the  vessel's  long  voyages  backwards  and  forwards. 

As  will  be  seen,  the  shore  party  was  thus  left  without  mercury 
sling  thermometers,  besides  having  no  minimum  thermometers;  the 
three  maximum  thermometers  proved  to  be  of  little  use.  There 
were  also  various  defects  in  the  clockwork  of  the  registering  instru- 
ments. The  barographs  and  thermographs  have  been  used  on  all 
the  Norwegian  Polar  expeditions;  the  hygrograph  is  also  an  old 
instrument,  which,  in  the  course  of  its  career,  has  worked  for  over 
ten  years  in  Christiania,  where  the  atmosphere  is  by  no  means 


METEOROLOGY  375 

merciful  to  delicate  instruments.  Its  clockwork  had  not  been 
cleaned  before  it  was  sent  to  the  Fram,  as  was  done  in  the  case  of 
the  other  four  instruments.  The  barographs  worked  irreproach- 
ably the  whole  time,  but  one  of  the  thermographs  refused  abso- 
lutely to  work  in  the  open  air,  and  unfortunately  the  spindle  pivot 
of  the  other  broke  as  early  as  April  17.  At  first  the  clockwork  of 
the  hygrograph  would  not  go  at  all,  as  the  oil  had  become  thick, 
and  it  was  not  until  this  had  been  removed  by  prolonged  severe 
heating  (baking  in  the  oven  for  several  days)  that  it  could  be  set 
going;  but  then  it  had  to  be  used  for  the  thermograph,  the 
mechanism  of  which  was  broken,  so  that  no  registration  was 
obtained  of  the  humidity  of  the  air. 

The  resulting  registrations  are  then  as  follows :  from  Framheim, 
one  set  of  barograms  and  two  sets  of  thermograms,  of  which  one 
gives  the  temperature  of  the  air  and  the  other  the  temperature 
inside  the  house,  where  the  barometers  and  barograph  were  placed; 
from  the  Fram  we  have  barograms  for  the  whole  period  from  her 
leaving  Christiania,  in  1910,  to  her  arrival  at  Buenos  Aires  for  the 
third  time,  in  1912. 

Of  course,  none  of  these  registrations  can  be  taken  into  account 
in  the  provisional  working  out,  as  they  will  require  many  months' 
work,  which,  moreover,  cannot  be  carried  out  with  advantage  until 
we  have  ascertained  about  possible  changes  of  error  in  the  instru- 
ments. But  occasional  use  has  been  made  of  them  for  purposes  of 
checking,  and  for  supplying  the  only  observation  missing  in  the 
ten  months. 

The  meteorological  station  at  Framheim  was  arranged  in  this 
way :  the  barometers,  barograph,  and  one  thermograph  hung  inside 
the  house;  they  were  placed  in  the  kitchen,  behind  the  door  of  the 
living-room,  which  usually  stood  open,  and  thus  protected  them 
from  the  radiant  heat  of  the  range.  A  thermometer,  a  hygrometer, 
and  the  other  thermograph  were  placed  in  a  screen  on  high  posts, 
and  with  louvred  sides,  which  stood  at  a  distance  of  fifteen  yards  to 
the  south-west  of  the  house.     A  little  way  beyond  the  screen. 


376  APPENDIX  II 

again,  stood  the  wind-vane  and  anemometer.  At  the  end  of 
September  the  screen  had  to  be  moved  a  few  yards  to  the  east;  the 
snow  had  drifted  about  it  until  it  was  only  2|  feet  above  the  surface, 
whereas  it  ought  to  stand  at  the  height  of  a  man.  At  the  same 
time  the  wind-vane  was  moved.  The  screen  was  constructed  by 
Lindstrom  from  his  recollection  of  the  old  Fram  screen. 

The  two  mercury  barometers,  the  Fuess  normal,  and  the  Adie 
standard  barometer,  reached  Framheim  in  good  condition;  as  has 
been  said,  they  were  hung  in  the  kitchen,  and  the  four  pocket 
aneroids  were  hung  by  the  side  of  them.  All  six  were  read  at  the 
daily  observations  at  8  a.m.,  2  p.m.,  and  8  p.m.  The  normal 
barometer,  the  instructions  for  which  were  missing,  was  used  as  a 
siphon  barometer,  both  the  mercury  levels  being  read,  and  the 
bottom  screw  being  locked  fast;  the  usual  mode  of  reading  it,  on 
the  other  hand,  is  to  set  the  lower  level  at  zero  on  the  scale  by 
turning  the  bottom  screw  at  every  observation,  whereupon  the 
upper  level  only  is  set  and  read.  The  Adie  standard  barometer 
is  so  arranged  that  it  is  only  necessary  to  read  the  summit  of  the 
mercury.  It  appears  that  there  is  some  difference  between  the 
atmospheric  pressure  values  of  the  two  instruments,  but  this  is  chiefly 
due  to  the  difficult  and  extremely  variable  conditions  of  temperature. 
There  may  be  a  difference  of  as  much  as  five  degrees  (Centigrade) 
between  the  thermometers  of  the  two  barometers,  in  spite  of  their 
hanging  side  by  side  at  about  the  same  height  from  the  floor. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  normal  barometer  is  not  suited  to  daily 
observations,  especially  in  the  Polar  regions,  and  the  double 
reading  entails  greater  liability  of  error.  That  the  Adie  baro- 
meter is  rather  less  sensitive  than  the  other  is  of  small  importance, 
as  the  variations  of  atmospheric  pressure  at  Framheim  were  not 
very  great. 

n  the  provisional  working  out,  therefore,  the  readings  of  the 
Adie  barometer  alone  have  been  used;  those  of  the  normal 
barometer,  however,  have  been  experimentally  reduced  for  the 
first  and  last  months,  April  and  January.     The  readings  have 


METEOROLOGY  377 

been  corrected  for  the  temperature  of  the  mercury,  the  constant 
error  of  the  instrument,  and  the  variation  of  the  force  of  gravity 
from  the  normal  in  latitude  45°.  The  reduction  to  sea-level, 
on  the  other  hand,  has  not  been  made;  it  amounts  to  I'l  milli- 
metre at  an  air  temperature  of  -  10°  Centigrade. 

The  observations  show  that  the  pressure  of  the  atmosphere  is 
throughout  low,  the  mean  for  the  ten  months  being  29 '07  inches 
(738 '6  millimetres).  It  is  lower  in  winter  than  in  summer,  July 
having  28*86  inches  (733 '1  millimetres),  and  December  29 '65 
inches  (753*3  millimetres),  as  the  mean  for  the  month,  a  difference 
of  20*2  millimetres.  The  highest  observation  was  30*14  inches 
(765*7  millimetres)  on  December  9,  and  the  lowest  28*02  inches 
(711*7  millimetres)  on  May  24,  1911;  difference,  54  millimetres. 

Air  Temperature  and  Thermometers. 

As  has  already  been  stated,  minimum  thermometers  and  mercury 
sling  thermometers  were  wanting.  For  the  first  six  months  only 
toluene  sling  thermometers  were  used.  Sling  thermometers  are 
short,  narrow  glass  thermometers,  with  a  strong  loop  at  the  top; 
before  being  read  they  are  briskly  swung  round  at  the  end  of 
a  string  about  half  a  yard  long,  or  in  a  special  apparatus  for  the 
purpose.  The  swinging  brings  the  thermometer  in  contact  with 
a  great  volume  of  air,  and  it  therefore  gives  the  real  temperature 
of  the  air  more  readily  than  if  it  were  hanging  quietly  in  the 
screen. 

From  October  1  a  mercury  thermometer  was  also  placed  in  the 
screen,  though  only  one  divided  to  whole  degrees;  those  divided  to 
fifths  of  a  degree  would,  of  course,  have  given  a  surer  reading.  But 
it  is  evident,  nevertheless,  that  the  toluene  thermometers  used  are 
correct  to  less  than  half  a  degree  (Centigrade),  and  even  this 
difference  may  no  doubt  be  explained  by  one  thermometer  being 
slung  while  the  other  was  fixed.  The  observations  are,  therefore, 
given  without  any  corrections.  Only  at  the  end  of  December 
was  exclusive  use  made  of  mercury  thermometers.     The  maximum 

VOL.  II.  50 


378  APPENDIX  II 

thermometers  taken  proved  of  so  little  use  that  they  were  soon 
discarded;  the  observations  have  not  been  included  here. 

It  was  due  to  a  misunderstanding  that  mercury  thermometers 
were  not  also  used  in  the  first  half-year,  during  those  periods  when 
the  temperature  did  not  go  below  the  freezing-point  of  mercury 
(-39°C.).  But  the  toluene  thermometers  in  use  were  old  and 
good  instruments,  so  that  the  observations  for  this  period  may  also 
be  regarded  as  perfectly  reliable.  Of  course,  all  the  thermometers 
had  been  carefully  examined  at  the  Norwegian  Meteorological 
Institute,  and  at  Framheim  the  freezing-point  was  regularly  tested 
in  melting  snow. 

The  results  show  that  the  winter  on  the  Barrier  was  about 
12°  C.  (21 '6°  F.)  colder  than  it  usually  is  in  McMurdo  Sound, 
where  the  British  expeditions  winter.  The  coldest  month  is 
August,  with  a  mean  temperature  of  -445°  C.  (-48'1°  F.);  on 
fourteen  days  during  this  month  the  temperature  was  below 
-50°  C.  (-58°  F.).  The  lowest  temperature  occurred  on 
August  13:  -58-5°  C.  (-73-3°  F.);  the  warmest  day  in  that 
month  had  a  temperature  of  -  24°  C.  (  -  11*2°  F.). 

In  October  spring  begins  to  approach,  and  in  December  the 
temperature  culminates  with  a  mean  for  the  month  of  -  6*6°  C. 
>(  +  20'l°  F.),  and  a  highest  maximum  temperature  of  -0*2°  C. 
(+31*0°  F.).  The  temperature  was  thus  never  above  freezing- 
point,  even  in  the  warmest  part  of  the  summer. 

The  daily  course  of  the  temperature — warmest  at  noon  and 
coldest  towards  morning — is,  of  course,  not  noticeable  in  winter, 
as  the  sun  is  always  below  the  horizon.  But  in  April  there  is 
a  sign  of  it,  and  from  September  onward  it  is  fairly  marked, 
although  the  difference  between  2  p.m.  and  the  mean  of  8  a.m. 
and  8  p.m.  only  amounts  to  2°  C.  in  the  monthly  mean. 

Humidity  of  the  Air. 
For  determining  the  relative  humidity  of  the  air  the  expedition 
had  two  of  Russeltvedt's  torsion  hygrometers.     This  instrument 


METEOROLOGY 


379 


has  been  accurately  described  in  the  Meteorologische  Zeitschrift, 
1908,  p.  396.  It  has  the  advantage  that  there  are  no  axles  or 
sockets  to  be  rusted  or  soiled,  or  filled  with  rime  or  drift-snow. 


Pointer 


The  two  horsehairs  (h,  h')  that  are  used,  are  stretched  tight  by 
a  torsion  clamp  (Z,  Z',  and  L),  which  also  carries  the  pointer;  the 
position  of  the  pointer  varies  with  the  length  of  the  hairs,  which. 


380  APPENDIX  II 

again,  is  dependent  on  the  degree  of  humidity  of  the  air.  (See 
the  diagrams.)  These  instruments  have  been  in  use  in  Norway  for 
several  years,  especially  at  inland  stations,  where  the  winter  is 
very  cold,  and  they  have  shown  themselves  superior  to  all  others  in 
accuracy  and  durability;  but  there  was  no  one  ©n  the  Fram  who 
knew  anything  about  them,  and  there  is  therefore  a  possibility 
that  they  were  not  always  in  such  good  order  as  could  be  wished. 
On  September  10,  especially,  the  variations  are  very  remarkable; 
but  on  October  13  the  second  instrument,  No.  12,  was  hung  out, 
and  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  the  correctness  of  the  subsequent 
observations. 

It  is  seen  that  the  relative  humidity  attains  its  maximum  in 
winter,  in  the  months  of  July  and  August,  with  a  mean  of  90  per 
cent.  The  driest  air  occurs  in  the  spring  month  of  November, 
with  a  mean  of  73  per  cent.  The  remaining  months  vary  between 
79  and  86  per  cent.,  and  the  mean  of  the  whole  ten  months  is 
82  per  cent.  The  variations  quoted  must  be  regarded  as  very 
small.  On  the  other  hand,  the  figures  themselves  are  very  high, 
when  the  low  temperatures  are  considered,  and  this  is  doubtless 
the  result  of  there  being  open  water  not  very  far  away.  The 
daily  course  of  humidity  is  contrary  to  the  course  of  the  tempera- 
ture, and  does  not  show  itself  very  markedly,  except  in  January. 

The  absolute  humidity,  or  partial  pressure  of  aqueous  vapour  in 
the  air,  expressed  in  millimetres  in  the  height  of  the  mercury  in  the 
same  way  as  the  pressure  of  the  atmosphere,  follows  in  the  main 
the  temperature  of  the  air.  The  mean  value  for  the  whole  period 
is  only  08  millimetre  (0'031  inch);  December  has  the  highest 
monthly  mean  with  2*5  millimetres  (0'097  inch),  August  the 
lowest  with  01  millimetre  (0'004  inch).  The  absolutely  highest 
observation  occurred  on  December  5  with  4  "4  millimetres  (0'173 
inch),  while  the  lowest  of  all  is  less  than  0'05  milHmetre,  and 
can  therefore  only  be  expressed  by  O'O;  it  occurred  frequently  in 
the  course  of  the  winter. 


METEOROLOGY  381 


Precipitation. 


Any  attempt  to  measure  the  quantity  of  precipitation — even 
approximately — had  to  be  abandoned.  Snowfall  never  occurred  in 
still  weather,  and  in  a  wind  there  was  always  a  drift  that  entirely 
filled  the  gauge.  On  June  1  and  7  actual  snowfall  was  observed, 
but  it  was  so  insignificant  that  it  could  not  be  measured ;  it  was, 
however,  composed  of  genuine  flakes  of  snow.  It  sometimes 
happened  that  precipitation  of  very  small  particles  of  ice  was 
noticed;  these  grains  of  ice  can  be  seen  against  the  observation 
lantern,  and  heard  on  the  observer's  headgear;  but  on  returning  to 
the  house,  nothing  can  be  discovered  on  the  clothing.  Where  the 
sign  for  snow  occurs  in  the  column  for  Remarks,  it  means  drift; 
these  days  are  included  among  days  of  precipitation.  Sleet  was 
observed  only  once,  in  December.     Rain  never. 

Cloudiness. 

The  figures  indicate  how  many  tenths  of  the  visible  heavens  are 
covered  by  clouds  (or  mist).  No  instrument  is  used  in  these 
observations;  they  depend  on  personal  estimate.  They  had  to  be 
abandoned  during  the  period  of  darkness,  when  it  is  diflScult  to  see 
the  sky. 

Wind. 

For  measuring  the  velocity  of  the  wind  the  expedition  had  a  cup 
and  cross  anemometer,  which  worked  excellently  the  whole  time. 
It  consists  of  a  horizontal  cross  with  a  hollow  hemisphere  on  each 
of  the  four  arms  of  the  cross;  the  openings  of  the  hemispheres  are 
all  turned  towards  the  same  side  of  the  cross-arms,  and  the  cross 
can  revolve  with  a  minimum  of  friction  on  a  vertical  axis  at  the 
point  of  junction.  The  axis  is  connected  with  a  recording  mechan- 
ism, which  is  set  in  motion  at  each  observation  and  stopped  after  a 
lapse  of  half  a  minute,  when  the  figure  is  read  ofiF.  This  figure 
denotes  the  velocity  of  the  wind  in  metres  per  second,  and  is 


382  APPENDIX  II 

directly  transferred  to  the  tables  (here  converted  into  feet  per 
second). 

The  monthly  means  vary  between  1"9  metres  (6  "2  feet)  in  May, 
and  5' 5  metres  (18  feet)  in  October;  the  mean  for  the  whole  ten 
months  is  3'4  metres  (11 '1  feet)  per  second.  These  velocities  may 
be  characterized  as  surprisingly  small;  and  the  number  of  stormy 
days  agrees  with  this  low  velocity.  Their  number  for  the  whole 
period  is  only  11,  fairly  evenly  divided  between  the  months;  there 
are,  however,  five  stormy  days  in  succession  in  the  spring  months 
October  and  November. 

The  frequency  of  the  various  directions  of  the  wind  has  been 
added  up  for  each  month,  and  gives  the  same  characteristic 
distribution  throughout  the  whole  period.  As  a  mean  we  have  the 
following  table,  where  the  figures  give  the  percentage  of  the  total 
number  of  wind  observations: 


N. 

N.E. 

E. 

S.E. 

s.    s.w. 

W. 

N.W. 

Calm 

19 

7-8 

31-9 

6-9 

123    14-3 

2  6 

1-1 

213 

Almost  every  third  direction  is  E.,  next  to  which  come  S.W. 
and  S.  Real  S.E.,  on  the  other  hand,  occurs  comparatively  rarely. 
Of  N.,  N.W.,  and  W.  there  is  hardly  anything.  It  may  be  interest- 
ing to  see  what  the  distribution  is  when  only  high  winds  are  taken 
into  account — that  is,  winds  with  a  velocity  of  10  metres  (32  8  feet) 
per  second  or  more.  We  then  have  the  following  table  of  per- 
centages: 

N.     N.E.      E.       S.E.      S.        S.W.    W.    N.W. 
7         12        51        10         4         10         2  4 

Here  again,  E.  is  predominant,  as  half  the  high  winds  come 
from  this  quarter.  W.  and  N.W.  together  have  only  6  per 
cent. 

The  total  number  of  high  winds  is  51,  or  5*6  per  cent,  of  the 
total  of  wind  observations. 

The  most  frequent  directions  of  storms  are  also  E.  and  N.E. 


METEOROLOGY  383 

The  Aurora  Australis. 

During  the  winter  months  auroral  displays  were  frequently 
seen — altogether  on  sixty-five  days  in  six  months,  or  an  average  of 
every  third  day — but  for  want  of  apparatus  no  exhaustive  observa- 
tions could  be  attempted.  The  records  are  confined  to  brief  notes 
of  the  position  of  the  aurora  at  the  times  of  the  three  daily 
observations. 

The  frequency  of  the  different  directions,  reckoned  in  percentages 
of  the  total  number  of  directions  given,  as  for  the  wind,  will  be 
found  in  the  following  table: 


N. 

N.E. 

E. 

S.E. 

S. 

S.W. 

W. 

N.W. 

Zenith 

18 

17 

16 

9 

8 

3 

8 

13 

8 

N.  and  N.E.  are  the  most  frequent,  and  together  make  up  one- 
third  of  all  the  directions  recorded;  but  the  nearest  points  on 
either  side  of  this  maximum — E.  and  N.W. — are  also  very  frequent, 
so  that  these  four  points  togethei^-N.W.,  N.,  N.E.,  E.— have 
64  per  cent,  of  the  whole.  The  rarest  direction  is  S.W.,  with  only 
3  per  cent.  (From  the  position  of  the  Magnetic  Pole  in  relation 
to  Framheim,  one  would  rather  have  expected  E.  to  be  the  most 
frequent,  and  W.  the  rarest,  direction.)  Probably  the  material 
before  us  is  somewhat  scanty  for  establishing  these  directions. 


METEOROLOGICAL   RECORD   FROM  FRAMHEIM. 

APRIL.   1911— JANUARY.   1912. 

Height  above  sea-level,  36  feet. 

Gravity  correction,  072  inch  at  29"89  inches. 

Latitude,  78°    38'  S. 

Longitude,  1G3°   37'  W. 

Explanation  of  Signs  in  the  Tables. 

^  signifies  snow, 
mist, 
aurora. 

large  ring  round  the  sun. 
_  mooQ. 


sq. 

a. 

P- 

L,  n. 

"{e.g. 

2  (e.g. 


storm. 

squalls. 

a.m. 

p.m. 

III.,  signify  respectively  8  a.m.,  2  p.m.,  and  8  p.m. 
^°)  signifies  slight. 
:^<2)  „       heavy. 


Times  of  day  are  always  in  local  time. 

The  date  was  not  changed  on  crossing  the  180th  meridian. 


384 


OS 


OS 


3 
o 


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Relative 
Humidity 
(per  Cent.). 

d 

00 

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d 

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^ 

Absolute 

Humidity 

(Inch). 

d 

00 

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d 

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8 

00 

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X 

o 
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CO 

1 

Temperature 

of  the  Air 
(Fahrenheit). 

d 

00 

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1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    M    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    M 

d 

IN 

COiO»0'-iCOO>-iO'«l<'000003CO»00(N005!DOiOiOiCtO'-iTf(tDMO 

CD 

CI 

CO 

1 

Ttit^XlOr^^rti(NC^rHCOOiCOCOOO'-iX>OC^liMiMiOXOO  —  OiO!MO, 
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1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

03 
00 

(NO<OOiOOt^O-*i'-iO(NiOC5»-(OiX'-i(NiOb»XiH<N050CDt^010CO 

CO 

1 

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1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

Barometer, 

Normal  Gravity 

(Inches) . 

d 
00 

S 
d 

s 

oJ 
00 

01C00aXc0>0OC^U^®Tt<XN.O(Nt^-^01-'*X«DiO  —  100»OCDI^IOO<0 

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1 

29-022901 

c:5005XOi03a5C5050C50iXXXCT>050i05Xxxxxxo>cixxxx 

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05  050505  OS  CTiO>O5O5O5OlO5XXXOlO5OlO>OiXXX00  XX  0:X  A  -T  Xj 
(NM(MINCJCieq(M(MCJC)OC,ININ!NlM(NC!N(NIN(Ne»IN(NCJCIClCiri 

Tj<-.*-^ioioco<ociTticoN.'Ocooo5  —  cocjcoooi^i-iMior^iKt^-Hcoio 
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1— 1 
CD 

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1 

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a 

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05COt^C00500'00>'-lt^OO-^C^lTtHTl(OC50(MTtiOO-*OOOGOOO'# 
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I  I  +  I  I  ++ I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I 

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I ++  I    I ++  I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    M    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I 

cocoo5p■^t>•^^c^ooo(N©^^c^^eo■^'-Hpp^-oooop'-H^-oorHGOGOp 

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I ++  M++  I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I 

OiT}ioOtOt>-OTj4COr(<l>t^OC<)OOcOTt<COTl(0>0»CC0  005iM'*iiOt^'-it-- 

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T— t rH t— I  1— I  f-H  1-^  1— (  i-H  1-H rH  rH  T— I T-~i  r~i  r^ 

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l^'«^OOC'IC5(MO(MlM'*00<MOOCOI>lCCOi»OOi»0'OTtlOOC<l«>OCO«5(M 
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poooooooooooooooooooooppppocpooo 

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(NCO<M^lMCOT}H(>ai-l.-li-IC-)(M  T-ii-t  C^  rtrHrHrH 

+++ I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  +  I  +  I  I  ++++  I 

■^OOrt<OOupoOpcOCOp■<i^p^-pcOTt^^-OrH^,T^^^(XlTt^Tt^lOOOlMOO^» 
lO^^O^CC»C^lOl6cD^^Tj^^^c6t^d3c6^0TtlTf^COTt^^HlOCOI-HC»^OIOCOOlO 

rH  i-H(M(MlMi-(i-(COC^l'-lrH.-ll-He^  tH  rHrH 

+  +  +  I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    M    I    I    I    I  +  I    I  ++  I  ++  I    I  +  +  +  +_ 

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ooc3'-lr^c>o^^(^1'Coo6^^cocolOC'^ubc<|rH(©(^^rHrHco>-^0'-^o 

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Q]  (M  iM  <M  W  g^  IM  <M  <^^  (M  Ol  IM  IM  W  e^  (M  iM  CI  iM  Ol  (M  (M  C^  IM  <>)  Oi  (M  iM  OJ  C'l  g^) 

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1— 1                                t—t                                               l-H          1— 1                                                                      1— 1  HH 
1— 1                          •!— 1                                           1— 1         1— 1                                                               1— 1      . 

r             i-i    r                            r        r                                         ri-J 

l-H                         1— II— 1                                               1— 1          1— 1                                                                      P— II— 1 
*                         **                                                *          *                                                                      ** 

6 

00 

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(M.-IOOOSMIMOO— iC^iNlNO(NOiC050fflO(NOOOOO-*CJ'<l< 

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00 

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lOOOOOOrfOOOOq—iTtiO^OOOOOOOOOXOXOXO 

rH                                                                                              T— I,—!,— l»—l,— (,—(,— 1,-H 

Direction  and  Velocity  of  the  Wind 
(Feet  per  Second) 

d 

00 

■^C^t^OC^OlM»OOtNt^005«D010»-*COOO»0^"5000«eO'-i(MO 

1-H 

OC0t^0iOOt^«3OI>C0O'Me<SOOf0OO-^«lt^OOOOOC:-^O 

,-1          r-l  l-H  (>J          IMIN                  I-I          (N^C^IOi-l          r-l          ,-1                                 iM^rH 

xAmmmxn     Wa5     coco     W  H  co  S5  ai  IZ  cc  a5  ai  W  !2  H     IZ^^H 

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coHoJ     a5WHc»c»o202co^WccHfBHcocB(KWHHail2lz;a:W 

00 

(^0«00C0T}^0>0>OOt0•^0it^e«^0>1-l0iO<0(^^^D00OO»-l■*^3<ScD 

1-4 

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^                 1-H          ^          f-H          1— 1          »— 1  ^  1— 1  ^  1— t  CS                                 *~*                 I— 1  1— 1 

^   .   .        ^^   .W   .W   .H   ,        ^       .   .       ."^   •   .W 
WW!»«3a2HH     cdcocoHcoHa3|i4aJc4     aJcorcWW     Hl2^Hc/j 

Relative 
Humidity 
(per  Cent.). 

00 

MrtitiiMiooO'H(Naiooiooi-iooo-Hoocoe>iroicoo-^o-He^io 

t,cOt^t^t>-00t^t--t^COt>t^t>-t-t^«5«500a5t^t^t^00l^t^00X0000t^ 

K 

ioO'^-^ioo'oaococo(N(Nfo«5iciOTtiio>OTt<-HO'H'-<'MOOc^n^'ti 

s 

C3 
00 

(M'C'^N-HiOlN'-iOOiOC^IOiNOOOOCOIN'O^-^iOtDlNMCOt^-eOt^ClM 
t^l^cDt>»t^t>tO«OOt>.t^l>COU90«Ot^COCDt^l^I^GO;OXt^t^t^t^ 

s 

Absolute 

Humidity 

(Inch). 

d. 

00 

N.a>coeoc«5'-ii-ib»iroi-<»0'003iou:ioicoTticoio^'H(NC^MTfioiO!NC^ 
oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

CO 
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d 

COMCOiOi-nOOt^—i^Os-HOsO-HOit^iM-^MrtCCTfClXiOTtiOC^Ci 
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OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOi-tOOOO 

1^ 

00 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

Temperature 

of  the  Air 
(Fahrenheit). 

d 

00 

05COOX'-iOCOCSXTtirtt>.C<5'-nOOT}ir-iXC^)iOO«5iOt-(rOiO<CON. 

+ 

TjHOt^iOCOM^C^iOOiNiNWi-iC^'OOiOtO'Hi-iOt^'CTtiOOXOJCO 

1-1                                                                      rH  ,-1                                 1-1  1-1  1-1  (N  <N          1-1  1-1 

1  1  1  1  1  l  +  l  1  I+  +  +++++  +  +  +I  I+  +++++  +  + 

d 

OOi-iTj<CS-^XM-'«<t^(N-<!ti<NiOOOXTjlt^OCOCOiOXO^Ot-COrOiO 

00 

+ 

t^O^Oi-KMOiCCNi-iOCOOCOtOXtDOCOIvXOtOiOXC-.  i-HNt^XO 

tH                                t-I                                1— Ii— li-H                         1— li— li— IC^JCfli— II— IC^l 

1  +  1  +  1  l+l  +++++++++++++++++++  +  +  + 

oo 

^•:}>XX04  0JXTjiTti0010Q(N-*OCOO>Oi'0'-it^05(NO^TfO'-— 1?) 

CO 

CO 

+ 

C0O'*i0C0i-n0O05'^TjHiNC0'-iiC<i<t>'t*»0C0X(Nt^t^0iO»^Oi0O 

lH*— 1                 1— iT-t                                                                                     1—1                                1— (T— I^^^H,— IrHi— 1 

1    1    1    1+  1+  1    1    II    !+  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  1    I+  +  +  +  +  +  +  + 

Barometer, 

Normal  Gravity 

(Inches). 

S 

d 

00 

>oofOi-i^b-a5iO'Mxcooc^05-<*i'*i-^t^Ttiico2-^XTtiMCixr^xo5 
(^^o•-n-■:l>ocol^l-^-H(^^col0^o■*'Oco(^lcoTt^lOc£>xc;o5co^^oxt^^- 

OS 

O^CiOiCiOOCiO^O^O^OiC50iC50i050>050lOiCi005CiOOiO^C;050 
O)  C^l  C-l  C^)  C)  !M  (N  IM  C^J  (M  (M  iM  C^  (N  IM  W  (N  IM  (N  <M  (N  Ol  <N  <N  (N  M  IM  "M  IM  OJ 

e 

d 

OlC^JOO'O-^OOliOe^lcOCOOCO'OtOCJTfit^COCON.i-iCOiHC^OC^XOO 

c^•-lOTt^lo■'tlc^^(^^•-l(^^!^5■'tl^clOlOl^o(Nl^5TfTJ^coxo50^-•'*lClXX^-. 

05 

OS 
OJ 

OC3  0>O0a05C5C2OC!OO0>OO05C3O<3>OC:SC-.  C;OOC50C500i 
iM  C)  N<>)  M  ^\  ri  M  CI  M  M  Ol  ■N  (M  O)  C^)  <N  C^  04  C)  CI  CI  CI  M  CI  CI  C)  CI  CI  C) 

B 

00 

i-iiOOOCOI^WXt^CKNOMTtiXOCTlXCOi-iiO^iO^OO'CCIOOiO 

1-|(NOc«;Tt<>0(^^M-HC^)torl^^OT)ll0^^lN(^^■<tTt^d-xox-f•o>:xt^ 

6 

OJ 

Oi050*CiO^OC50iO^O^OOiOOi0050iOiOCiO^OO^OOOC^CiC10 
CI  C^  M  (N  IM  O)  Ol  OJ  Ol  Ol  M  M  (M  (O  (N  C-)  IM  (N  (N  <N  (M  IM  (N  rO  M  O)  C)  C)  (M  CI 

i 

^(NCCiT}<iO;Ot*Xi3>0^(MrOT}iiO!Ot^XC350-He^cOTjtiocOt^XOO 
rtrtrHi-irtrtrti-lT-Hrt(NiN(NOJ(N(CJOJCJOJOJC<5 

a 

1 

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Ill-Mil          1     1        II  1  1  .1  II  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

■^                    ^  5^  >|<       5^       5fC  ^                     y^ 

1 

d 

00 

*****                   * 

MOOOOOa3rf<OC^OOC^l'OOOTlHOOOOOOOOOO'-iiM^00005 

CO 

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d 

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,—(,—(,— (,-H^H,—I                                            t— (1-H           i-Hi— (rHi-Hi— I           T— (                                    ,— It— li-H 

00 
6 

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**              III 
000000000000005000-*000000000000<NOOOOO 

I— (i— if-Hi-H           t-H                   T-Hi-H                   »-Hi-Hf-It-Ii— *»— li— (           t-H                                    i-Ht— li-H 

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1 

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00 

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■-I                 OJOC^                  --IWCSI                 IN                                (MrHr-HrHi-H                         fH 

ccaJMlZ^W     ^^w     Wt»WW                www     Haj     wiWiWWcc 

d 

0, 

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1> 

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^  U9  <M                         (N  (M          IM          >-l                 '-H                 tH  t-H  i-H  1-4                                i-H  1-1 

WW 

^^   HW      ^^^                     w   H                  i^:^ 

oDccaiHSii:^         l^icCMWWWW     WWWi^iWoiWWaJ     aJWWWW 

00 

1-lO'HO^-lM^oOlOcDocool>'-|'-loo-^-^oO'-lO■<^oxolOO^-•-l 

1-H 
riH 

^0-^t~eot^'*OOCDC<50050MOOO'#TfCO'*N.OOOOt>'t^CO^ 

r-H          --H  eO  CO  (N  "-H                 IN  IN          <-*          I-H  I-H  rH  1-1  i-H  I-H  (N  rH  1-1  I-H                                >-l  r-H  rH 

^WHW^            ^                           ^'W                           W       .    . 

W     ccwlzj^a}        mai     W     WWWWoi^WWHH     aj     ryiWWW 

Relative 
Humidity 
{per  Cent.). 

d 

00 

t^iO^iOiNM^^iOOTtiiOOCOOOiNCOOOiOCOCO'^t^COiNiOiOiOO'^OS 

t^l>OOOH>0100000500l>l>t^000005C000000005l>OOOOOOb-.OOCOOOOOl> 

CO 
00 

d 

t>.(Nu:iOOOt^t»0^^-^»OOiiOiOOO»0>0":iiN05»-<(N03»0  00>Oi-iiNOO 
l>l>t>.00O>t^U9N.aiO0t>.00l>Q0  00ail>0000  00Olt>.l>0Ob-l>t^GO00  00Cl0 

I-H 

00 

03 
00 

»oqo^incoin<ocococo^cooink:ii^u:i»o»oioococ<3incoO!X)oiocoo 
i>ooot^oot>.wt>aii>oot>.oot^ccocooooooaoooooc>cioot>ccii>cjocooo 

s 

Absolute 

Hiwiidify 

{Inch). 

d 
00 

l^f0t^l>C0iOai000icC>(N-*T}<O'^-^t^'O»0OINiNC0Tti01C^ll:^00t^rHiN 
■^"*Tt<iC'-i-^0'-iTj((jOOOt^t--a30iCOOiOOO>INOO(N0500005t^030CiO 

OOO^^'-H.-lr-lrtOOOOOO'-lOrHrtO— lO'-HO'-iOOOO-HO 

o 

d 

co^ioowoo-^oiTt'ioiNOOt^O'-iajOit^cooaii^MO^oco-^rtco 
(©lOiooit-T-KjJOcoooooooicftOj-^oocnr-icoooiiNosoaiaJOioc^j 

OOOOiHf-HOi— I"— '1— 'OOOOOi— ii— ii— lOi— ii— '•— iOi-hOi— lOOOi— •'— 1 

I-H 

o 

03 
00 

iNI-^0>'Ob~01CO®l>'-iOOO)lMOOiMOia3'OCOiOOOr-<cOiOiOOOO)00'^ 

coTt<eoioioO'-icoo50t^oooot-ooooooooc»'NO'-io»oiocot^050i 

OOOO'-ii-ii-iOO'-iOOOOO'-i'-i'-iO'-iO'-t'-i'-ii-HOOOOOO 

o 
o 

Temperature 

of  the  Air 
{Fahrenheit) . 

d 

00 

u:ii>oo5oO'-ioocoTtiiNroo^^^ooiot^O'*<t^»o^'-i05'-i05'OiO'-i05 

6 

IN 

+ 

OTHiCaiCOOO-^CDCOOJOt^OlOlOJCDOCOOOOSMOCOOCOOSOiCOiNCC 
iNINiN<NiNiN'-iiN'-i'-i'-i'-iiNiNININi-i(NINlN<NINrH(>Ji-ll>)Mi-l 

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 

d 

Ob-'-i-rt4t»'-i(NCOC003i-ii00101'-i'-i-*iOcCiOOi00100CO'-iOOI>iOiNt-M 

(N 
(N 

+ 

•«*<0>005iHOOO«5COCOOC000030000-«^^'^>0'OTt<r^OTf<iNOOrHiNO 
I-H        ,-H,-ieOiNCOiNINC)C^)i-HiN!N'-<iNiNINiNMiNININiNININiNi-HNiNiN 

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 

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APPENDIX  III 

GEOLOGY 

Provisional  Remarks  on  the  Examination  of  the  Geological 
Specimens  brought  by  Roald  Amundsen's  South  Polar 
Expedition  FROM  THE  Antarctic  Continent  (South  Victoria 
Land  and  King  Edward  VII.  Land).  By  J.  Schetelig, 
Secretary  oftheMineralogical  Institute  of  Christiania 
University, 

The  collection  of  specimens  of  rocks  brought  back  by  Mr.  Roald 
Amundsen  from  his  South  Polar  expedition  has  been  sent  by  him 
to  the  Mineralogical  Institute  of  the  University,  the  Director  of 
which,  Professor  W.  C.  Brogger,  has  been  good  enough  to  entrust 
to  me  the  work  of  examining  this  rare  and  valuable  material, 
which  gives  us  information  of  the  structure  of  hitherto  untrodden 
regions. 

Roald  Amundsen  himself  brought  back  altogether  about  twenty 
specimens  of  various  kinds  of  rock  from  Mount  Betty,  which  lies 
in  lat.  85°  8'  S.  Lieutenant  Prestrud's  expedition  to  King 
Edward  VII.  Land  collected  in  all  about  thirty  specimens  from 
Scotfs  Nunatak,  which  was  the  only  mountain  bare  of  snow  that 
this  expedition  met  with  on  its  route.  A  number  of  the  stones 
from  Scott's  Nunatak  were  brought  away  because  they  were  thickly 
overgrown  with  lichens.  These  specimens  of  lichens  have  been 
sent  to  the  Botanical  Museum  of  the  University. 

A  first  cursory  examination  of  the  material  was  enough  to  show 

395 


39G  APPEXDIX  III 

that  the  specimens  from  Mount  Betty  and  Scott's  Nunatak  consist 
exclusively  of  granitic  rocks  and  crystalline  schists.  There  were 
no  specimens  of  sedimentary  rocks  which,  by  possibly  containing 
fossils,  might  have  contributed  to  the  determination  of  the  age  of 
these  mountains.  Another  thing  that  was  immediately  apparent 
was  the  striking  agreement  that  exists  between  the  rocks  from 
these  two  places,  lying  so  far  apart.  The  distance  from  Mount  Betty 
to  Scott's  Nunatak  is  between  seven  and  eight  degrees  of  latitude. 

I  have  examined  the  specimens  microscopically. 

From  Mount  Betty  there  are  several  specimens  of  white  granite, 
with  dark  and  light  mica;  it  has  a  great  resemblance  to  the  white 
granites  from  Sogn,  the  Dovre  district,  and  Nordland,  in  Norway. 
There  is  one  very  beautiful  specimen  of  shining  white,  fine-grained 
granite  aplite,  with  small,  pale  red  garnets.  These  granites  show 
in  their  exterior  no  sign  of  pressure  structure.  The  remaining 
rocks  from  Mount  Betty  are  gneissic  granite,  partly  very  rich  in 
dark  mica,  and  gneiss  (granitic  schist);  besides  mica  schist,  with 
veins  of  quartz. 

From  Scott's  Nunatak  there  are  also  several  specimens  of  white 
granite,  very  like  those  from  Mount  Betty.  The  remaining  rocks 
from  here  are  richer  in  lime  and  iron,  and  show  a  series  of  gradual 
transitions  from  micacious  granite,  through  grano-diorite  to  quartz 
diorite,  with  considerable  quantities  of  dark  mica  and  green  horn- 
blende. In  one  of  the  specimens  the  quantity  of  free  quartz  is  so 
small  that  the  rock  is  almost  a  quartz-free  diorite.  The  quartz 
diorites  are:  some  medium-grained,  some  coarse-grained  (quartz- 
diorite-pegmatite),  with  streaks  of  black  mica.  The  schistose  rocks 
from  Scott's  Nunatak  are  streaked,  and,  in  part,  very  fine-grained 
quartz  diorite  schists.  Mica  schists  do  not  occur  among  the  speci- 
mens from  this  mountain. 

Our  knowledge  of  the  geology  of  South  Victoria  Land  is  mainly 
due  to  Scott's  expedition  of  1901-1904,  with  H.  T.  Fferrar  as 
geologist,  and  Shacklcton's  expedition  of  1907-08,  with  Professor 
David  and  R.  Priestley  as  geologists.     According  to  the  investiga- 


GEOLOGY  397 

tions  of  these  expeditions,  South  Victoria  Land  consists  of  a  vast, 
ancient  complex  of  crystalline  schists  and  granitic  rocks,  large 
extents  of  which  are  covered  by  a  sandstone  formation  ("Beacon 
Sandstone,"  Ferrar),  on  the  whole  horizontally  bedded,  which  is  at 
least  1,500  feet  thick,  and  in  which  Shackleton  found  seams  of 
coal  and  fossil  wood  (a  coniferous  tree) .  This,  as  It  belongs  to  the 
Upper  Devonian  or  Lower  Carboniferous,  determines  a  lower  limit 
for  the  age  of  the  sandstone  formation.  Shackleton  also  found  in 
lat.  85°  15'  S.  beds  of  limestone,  which  he  regards  as  under- 
lying and  being  older  than  the  sandstone.  In  the  limestone,  which 
is  also  on  the  whole  horizontally  bedded,  only  radiolaria  have 
been  found.  The  limestone  is  probably  of  older  Palaeozoic  age 
(?  Silurian).  It  is,  therefore,  tolerably  certain  that  the  underlying 
older  formation  of  gneisses,  crystalline  schists  and  granites,  etc.,  is 
of  Archaean  age,  and  belongs  to  the  foundation  rocks. 

Volcanic  rocks  are  only  found  along  the  coast  of  Ross  Sea  and 
on  a  range  of  islands  parallel  to  the  coast.  Shackleton  did  not 
find  volcanic  rocks  on  his  ascent  from  the  Barrier  on  his  route 
towards  the  South  Pole. 

G.  T.  Prior,  who  has  described  the  rocks  collected  by  Scott's 
expedition,  gives  the  following  as  belonging  to  the  complex  of 
foundation  rocks:  gneisses,  granites,  diorites,  banatites,  and  other 
eruptive  rocks,  as  well  as  crystalline  limestone,  with  chondrodite. 
Professor  David  and  R.  Priestley,  the  geologists  of  Shackleton's 
expedition,  refer  to  Ferrar's  and  Prior's  description  of  the  founda- 
tion rocks,  and  state  that  according  to  their  own  investigations  the 
foundation  rocks  consist  of  banded  gneiss,  gnelssic  granite,  grano- 
diorite,  and  diorlte  rich  in  sphene,  besides  coarse  crystalline  lime- 
stone as  enclosures  in  the  gneiss. 

This  list  of  the  most  important  rocks  belonging  to  the  foundation 
series  of  the  parts  of  South  Victoria  Land  already  explored  agrees 
so  closely  with  the  rocks  from  Mount  Betty  and  Scott's  Nunatak, 
that  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  latter  also  belong  to  the 
foundation  rocks. 


398  APPENDIX  III 

From  the  exhaustive  investigations  carried  out  by  Scott's  and 
Shackleton's  expeditions  it  appears  that  South  Victoria  Land  is 
a  plateau  land,  consisting  of  a  foundation  platform,  of  great  thick- 
ness and  prominence,  above  which  lie  remains,  of  greater  or  less 
extent,  of  Palaeozoic  formations,  horizontally  bedded.  From  the 
specimens  of  rock  brought  home  by  Roald  Amundsen's  expedition 
it  is  established  that  the  plateau  of  foundation  rocks  is  continued 
eastward  to  Amundsen's  route  to  the  South  Pole,  and  that  King 
Edward  VII.  Land  is  probably  a  northern  continuation,  on  the 
eastern  side  of  Ross  Sea,  of  the  foundation  rock  plateau  of  South 
Victoria  Land. 


Christiania, 
September  26,  1912. 


APPENDIX  IV 
THE  ASTRONOMICAL  OBSERVATIONS  AT  THE  POLE 

Note  by  Professor  H.  Geelmuyden 

Christiania, 
September  16,  1912. 

When  requested  this  summer  to  receive  the  astronomical  observa- 
tions from  Roald  Amundsen's  South  Pole  Expedition,  for  the 
purpose  of  working  them  out,  I  at  once  put  myself  in  communica- 
tion with  Mr.  A.  Alexander  (a  mathematical  master)  to  get  him 
to  undertake  this  work,  while  indicating  the  manner  in  which  the 
materials  could  be  best  dealt  with.  As  Mr.  Alexander  had  in  a  very 
eflScient  manner  participated  in  the  working  out  of  the  observations 
from  Nansen's  Fram  Expedition,  and  since  then  had  calculated  the 
astronomical  observations  from  Amundsen's  Gj'oa  Expedition,  and 
from  Captain  Isachsen's  expeditions  to  Spitzbergen,  I  knew  by 
experience  that  he  was  not  only  a  reliable  and  painstaking  calcu- 
lator, but  that  he  also  has  so  full  an  insight  into  the  theoretical 
basis,  that  he  is  capable  of  working  without  being  bound  down  by 
instructions. 

{Signed)     H.  Geelmuyden, 

Professor  of  Astronomy, 

The  Observatory  of  the  University, 

Christiania. 


399 


400  APPENDIX  IV 


MR.  ALEXANDER'S  REPORT. 

Captain  Roald  Amundsen, 

At  your  request  I  shall  here  give  briefly  the  result  of  my 
examination  of  the  observations  from  your  South  Pole  Expedition. 
My  calculations  are  based  on  the  longitude  for  Framheim  given  to 
me  by  Lieutenant  Prestrud,  163°  37'  W.  of  Greenwich.  He 
describes  this  longitude  as  provisional,  but  only  to  such  an  extent 
that  the  final  result  cannot  differ  appreciably  from  it.  My  own 
results  may  also  be  somewhat  modified  on  a  final  treatment  of  tlie 
material.  But  these  modifications,  again,  will  only  be  immaterial, 
and,  in  any  case,  will  not  affect  the  result  of  the  investigations 
given  below  as  to  the  position  of  the  two  Polar  stations. 

At  the  first  Polar  station,  on  December  15,  1911,  eighteen 
altitudes  of  the  sun  were  taken  in  all  with  each  of  the  expedition's 
sextants.  The  latitude  calculated  from  these  altitudes  is,  on  an 
average  of  both  sextants,  very  near  89°  54',  with  a  mean  error 
of  ±2'.  The  longitude  calculated  from  the  altitudes  is  about 
7*^  (105°)  E.;  but,  as  might  be  expected  in  this  high  latitude,  the 
aberrations  are  very  considerable.  We  may,  however,  assume  with 
great  certainty  that  this  station  lies  between  lat,  89°  52'  and 
89°  56'  S.,  and  between  long.  90°  and  120°  E. 

The  variation  of  the  compass  at  the  first  Polar  station  was 
determined  by  a  series  of  bearings  of  the  sun.  This  gives  us  the 
absolute  direction  of  the  last  day's  line  of  route.  The  length 
of  this  line  was  measured  as  five  and  a  half  geographical  miles. 
With  the  help  of  this  we  are  able  to  construct  for  Polheim  a  field 
of  the  same  form  and  extent  as  that  within  which  the  first  Polar 
station  must  lie. 

At  Polheim,  during  a  period  of  twenty-four  hours  (December 
16-17),  observations  were  taken  every  hour  with  one  of  the  sextants. 
The  observations  show  an  upper  culmination  altitude  of  23  19*2', 
and  a  resulting  lower  culmination  altitude  of  23°  17'4'.     These 


ASTRONOMICAL  OBSERVATIONS     401 


altitudes  are  one  or  two  minutes  of  arc  too  low.  This  is  not  more 
than  may  be  accounted  for  by  uncertainty  in  the  determination  of 
the  error  of  the  instrument;  but  that  atmospheric  anomalies  were 
also  present  is  shown  by  the  series  of  observations  as  a  whole.     In 


402  APPENDIX  IV 

combining  the  above  two  altitudes,  an  equal  error  on  the  same  side 
in  each  will  have  no  influence  on  the  result.  The  combination 
gives  a  latitude  of  89°  58"6'.  That  this  result  must  be  nearly 
correct  is  confirmed  by  the  considerable  displacement  of  the  periods 
of  culmination  which  is  indicated  by  the  series  of  observations,  and 
which  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  the  Pole  is  caused  by  the 
change  in  the  sun's  declination.  On  the  day  of  the  observations 
this  displacement  amounted  to  thirty  minutes  in  89°  57',  forty-six 
minutes  in  89°  58',  and  over  an  hour  and  a  half  in  89°  59'.  The 
upper  culmination  occurred  so  much  too  late,  and  the  lower 
culmination  so  much  too  early.  The  interval  between  these  two 
periods  was  thus  diminished  by  double  the  amount  of  the  displace- 
ments given.  Now  the  series  of  observations  shows  that  the  interval 
between  the  upper  and  the  lower  culmination  amounted  at  the 
most  to  eleven  hours;  the  displacement  of  the  periods  of  culmina- 
tion was  thus  at  least  half  an  hour.  It  results  that  Polheim  must 
lie  south  of  89°  57',  while  at  the  same  time  we  may  assume  that  it 
cannot  He  south  of  89°  59'.  The  moments  of  culmination  could, 
of  course,  only  be  determined  very  approximately,  and  in  the  same 
way  the  observations  as  a  whole  are  unserviceable  for  the  determina- 
tion of  longitude.  It  may,  however,  be  stated  with  some  certainty 
that  the  longitude  must  be  between  30°  and  75°  E.  The  latitude, 
as  already  mentioned,  is  between  89°  57'  and  89°  59',  and  the 
probable  position  of  Polheim  may  be  given  roughly  as  lat.  89° 
58-5'  S.,  and  long.  60°  E. 

On  the  accompanying  sketch-chart  the  letters  abed  indicate  the 
field  within  which  the  first  Polar  station  must  lie;  ABCD  is  the 
field  which  is  thereby  assigned  to  Polheim;  EFGH  the  field  within 
which  Polheim  must  lie  according  to  the  observations  taken  on  the 
spot  itself;  P  the  probable  position  of  Polheim,  and  L  the  resulting 
position  of  the  first  Polar  station.  The  position  thus  assigned  to 
the  latter  agrees  as  well  as  could  be  expected  with  the  average 
result  of  the  observations  of  December  15.  According  to  this, 
Polheim  would  be  assumed  to  lie  one  and  a  half  geographical 


ASTRONOMICAL  OBSERVATIONS     403 

miles,  or  barely  three  kilometres,  from  the  South  Pole,  and  certainly 
not  so  much  as  six  kilometres  from  it. 

From  your  verbal  statement  I  learn  that  Helmer  Hanssen  and 
Bjaaland  walked  four  geographical  miles  from  Polheim  in  the 
direction  taken  to  be  south  on  the  basis  of  the  observations.  On 
the  chart  the  letters  ejgh  give  the  field  within  which  the  termina- 
tion of  their  line  of  route  must  lie.  It  will  be  seen  from  this  that 
they  passed  the  South  Pole  at  a  distance  which,  on  the  one  hand, 
can  hardly  have  been  so  great  as  two  and  a  half  kilometres,  and  on 
the  other,  hardly  so  great  as  two  kilometres;  that,  if  the  assumed 
position  of  Polheim  be  correct,  they  passed  the  actual  Pole  at  a 
distance  of  between  400  and  600  metres;  and  that  it  is  very 
probable  that  they  passed  the  actual  Pole  at  a  distance  of  a  few 
hundred  metres,  perhaps  even  less. 

I  am,  etc., 

(Signed)     Anton  Alexander. 
Christiania, 

September  22,  1912. 


APPENDIX  V 

OCEANOGRAPHY 

Remarks  on  the  Oceanographical  Investigations  carried  out 

BY   THE   "FrAM"    in   THE   NoRTH   ATLANTIC   IN    1910   AND   IN 

the  South  Atlantic  in  191 1 .  By  Professor  Bjorn  Helland- 
Hansen  and  Professor  Fridtjof  Nansen 

In  the  earliest  age  of  the  human  race  the  sea  formed  an  absolute 
barrier.  Men  looked  out  upon  its  immense  surface,  now  calm  and 
bright,  now  lashed  by  storms,  and  always  mysteriously  attractive; 
but  they  could  not  grapple  with  it.  Then  they  learned  to  make 
boats;  at  first  small,  simple  craft,  which  could  only  be  used  when 
the  sea  was  calm.  But  by  degrees  the  boats  were  made  larger  and 
more  perfect,  so  that  they  could  venture  farther  out  and  weather  a 
storm  if  it  came.  In  antiquity  the  peoples  of  Europe  accomplished 
the  navigation  of  the  Mediterranean,  and  the  boldest  maritime 
nation  was  able  to  sail  round  Africa  and  find  the  way  to  India  by 
sea.  Then  came  voyages  to  the  northern  waters  of  Europe,  and 
far  back  in  the  Middle  Ages  enterprising  seamen  crossed  from 
Norway  to  Iceland  and  Greenland  and  the  north-eastern  part  of 
North  America.  They  sailed  straight  across  the  North  Atlantic, 
and  were  thus  the  true  discoverers  of  that  ocean. 

Even  in  antiquity  the  Greek  geographers  had  assumed  that  the 
greater  part  of  the  globe  was  covered  by  sea,  but  it  was  not  till 
the  beginning  of  the  modern  age  that  any  at  all  accurate  idea 
arose  of  the  extent  of  the  earth's  great  masses  of  water.     The 

404 


OCEANOGRAPHY  405 

knowledge  of  the  ocean  advanced  with  more  rapid  steps  than  ever 
before.  At  first  this  knowledge  only  extended  to  the  surface, 
the  comparative  area  of  oceans,  their  principal  currents,  and  the 
general  distribution  of  temperature.  In  the  middle  of  the  last 
century  Maury  collected  all  that  was  known,  and  drew  charts  of 
the  currents  and  winds  for  the  assistance  of  navigation.  This  was 
the  beginning  of  the  scientific  study  of  the  oceanic  waters;  at 
that  time  the  conditions  below  the  surface  were  still  little  known. 
A  few  investigations,  some  of  them  valuable,  had  been  made  of 
the  sea  fauna,  even  at  great  depths,  but  very  little  had  been  done 
towards  investigating  the  physical  conditions.  It  was  seen,  how- 
ever, that  there  was  here  a  great  field  for  research,  and  that  there 
were  great  and  important  problems  to  be  solved;  and  then,  half  a 
century  ago,  the  great  scientific  expeditions  began,  which  have 
brought  an  entire  new  world  to  our  knowledge. 

It  is  only  forty  years  since  the  Challenger  sailed  on  the  first 
great  exploration  of  the  oceans.  Although  during  these  forty 
years  a  quantity  of  oceanographical  observations  has  been  col- 
lected with  a  constant  improvement  of  methods,  it  is,  nevertheless, 
clear  that  our  knowledge  of  the  ocean  is  still  only  in  the  pre- 
liminary stage.  The  ocean  has  an  area  twice  as  great  as  that 
of  the  dry  land,  and  it  occupies  a  space  thirteen  times  as  great  as 
that  occupied  by  the  land  above  sea-level.  Apart  from  the  great 
number  of  soundings  for  depth  alone,  the  number  of  oceanographical 
stations — with  a  series  of  physical  and  biological  observations  at 
various  depths — is  very  small  in  proportion  to  the  vast  masses 
of  water;  and  there  are  still  extensive  regions  of  the  ocean  of  the 
conditions  of  which  we  have  only  a  suspicion,  but  no  certain 
knowledge.  This  applies  also  to  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  and  especi- 
ally to  the  South  Atlantic. 

Scientific  exploration  of  the  ocean  has  several  objects.  It  seeks 
to  explain  the  conditions  governing  a  great  and  important  part  of 
our  earth,  and  to  discover  the  laws  that  control  the  immense  masses 
of  water  in  the  ocean.     It  aims  at  acquiring  a  knowledge  of  its 


406  APPENDIX  V 

varied  fauna  and  flora,  and  of  the  relations  between  this  infinity 
of  organisms  and  the  medium  in  which  they  live.  These  were  the 
principal  problems  for  the  solution  of  which  the  voyage  of  the 
Challenger  and  other  scientific  expeditions  were  undertaken. 
Maury's  leading  object  was  to  explain  the  conditions  that  are  of 
practical  importance  to  navigation;  his  investigations  were,  in  the 
first  instance,  applied  to  utilitarian  needs. 

But  the  physical  investigation  of  the  ocean  has  yet  another  very 
important  bearing.  The  difference  between  a  sea  climate  and 
a  continental  climate  has  long  been  understood;  it  has  long  been 
known  that  the  sea  has  an  equalizing  effect  on  the  temperature  of 
the  air,  so  that  in  countries  lying  near  the  sea  there  is  not  so  great 
a  difiFerence  between  the  heat  of  summer  and  the  cold  of  winter  as 
on  continents  far  from  the  sea-coast.  It  has  also  long  been  under- 
stood that  the  warm  currents  produce  a  comparatively  mild  climate 
in  high  latitudes,  and  that  the  cold  currents  coming  from  the 
Polar  regions  produce  a  low  temperature.  It  has  been  known 
for  centuries  that  the  northern  arm  of  the  Gulf  Stream  makes 
Northern  Europe  as  habitable  as  it  is,  and  that  the  Polar  currents 
on  the  shores  of  Greenland  and  Labrador  prevent  any  richer 
development  of  civilization  in  these  regions.  But  it  is  only 
recently  that  modern  investigation  of  the  ocean  has  begun  to  show 
the  intimate  interaction  between  sea  and  air;  an  interaction  which 
makes  it  probable  that  we  shall  be  able  to  forecast  the  main 
variations  in  climate  from  year  to  year,  as  soon  as  we  have  a 
sufiiciently  large  material  in  the  shape  of  soundings. 

In  order  to  provide  new  oceanographical  material  by  modern 
methods,  the  plan  of  the  Fram  expedition  included  the  making 
of  a  number  of  investigations  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean.  In  June, 
1910,  the  Fram  went  on  a  trial  cruise  in  the  North  Atlantic  to 
the  west  of  the  British  Isles.  Altogether  twenty-five  stations  were 
taken  in  this  region  during  June  and  July  before  the  Fram's  final 
departure  from  Norway. 

The  exi)cdition  then  went  direct  to  the  Antarctic  and  landed 


OCEANOGRAPHY  407 

the  shore  party  on  the  Barrier.  Neither  on  this  trip  nor  on  the 
Fram's  subsequent  voyage  to  Buenos  Aires  were  any  investigations 
worth  mentioning  made,  as  time  was  too  short;  but  in  June,  1911, 
Captain  Nilsen  took  the  Fram  on  a  cruise  in  the  South  Atlantic, 
and  made  in  all  sixty  valuable  stations  along  two  lines  between 
South  America  and  Africa. 

An  exhaustive  working  out  of  the  very  considerable  material 
collected  on  these  voyages  has  not  yet  been  possible.  We  shall 
here  only  attempt  to  set  forth  the  most  conspicuous  results  shown 
by  a  preliminary  examination. 

BeaiJes  the  meteorological  observations  and  the  collection  of 
plankton — in  fine  silk  tow-nets — the  investigations  consisted  of 
taking  temperatures  and  samples  of  water  at  different  depths. 
The  temperatures  below  the  surface  were  ascertained  by  the  best 
modern  reversing  thermometers  (Richter's);  these  thermometers 
are  capable  of  giving  the  temperature  to  within  a  few  hundredths 
of  a  degree  at  any  depth.  Samples  of  water  were  taken  for  the 
most  part  with  Ekman's  reversing  water-sampler;  it  consists  of  a 
brass  tube,  with  a  valve  at  each  end.  When  it  is  lowered  the 
valves  are  open,  so  that  the  water  passes  freely  through  the  tube. 
When  the  apparatus  has  reached  the  depth  from  which  a  sample 
is  to  be  taken,  a  small  slipping  sinker  is  sent  down  along  the  line. 
When  the  sinker  strikes  the  sampler,  it  displaces  a  small  pin, 
which  holds  the  brass  tube  in  the  position  in  which  the  valves 
remain  open.  The  tube  then  swings  over,  and  this  closes  the 
valves,  so  that  the  tube  is  filled  with  a  hermetically  enclosed  sample 
of  water.  These  water  samples  were  put  into  small  bottles,  which 
were  afterwards  sent  to  Bergen,  where  the  salinity  of  each  sample 
was  determined.  On  the  first  cruise,  in  June  and  July,  1910,  the 
observations  on  board  were  carried  out  by  Mr.  Adolf  Schroer, 
besides  the  permanent  members  of  the  expedition.  The  observa- 
tions in  the  South  Atlantic  in  the  following  year  were  for  the  most 
part  carried  out  by  Lieutenant  Gjertsen  and  Kutschin. 

The  Atlantic  Ocean  is  traversed  by  a  series  of  main  currents. 


408  APPENDIX  V 

which  are  of  great  importance  on  account  of  their  powerful 
influence  on  the  physical  conditions  of  the  surrounding  regions  of 
sea  and  atmosphere.  By  its  oceanographical  investigations  in  1910 
and  1911  the  Fram  expedition  has  made  important  contributions 
to  our  knowledge  of  many  of  these  currents.  We  shall  first  speak 
of  the  investigations  in  the  North  Atlantic  in  1910,  and  afterwards 
of  those  in  the  South  Atlantic  in  1911. 

Investigations  in  the  North  Atlantic  in  June  and 

July,  1910. 

The  waters  of  the  Northern  Atlantic  Ocean,  to  the  north  of 
lats.  30°  and  40°  N.,  are  to  a  great  extent  in  drifting  motion 
north-eastward  and  eastward  from  the  American  to  the  European 
side.  This  drift  is  what  is  popularly  called  the  Gulf  Stream.  To 
the  west  of  the  Bay  of  Biscay  the  eastward  flow  of  water  divides 
into  two  branches,  one  going  south-eastward  and  southward,  which 
is  continued  in  the  Canary  Current,  and  the  other  going  north- 
eastward and  northward  outside  the  British  Isles,  which  sends 
comparatively  warm  streams  of  water  both  in  the  direction  of 
Iceland  and  past  the  Shetlands  and  Faroes  into  the  Norwegian 
Sea  and  north-eastward  along  the  west  coast  of  Norway.  This 
last  arm  of  the  Gulf  Stream  in  the  Norwegian  Sea  has  been  well 
explored  during  the  last  ten  or  fifteen  years;  its  course  and  extent 
have  been  charted,  and  it  has  been  shown  to  be  subject  to  great 
variations  from  year  to  year,  which  again  appear  to  be  closely 
connected  with  variations  in  the  development  and  habitat  of 
several  important  species  of  fish,  such  as  cod,  coal-fish,  haddock, 
etc.,  as  well  as  with  variations  in  the  winter  climate  of  Norway, 
the  crops,  and  other  important  conditions.  By  closely  following 
the  changes  in  the  Gulf  Stream  from  year  to  year,  it  looks  as  if  we 
should  be  able  to  predict  a  long  time  in  advance  any  great  changes 
in  the  cod  and  haddock  fisheries  in  the  North  Sea,  as  well  as  varia- 
tions in  the  winter  climate  of  North-Western  Europe. 


OCEANOGRAPHY 


409 


But  the  cause  or  causes  of  these  variations  in  the  Gulf  Stream  are 
at  present  unknown.  In  order  to  solve  this  diflScult  question  we  must 
be  acquainted  with  the  conditions  in  those  regions  of  the  Atlantic 
itself  through  which  this  mighty  ocean  current  flows,  before  it  sends 
its  waters  into  the  Norwegian  Sea.  But  here  we  are  met  by  the 
difficulty  that  the  investigations  that  have  been  made  hitherto  are 
extremely  inadequate  and  deficient;  indeed,  we  have  no  accurate 


'Fig.  1. — Hypothetical  Representation  of  the  Surface  Currents  in 
THE  Northern  Atlantic  in  April. 

After  Nansen,  in  the  Internationale  Revue  der  gesamten  Hydrohiologie  und 

Hydrographie,  1912. 

knowledge  even  of  the  course  and  extent  of  the  current  in  this 
ocean.  A  thorough  investigation  of  it  with  the  improved  methods 
of  our  time  is  therefore  an  inevitable  necessity. 

As  the  Gulf  Stream  is  of  so  great  importance  to  Northern 
Europe  in  general,  but  especially  to  us  Norwegians,  it  was  not  a 
mere  accident  that  three  separate  expeditions  left  Norway  in  the 
same  year,  1910 — Murray  and  Hjort's  expedition  in  the  Michael 
Sars,  Amundsen's  trial  trip  in  the  Fram,  and  Nansen's  voyage  in 

VOL.  II.  52 


410  APPENDIX  V 

the  gunboat  Frithjof — all  \\atli  the  object  of  investigating  the 
conditions  in  the  North  Atlantic.  The  fact  that  on  these  three 
voyages  observations  were  made  approximately  at  the  same  time  in 
different  parts  of  the  ocean  increases  their  value  in  a  great  degree, 
since  they  can  thus  be  directly  compared;  we  are  thus  able  to 
obtain,  for  instance,  a  reliable  survey  of  the  distribution  of 
temperature  and  salinity,  and  to  draw  important  conclusions  as 
to  the  extent  of  the  currents  and  the  motion  of  the  masses  of 
water. 

Amundsen's  trial  trip  in  the  Fram  and  Nansen's  voyage  in  the 
Frithjof  were  made  with  the  special  object  of  studying  the  Gulf 
Stream  in  the  ocean  to  the  west  of  the  British  Isles,  and  by  the 
help  of  these  investigations  it  is  now  possible  to  chart  the  current 
and  the  extent  of  the  various  volumes  of  water  at  diflPerent  depths 
in  this  region  at  that  time. 

A  series  of  stations  taken  within  the  same  region  during  INIurray 
and  Hjort's  expedition  completes  the  survey,  and  provides  valuable 
material  for  comparison. 

After  sailing  from  Norway  over  the  North  Sea,  the  Fram  passed 
through  the  English  Channel  in  June,  1910,  and  the  first  station 
was  taken  on  June  20,  to  the  south  of  Ireland,  in  lat.  50°  50'  N. 
and  long.  10°  15'  W.,  after  which  thirteen  stations  were  taken  to 
the  westward,  to  lat.  53°  16'  N.  and  long.  17°  50'  W.,  where  the 
ship  was  on  June  27.  Her  course  then  went  in  a  northerly  direc- 
tion to  lat.  57°  59'  N.  and  long.  15°  8'  W.,  from  which  point  a 
section  of  eleven  stations  (Nos.  15-25)  was  made  straight  across  the 
Gulf  Stream  to  the  bank  on  the  north  of  Scotland,  in  lat.  59°  33'  N. 
and  long.  4°  44'  W.  The  voyage  and  the  stations  are  represented 
in  Fig.  2.  Temperatures  and  samples  of  water  were  taken  at  all 
the  twenty -four  stations  at  the  following  depths:  surface,  5,  10, 
20,  30,  40,  50,  75,  100,  150,  200,  300,  400,  and  500  metres  (27, 
5-4,  109,  163,  21  8,  272,  408,  54  5,  817,  109,  163*5,  218,  and 
272"5  fathoms) — or  less,  where  the  depth  was  not  so  great. 

The  Fram's  southerly  section,  from  Stations  1  to  13  (see  Fig.  3), 


OCEANOGRAPHY 


411 


is  divided  into  two  parts  at  Station  10,  on  the  Porcupine  Bank, 
south-west  of  Ireland.  The  eastern  part,  between  Stations  1  and  10, 
extends  over  to  the  bank  south  of  Ireland,  while  the  three  stations 
of  the  western  part  lie  in  the  deep  sea  west  of  the  Porcupine  Bank. 


Fig.  2.— The  "Fram's"  Route  from  June  20  to  July  7,  1910  (given 
in  an  unbroken  line the  figures  denote  the  stations). 

The  dotted  line  gives  the  Frithjof's  route,  and  the  squares  give  five  of  the 

Michael  Sars's  stations. 


In  both  parts  of  this  section  there  are,  as  shown  in  Fig.  3,  two 
great  volumes  of  water,  from  the  surface  down  to  depths  greater 
than  500  metres,  which  have  salinities  between  35  "4  and  35  5  per 


412 


APPENDIX  V 


mille.  They  have  also  comparatively  high  temperatures;  the 
isotherm  for  10°  C.  goes  down  to  a  depth  of  about  500  metres 
in  both  these  parts. 

It  is  obvious  that  both  these  comparatively  salt  and  warm 
volumes  of  water  belong  to  the  Gulf  Stream.  The  more  westerly 
of  them,  at  Stations  11  and  12,  and  in  part  13,  in  the  deep  sea  to 
the  west  of  the  Porcupine  Bank,  is  probably  in  motion  towards  the 
north-east  along  the  outside  of  this  bank  and  then  into  Rockall 
Channel — between  Rockall  Bank  and  the  bank  to  the  west  of  the 


Fig.  3. — Temperature  and  Salinity  in  the  "Fram's"  SotrrHERN 

Section,  June,  1910. 


British  Isles — where  a  corresponding  volume  of  water,  ^^•ith  a 
somewhat  lower  salinity,  is  found  again  in  the  section  which  was 
taken  a  few  weeks  later  by  the  Frith joj  from  Ireland  to  the  west- 
north-west  across  the  Rockall  Bank.  This  volume  of  water  has 
a  special  interest  for  us,  since,  as  will  be  mentioned  later,  it  forms 
the  main  part  of  that  arm  of  the  GuK  Stream  which  enters  the 
Norwegian  Sea,  but  which  is  gradually  cooled  on  its  way  and  mixed 
with  fresher  water,  so  that  its  salinity  is  constantly  decreasing. 
This  fresher  water  is  evidently  derived  in  great  measure  directly 


OCEANOGRAPHY  413 

from  precipitation,  which  is  here  in  excess  of  the  evaporation  from 
the  surface  of  the  sea. 

The  volume  of  Gulf  Stream  water  that  is  seen  in  the  eastern 
part  (east  of  Station  10)  of  the  southern  Fram  section,  can  only- 
flow  north-eastward  to  a  much  less  extent,  as  the  Porcupine  Bank 
is  connected  with  the  bank  to  the  west  of  Ireland  by  a  submarine 
ridge  (with  depths  up  to  about  300  metres),  which  forms  a  great 
obstacle  to  such  a  movement. 

The  two  volumes  of  Gulf  Stream  water  in  the  Fram's  southern 
section  of  1910  are  divided  by  a  volume  of  water,  which  lies  over 
the  Porcupine  Bank,  and  has  a  lower  salinity  and  also  a  somewhat 
lower  average  temperature.  On  the  bank  to  the  south  of  Ireland 
(Stations  1  and  2)  the  salinity  and  average  temperature  are  also 
comparatively  low.  The  fact  that  the  water  on  the  banks  off  the 
coast  has  lower  salinities,  and  in  part  lower  temperatures,  than  the 
water  outside  in  the  deep  sea,  has  usually  been  explained  by  its 
being  mixed  with  the  coast  water,  which  is  diluted  with  river  water 
from  the  land.  This  explanation  may  be  correct  in  a  great 
measure;  but,  of  course,  it  will  not  apply  to  the  water  over  banks 
that  lie  out  in  the  sea,  far  from  any  land.  It  appears,  nevertheless, 
on  the  Porcupine  Bank,  for  instance,  and,  as  we  shall  see  later,  on 
the  Rockall  Bank,  that  the  water  on  these  ocean  banks  is — in  any 
case  in  early  summer — colder  and  less  salt  than  the  surrounding 
water  of  the  sea.  It  appears  from  the  Frithjof  section  across  the 
Rockall  Bank,  as  well  as  from  the  two  Fram  sections,  that  this 
must  be  due  to  precipitation  combined  with  the  vertical  currents 
near  the  surface,  which  are  produced  by  the  cooling  of  the  surface 
of  the  sea  in  the  course  of  the  winter.  For,  as  the  surface  water 
cools,  it  becomes  heavier  than  the  water  immediately  below,  and 
must  then  sink,  while  it  is  replaced  by  water  from  below.  These 
vertical  currents  extend  deeper  and  deeper  as  the  cooling  proceeds 
in  the  course  of  the  winter,  and  bring  about  an  almost  equal 
temperature  and  salinity  in  the  upper  waters  of  the  sea  during  the 
winter,  as  far  down  as  this  vertical  circulation  reaches.     But  as  the 


414  APPENDIX  V 

precipitation  in  these  regions  is  constantly  decreasing  the  salinity 
of  the  surface  water,  this  vertical  circulation  must  bring  about 
a  diminution  of  salinity  in  the  underlying  waters,  with  which  the 
sinking  surface  water  is  mixed  into  a  homogeneous  volume  of  water. 
The  Frithjof  section  in  particular  seems  to  show  that  the  vertical 
circulation  in  these  regions  reaches  to  a  depth  of  500  or  600  metres 
at  the  close  of  the  winter.  If  we  consider,  then,  what  must  happen 
over  a  bank  in  the  ocean,  where  the  depth  is  less  than  this,  it 
is  obvious  that  the  vertical  circulation  will  here  be  prevented  by  the 
bottom  from  reaching  the  depth  it  otherwise  would,  and  there  will 
be  a  smaller  volume  of  water  to  take  part  in  this  circulation  and  to 
be  mixed  with  the  cooled  and  diluted  surface  water.  But  as  the 
cooling  of  the  surface  and  the  precipitation  are  the  same  there  as  in 
the  surrounding  regions,  the  consequence  must  be  that  the  whole 
of  this  volume  of  water  over  the  bank  will  be  colder  and  less  salt 
than  the  surrounding  waters.  And  as  this  bank  water,  on  account 
of  its  lower  temperature,  is  heavier  than  the  water  of  the  surround- 
ing sea,  it  will  have  a  tendency  to  spread  itself  outwards  along  the 
bottom,  and  to  sink  down  along  the  slopes  from  the  sides  of  the 
bank.  This  obviously  contributes  to  increase  the  opposition  that 
such  banks  ofifer  to  the  advance  of  ocean  currents,  even  when  they 
lie  fairly  deep. 

These  conditions,  which  in  many  respects  are  of  great  im- 
portance, are  clearly  shown  in  the  two  Fram  sections  and  the 
Frithjof  section. 

The  Northern  Fram  section  went  from  a  point  to  the  north-west 
of  the  Rockall  Bank  (Station  15),  across  the  northern  end  of  this 
bank  (Station  16),  and  across  the  northern  part  of  the  wide  channel 
(Rockall  Channel)  between  it  and  Scotland.  As  might  be  expected, 
both  temperature  and  salinity  are  lower  in  this  section  than  in  the 
southern  one,  since  in  the  course  of  their  slow  northward  movement 
the  waters  are  cooled,  especially  by  the  vertical  circulation  in 
winter  already  mentioned,  and  are  mixed  with  water  containing  less 
salt,  especially  precipitated  water.     While  in  the  southern  section 


OCEANOGRAPHY 


415 


the  isotherm  for  10°  C.  went  down  to  500  metres,  it  here  lies  at  a 
depth  of  between  50  and  25  metres.  In  the  comparatively  short 
distance  between  the  two  sections,  the  whole  volume  of  water  has 
been  cooled  between  1°  and  2°  C.  This  represents  a  great  quantity 
of  warmth,  and  it  is  chiefly  given  off  to  the  air,  which  is  thus 
warmed  over  a  great  area.  Water  contains  more  than  3,000  times 
as  much  warmth  as  the  same  volume  of  air  at  the  same  tempera- 
ture. For  example,  if  1  cubic  metre  of  water  is  cooled  1°,  and  the 
whole  quantity  of  warmth  thus  taken  from  the  water  is  given 


22  23  - 


Fig.  4. — Temperature  and  Salinity  in  the  "Fram's"  Northern 

Section,  Jult,  1910. 


to  the  air,  it  is  sufficient  to  warm  more  than  3,000  cubic  metres  of 
air  1°,  when  subjected  to  the  pressure  of  one  atmosphere.  In 
other  words,  if  the  surface  water  of  a  region  of  the  sea  is  cooled  1° 
to  a  depth  of  1  metre,  the  quantity  of  warmth  thus  taken  from  the 
sea  is  sufficient  to  warm  the  air  of  the  same  region  1°  up  to 
a  height  of  much  more  than  3,000  metres,  since  at  high  altitudes 
the  air  is  subjected  to  less  pressure,  and  consequently  a  cubic  metre 
there  contains  less  air  than  at  the  sea-level.  But  it  is  not  a  depth 
of  1  metre  of  the  Gulf  Stream  that  has  been  cooled  1°  between 
these  two  sections;  it  is  a  depth  of  about  500  metres  or  more,  and 


416  APPENDIX  V 

it  has  been  cooled  between  1°  and  2°  C.  It  will  thus  be  easily 
understood  that  this  loss  of  warmth  from  the  Gulf  Stream  must 
have  a  profound  influence  on  the  temperature  of  the  air  over  a  wide 
area;  we  see  how  it  comes  about  that  warm  currents  like  this  are 
capable  of  rendering  the  climate  of  countries  so  much  milder,  as 
is  the  case  in  Europe;  and  we  see  further  how  comparatively 
slight  variations  in  the  temperature  of  the  current  from  year 
to  year  must  bring  about  considerable  variations  in  the  climate; 
and  how  we  must  be  in  a  position  to  predict  the«e  latter 
changes  when  the  temperature  of  the  currents  becomes  the  object 
of  extensive  and  continuous  investigation.  It  may  be  hoped 
that  this  is  enough  to  show  that  far-reaching  problems  are  here 
in  question. 

The  salinity  of  the  Gulf  Stream  water  decreases  considerably 

between  the  Frams  southern  and  northern  sections.     While  in  the 

former  it  was  in  great  part  between  35 '4  and  35 '5  per  mille,  m 

the  latter  it  is  throughout  not  much  more  than  35*3  per  mille. 

In  this  section,  also,  the  waters  of  the  Gulf  Stream  are  divided  by 

an  accumulation  of  less  salt  and  somewhat  colder  bank  water,  which 

here  lies  over  the  Rockall  Bank  (Station  16).     On  the  west  side 

of  this  bank  there  is  again  (Station  15)  salter  and  warmer  Gulf 

Stream  water,  though  not  quite  so  warm  as  on  the  east.     From 

the  Frithjof  section,  a  little  farther  south,  it  appears  that  this 

western  volume  of  Gulf  Stream  water  is  comparatively  small. 

The  investigations  of  the  Fram  and  the  Frithjof  show  that  the 

part  of  the  Gulf  Stream  which  penetrates  into  the  Norwegian 

Sea  comes  in  the  main  through  the  Rockall  Channel,  between 

the  Rockall  Bank  and  the  bank  to  the  west  of  the  British  Isles; 

its   width   in   this   region    is    thus   considerably   less    than   was 

usually  supposed.     Evidently  this  is  largely  due  to  the  influence  of 

the  earth's  rotation,  whereby  currents  in  the  northern  hemisphere 

are  deflected  to  the  right,  to  a  greater  degree  the  farther  north  they 

run.      In  this  way  the  ocean  currents,   especially  in   northern 

latitudes,  are  forced  against  banks  and  coasts  lying  to  the  right  of 


OCEANOGRAPHY  417 

them,  and  frequently  follow  the  edges,  where  the  coast  banks  slope 
down  to  the  deep.  The  conclusion  given  above,  that  the  Gulf 
Stream  comes  through  the  Rockall  Channel,  is  of  importance  to 
future  investigations;  it  shows  that  an  annual  investigation  of  the 
water  of  this  channel  would  certainly  contribute  in  a  valuable  way 
to  the  understanding  of  the  variations  of  the  climate  of  Western 

Europe. 

We  shall  not  dwell  at  greater  length  here  on  the  results  of  the 
Frams  oceanographical  investigations  in  1910.  Only  when  the 
observations  then  collected,  as  well  as  those  of  the  Frithjofs  and 
Michael  Sars's  voyages,  have  been  fully  worked  out  shall  we  be 
able  to  make  a  complete  survey  of  what  has  been  accomplished. 

Investigations  in  the  South  Atlantic,  June  to 
August,    1911. 

In  the  South  Atlantic  we  have  the  southward  Brazil  Current 
on  the  American  side,  and  the  northward  Benguela  Current  on  the 
African  side.  In  the  southern  part  of  the  ocean  there  is  a  wide 
current  flowing  from  west  to  east  in  the  west  wind  belt.  And 
in  its  northern  part,  immediately  south  of  the  Equator,  the  South 
Equatorial  Current  flows  from  east  to  west.  We  have  thus  in  the 
South  Atlantic  a  vast  circle  of  currents,  with  a  motion  contrary  to 
that  of  the  hands  of  a  clock.  The  Fram  expedition  has  now 
made  two  full  sections  across  the  central  part  of  the  South 
Atlantic;  these  sections  take  in  both  the  Brazil  Current  and  the 
Benguela  Current,  and  they  lie  between  the  eastward  current  on 
the  south  and  the  westward  current  on  the  north.  This  is  the 
first  time  that  such  complete  sections  have  been  obtained  between 
South  America  and  Africa  in  this  part  of  the  ocean.  And  no 
doubt  a  larger  number  of  stations  were  taken  on  the  Frames 
voyage  than  have  been  taken — with  the  same  amount  of  detail 
— in  the  whole  South  Atlantic  by  all  previous  expeditions  put 
together. 


418 


APPENDIX  V 


When  the  Fram  left  Buenos  Aires  in  June,  1911,  the  expedition 
went  eastward  through  the  Brazil  Current.  The  first  station 
was  taken  in  lat.  36°  13'  S.  and  long.  43°  15'  W.;  this  was  on 
June  17,  Her  course  was  then  north-east  or  east  until  Station  32 
in  lat.  20°  30'  S.  and  long.  8°  10'  E.;  this  station  lay  in  the 
Benguela  Current,  about  300  miles  from  the  coast  of  Africa,  and  it 
was  taken  on  July  22.     From  there  she  went  in  a  gentle  curve 


\  ■        M'  50'  W  30'  i!j)'  16'  W      — o'S; 


tUtl 


M'^^ 


s: 


-W-TTi 


^2* 


i5. 


ii« 


13  'f>a  tnkl 


go-  56*  4j'  jy  iif  t^'w         »{r 


Fig.  5. — The  "Fram's"  Stations  in  the  Soitth  Atlantic 
(June- August,  1911). 


past  St.  Helena  and  Trinidad  back  to  America.  The  last  station 
(No.  60)  was  taken  on  August  19  in  the  Brazil  Current  in 
lat.  24°  39'  S.  and  about  long.  40°  W.;  this  station  lay  about 
200  miles  south-east  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

There  was  an  average  distance  of  100  nautical  miles  between 
one  station  and  the  next.  At  nearly  all  the  stations  investigations 
were  made  at  the  following  depths:  surface,  5,  10,  25,  50,  100,  150, 


OCEANOGRAPHY 


419 


200,  250,  300,  400,  500,  750,  and  1,000  metres  (27,  5 '4,  13  6, 
27-2,  54  5,  81  7,  109,  136-2,  163-5,  218,  272*5,  and  545  fathoms). 
At  one  or  two  of  the  stations  observations  were  also  taken  at 
1,500  and  2,000  metres  (8175  and  1,090  fathoms). 

The  investigations  were  thus  carried  out  from  about  the  middle 
of  July  to  the  middle  of  August,  in  that  part  of  the  southern 
winter  which  corresponds  to  the  period  between  the  middle  of 


Fig.  6. — Currents  in  the  South  Atlantic 
(June- August,  1911).- 


December  and  the  middle  of  February  in  the  northern  hemisphere. 
We  must  first  see  what  the  conditions  were  on  the  surface  in  those 
regions  in  the  middle  of  the  winter  of  1911. 

It  must  be  remembered  that  the  currents  on  the  two  sides  of  the 
ocean  flow  in  opposite  directions.  Along  the  coast  of  Africa  we 
have  the  Benguela  Current,  flowing  from  south  to  north;  on  the 
American  side  the  Brazil  Current  flows  from  the  tropics  south- 


420 


APPENDIX  V 


ward.  The  former  current  is  therefore  comparatively  cold  and  the 
latter  comparatively  warm.  This  is  clearly  seen  on  the  chart, 
which  shows  the  distribution  of  temperatures  and  salinities  on  the 
surface.  In  lat.  20°  S.  it  was  only  about  17°  C.  off  the  African 
coast,  while  it  was  about  23°  C.  off  the  coast  of  Brazil. 

The  salinity  depends  on  the  relation  between  evaporation  and 
the  addition  of  fresh  water.     The  Benguela  Current  comes  from 


<  S5X.  ^5-3«•^         36 -37^.       >Z7'^ 

Fig.  7. — Salinities  and  Temperatures  at  the  Surface  in  the 
South  Atlantic  (June-August,  1911). 


regions  where  the  salinity  is  comparatively  low;  this  is  due  to 
the  acquisition  of  fresh  water  in  the  Antarctic  Ocean,  where  the 
evaporation  from  the  surface  is  small  and  the  precipitation  com- 
paratively large.  A  part  of  this  fresh  water  is  also  acquired  by 
the  sea  in  the  form  of  icebergs  from  the  Antarctic  Continent. 
These  icebergs  melt  as  they  drift  about  the  sea. 

Immediately  off  the  African  coast  there  is  a  belt  where  the 


OCEANOGRAPHY  421 

salinity  is  under  35  per  mille  on  the  surface;  farther  out  in  the 
Benguela  Current  the  salinity  is  for  the  most  part  between  35  and 

36  per  mille.  As  the  water  is  carried  northward  by  the  current, 
evaporation  becomes  greater  and  greater;  the  air  becomes  com- 
paratively warm  and  dry.  Thereby  the  salinity  is  raised.  The 
Benguela  Current  is  then  continued  westward  in  the  South  Equa- 
torial Current;  a  part  of  this  afterwards  turns  to  the  north-west, 
and  crosses  the  Equator  into  the  North  Atlantic,  where  it  joins 
the  North  Equatorial  Current.  This  part  must  thus  pass  through 
the  belt  of  calms  in  the  tropics.  In  this  region  falls  of  rain  occur, 
heavy  enough  to  decrease  the  surface  salinity  again.  But  the 
other  part  of  the  South  Equatorial  Current  turns  southward  along 
the  coast  of  Brazil,  and  is  then  given  the  name  of  the  Brazil 
Current.  The  volume  of  water  that  passes  this  way  receives  at 
first  only  small  additions  of  precipitation;  the  air  is  so  dry  and 
warm  in  this  region  that  the  salinity  on  the  surface  rises  to  over 

37  per  mille.  This  will  be  clearly  seen  on  the  chart;  the  sal  test 
water  in  the  whole  South  Atlantic  is  found  in  the  northern  part  of 
the  Brazil  Current.  Farther  to  the  south  in  this  current  the 
salinity  decreases  again,  as  the  water  is  there  mixed  with  fresher 
water  from  the  South.  The  River  La  Plata  sends  out  enormous 
quantities  of  fresh  water  into  the  ocean.  Most  of  this  goes  north- 
'^ard,  on  account  of  the  earth's  rotation;  the  effect  of  this  is,  of 
course,  to  deflect  the  currents  of  the  southern  hemisphere  to  the 
left,  and  those  of  the  northern  hemisphere  to  the  right.  Besides 
the  water  from  the  River  La  Plata,  there  is  a  current  flowing 
northward  along  the  coast  of  Patagonia — namely,  the  Falkland 
Current.  Like  the  Benguela  Current,  it  brings  water  with  lower 
salinities  than  those  of  the  waters  farther  north;  therefore,  in 

.proportion  as  the  salt  water  of  the  Brazil  Current  is  mixed  with 
the  water  from  the  River  La  Plata  and  the  Falkland  Current,  its 
salinity  decreases.  These  various  conditions  give  the  explanation 
of  the  distribution  of  salinity  and  temperature  that  is  seen  in  the 
chart. 


422  '        APPENDIX  V 

Between  the  two  long  lines  of  section  there  is  a  distance  of 
between  ten  and  fifteen  degrees  of  latitude.  There  is,  therefore, 
a  considerable  difference  in  temperature.  In  the  southern  section 
the  average  surface  temperature  at  Stations  1  to  26  (June  17  to 
July  17)  was  17'9°  C;  in  the  northern  section  at  Stations  36  to  60 
(July  26  to  August  19)  it  was  21 '6°  C.  There  was  thus  a  differ- 
ence of  3*7°  C.  If  all  the  stations  had  been  taken  simultaneously, 
the  difference  would  have  been  somewhat  greater;  the  northern 
section  was,  of  course,  taken  later  in  the  winter,  and  the  tempera- 
tures were  therefore  proportionally  lower  than  in  the  southern 
section.  The  difference  corresponds  fairly  accurately  with  that 
which  Kriimmel  has  calculated  from  previous  observations. 

We  must  now  look  at  the  conditions  below  the  surface  in  that 
part  of  the  South  Atlantic  which  was  investigated  by  the  Fram 
Expedition. 

The  observations  show  in  the  first  place  that  both  temperatures 
and  salinities  at  every  one  of  the  stations  give  the  same  values 
from  the  surface  downward  to  somewhere  between  75  and 
150  metres  (40'8  and  81 '7  fathoms).  This  equalization  of  tem- 
perature and  salinity  is  due  to  the  vertical  currents  produced 
by  cooling  in  winter;  we  shall  return  to  it  later.  But  below  these 
depths  the  temperatures  and  salinities  decrease  rather  rapidly  for 
some  distance. 

The  conditions  of  temperature  at  400  metres  (218  fathoms) 
below  the  surface  are  shown  in  the  next  little  chart.  This  chart 
is  based  on  the  Fram  Expedition,  and,  as  regards  the  other  parts 
of  the  ocean,  on  Schott's  comparison  of  the  results  of  previous 
expeditions.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  Frames  observations 
agree  very  well  with  previous  soundings,  but  are  much  more 
detailed. 

The  chart  shows  clearly  that  it  is  much  warmer  at  400  metres 
(218  fathoms)  in  the  central  part  of  the  South  Atlantic  than 
either  farther  north — nearer  the  Equator — or  farther  south.  On 
the  Equator  there  is  a  fairly  large  area  where  the  temperature 


OCEANOGRAPHY 


423 


is  only  7°  or  8°  C.  at  400  metres,  whereas  in  lats.  20°  to  30°  S. 
there  are  large  regions  where  it  is  above  12°  C;  sometimes  above 
13°  C,  or  even  14°  C.  South  of  lat.  30°  S.  the  temperature 
decreases  again  rapidly;  in  the  chart  no  lines  are  drawn  for  tem- 
peratures below  8°  C,  as  we  have  not  suflScient  observations  to 
show  the  course  of  these  lines  properly.  But  we  know  that  the 
temperature  at  400  metres  sinks  to  about  0°  C.  in  the  Antarctic 
Ocean. 


Fig.  8. — Temperatures  (Centigrade)  at  a  Depth  op  400  Metres 

(218  Fathoms). 


At  these  depths,  then,  we  find  the  warmest  water  within  the 
region  investigated  by  the  Fram.  If  we  now  compare  the  dis- 
tribution of  temperature  at  400  metres  with  the  chart  of  currents 
in  the  South  Atlantic,  we  see  that  the  warm  region  Ues  in  the 
centre  of  the  great  circulation  of  which  mention  was  made  above. 
We  see  that  there  are  high  temperatures  on  the  left-hand  side 
of  the  currents,  and  low  on  the  right-hand  side.    This,  again. 


424  APPENDIX  V 

is  an  effect  of  the  earth's  rotation,  for  the  high  temperatures  mean 
as  a  rule  that  the  water  is  comparatively  light,  and  the  low  that  it 
is  comparatively  heavy.  Now,  the  effect  of  the  earth's  rotation  in 
the  southern  hemisphere  is  that  the  light  (warm)  water  from  above 
is  forced  somewhat  down  on  the  left-hand  side  of  the  current,  and 
that  the  heavy  (cold)  water  from  below  is  raised  somewhat.  In 
the  northern  hemisphere  the  contrary  is  the  case.  This  explains 
the  cold  water  at  a  depth  of  400  metres  on  the  Equator;  it  also 
explains  the  fact  that  the  water  immediately  off  the  coasts  of 
Africa  and  South  America  is  considerably  colder  than  farther  out 
in  the  ocean.  We  now  have  data  for  studying  the  relation  be- 
tween the  currents  and  the  distribution  of  warmth  in  the  volumes 
of  water  in  a  way  which  affords  valuable  information  as  to  the 
movements  themselves.  The  material  collected  by  the  Fram  will 
doubtless  be  of  considerable  importance  in  this  way  when  it  has 
been  finally  worked  out. 

Below  400  metres  (218  fathoms)  the  temperature  further 
decreases  everywhere  in  the  South  Atlantic,  at  first  rapidly  to  a 
depth  between  500  and  1,000  metres  (272 '5  and  545  fathoms), 
afterwards  very  slowly.  It  is  possible,  however,  that  at  the 
greatest  depths  it  rises  a  little  again,  but  this  will  only  be  a 
question  of  hundredths,  or,  in  any  case,  very  few  tenths  of  a 
degree. 

It  is  known  from  previous  investigations  in  the  South  Atlantic, 
that  the  waters  at  the  greatest  depths,  several  thousand  metres 
below  the  surface,  have  a  temperature  of  between  0°  and  3°  C. 
Along  the  whole  Atlantic,  from  the  extreme  north  (near  Iceland) 
to  the  extreme  south,  there  runs  a  ridge  about  half-way  between 
Europe  and  Africa  on  the  one  side,  and  the  two  American  conti- 
nents on  the  other.  A  little  to  the  north  of  the  Equator  there  is 
a  slight  elevation  across  the  ocean  floor  between  South  America 
and  Africa.  Farther  south  (between  lats.  25°  and  35°  S.)  another 
irregular  ridge  runs  across  between  these  continents.  We 
therefore  have  four  deep  regions  in  the  South  Atlantic,  two  on  the 


OCEANOGRAPHY  425 

west  (the  Brazilian  Deep  and  the  Argentine  Deep)  and  two  on  the 
east  (the  West  African  Deep  and  the  South  African  Deep).  Now 
it  has  been  found  that  the  "bottom  water"  in  these  great  deeps — 
the  bottom  lies  more  than  5,000  metres  (2,725  fathoms)  below  the 
surface — is  not  always  the  same.  In  the  two  western  deeps,  off 
South  America,  the  temperature  is  only  a  little  above  0°  C.  We 
find  about  the  same  temperatures  in  the  South  African  Deep,  and 
farther  eastward  in  a  belt  that  is  continued  round  the  whole  earth. 
To  the  south,  between  this  belt  and  Antarctica,  the  temperature  of 
the  great  deeps  is  much  lower,  below  0°  C.  But  in  the  West 
African  Deep  the  temperature  is  about  2°  C.  higher;  we  find  there 
the  same  temperatures  of  between  2°  and  2'5°  C.  as  are  found 
everywhere  in  the  deepest  parts  of  the  North  Atlantic.  The 
explanation  of  this  must  be  that  the  bottom  water  in  the  western 
part  of  the  South  Atlantic  comes  from  the  south,  while  in  the 
north-eastern  part  it  comes  from  the  north.  This  is  con- 
nected with  the  earth's  rotation,  which  has  a  tendency  to  deflect 
currents  to  the  left  in  the  southern  hemisphere.  The  bottom 
water  coming  from  the  south  goes  to  the  left — that  is,  to  the 
South  American  side;  that  which  comes  from  the  north  also  goes 
to  the  left — that  is,  to  the  African  side. 

The  salinity  also  decreases  from  the  surface  downward  to 
600  to  800  metres  (about  300  to  400  fathoms),  where  it  is  only 
a  little  over  34  per  mille,  but  under  34 '5  per  mille;  lower  down  it 
rises  to  about  34 '7  per  mille  in  the  bottom  water  that  comes  from 
the  south,  and  to  about  34 '9  per  mille  in  that  which  comes  from 
the  North  Atlantic. 

We  mentioned  that  the  Benguela  Current  is  colder  and  less  salt 
at  the  surface  than  the  Brazil  Current.  The  same  thing  is 
found  in  those  parts  of  the  currents  that  lie  below  the  surface. 
This  is  clearly  shown  in  Fig.  9,  which  gives  the  distribution  of 
temperature  at  Station  32  in  the  Benguela  Current,  and  at 
Station  60  in  the  Brazil  Current;  at  the  various  depths  down 
to  500  metres  (272'5  fathoms)  it  was  between  5°  and  7°  C.  colder 

VOL.  II.  53 


426 


APPENDIX  V 


in  the  former  than  in  the  latter.  Deeper  down  the  difference 
becomes  less,  and  at  1,000  metres  (545  fathoms)  there  was  only  a 
difference  of  one  or  two  tenths  of  a  degree. 

Fig.    10    shows    a    corresponding   difference    in    salinities;     in 
the  first  200  metres   below  the  surface  the  water  was  about 


l/   * 

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Fig.  9. — Temperatures  at  Station  32  (in  the  Benguela  Current, 

July  22,  1911),  and  at  Station  60  (in  the  Brazil 

Current,  August  19,  1911). 


1  per  mille  more  saline  in  the  Brazil  Current  than  in  the 
Benguela  Current.  Both  these  currents  are  confined  to  the  upper 
waters;  the  former  probably  goes  down  to  a  depth  of  about 
1,000  metres  (545  fathoms),  while  the  latter  does  not  reach  a  depth 
of  much  more  than  500  metres.     Below  the  two  currents  the 


OCEANOGRAPHY 


427 


conditions  are  fairly  homogeneous,  and  there  is  no  difference  worth 
mentioning  in  the  salinities. 

The  conditions  between  the  surface  and  a  depth  of  1,000  metres 
along  the  two  main  lines  of  course  are  clearly  shown  in  the  two 
sections  (Figs.  11  and  12) .  In  these  the  isotherms  for  every  second 
degree  are  drawn  in  broken  lines.  Lines  connecting  points  with 
the  same  salinity  (isohalins)  are  drawn  unbroken,  and,  in  addition, 
salinities  above  35  per  mille  are  shown  by  shadmg.  Above  is  a 
series  of  figures,  giving  the  numbers  of  the  stations.    To  understand 


Fig.  10. — Salinities  at  Station  32  (in  the  Benguela  Current, 

July  22,  1911),  and  at  Station  60  (in  the  Brazil 

Current,  August  19,  1911). 

the  sections  rightly  it  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  vertical  scale 
is  2,000  times  greater  than  the  horizontal. 

Many  of  the  conditions  we  have  already  mentioned  are  clearly 
apparent  in  the  sections:  the  small  variations  between  the  surface 
and  a  depth  of  about  100  metres  at  each  station;  the  decrease  of 
temperature  and  salinity  as  the  depth  increases;  the  high  values 
both  of  temperature  and  salinity  in  the  western  part  as  compared 
with  the  eastern.  We  see  from  the  sections  how  nearly  the 
isotherms    and  isohalins    follow  each    other.     Thus,   where   the 


428  APPENDIX  V 

temperature  is  12°  C,  the  water  almost  invariably  has  a  salinity 
very  near  35  per  mille.  This  water  at  12°  C,  with  a  salinity  of 
35  per  mille,  is  found  in  the  western  part  of  the  area  (in  the 
Brazil  Current)  at  a  depth  of  500  to  600  metres,  but  in  the 
eastern  part  (in  the  Benguela  Current)  no  deeper  than  200  to  250 
metres  (109  to  136  fathoms). 

We  see  further  in  both  sections,  and  especially  in  the  southern 
one,  that  the  isotherms  and  isohalins  often  have  an  undulating 
course,  since  the  conditions  at  one  station  may  be  different  from 
those  at  the  neighbouring  stations.  To  point  to  one  or  two 
examples:  at  Station  19  the  water  a  few  hundred  metres  dowTi 
was  comparatively  warm;  it  was,  for  instance,  12°  C.  at  about 
470  metres  (256  fathoms)  at  this  station;  while  the  same  tempera- 
ture was  found  at  about  340  metres  (185  fathoms)  at  both  the 
neighbouring  stations,  18  and  20.  At  Station  2  it  was  relatively 
cold,  as  cold  as  it  was  a  few  hundred  metres  deeper  down  at 
Stations  1  and  3. 

These  undulating  curves  of  the  isotherms  and  isohalins  are 
familiar  to  us  in  the  Norwegian  Sea,  where  they  have  been  shown 
in  most  sections  taken  in  recent  years.  They  may  be  explained  in 
more  than  one  way.  They  may  be  due  to  actual  waves,  which  are 
transmitted  through  the  central  waters  of  the  sea.  Many  things 
go  to  show  that  such  waves  may  actually  occur  far  below  the 
surface,  in  which  case  they  must  attain  great  dimensions;  they 
must,  indeed,  be  more  than  100  metres  high  at  times,  and  yet- 
fortunately — they  are  not  felt  on  the  surface.  In  the  Norwegian 
Sea  we  have  frequently  found  these  wave-like  rises  and  falls.  Or 
the  curves  may  be  due  to  differences  in  the  rapidity  and  direction 
of  the  currents.  Here  the  earth's  rotation  comes  into  play,  since, 
as  mentioned  above,  it  causes  zones  of  water  to  be  depressed  on  one 
side  and  raised  on  the  other;  and  the  degree  of  force  with  which 
this  takes  place  is  dependent  on  the  rapidity  of  the  current  and  on 
the  geographical  latitude.  The  effect  is  slight  in  the  tropics,  but 
^reat  in  high  latitudes.     This,  so  far  as  it  goes,  agrees  with  the 


OCEANOGRAPHY 


429 


430  APPENDIX  V 

fact  that  the  curves  of  the  isotherms  and  isohalins  are  more 
marked  in  the  more  southerly  of  our  two  sections  than  in  the 
more  northerly  one,  which  lies  10  or  15  degrees  nearer  the 
Equator. 

But  the  probability  is  that  the  curves  are  due  to  the  formation 
of  eddies  in  the  currents.  In  an  eddy  the  light  and  w^arm  water 
will  be  depressed  to  greater  depths  if  the  eddy  goes  contrary  to  the 
hands  of  a  clock  and  is  situated  in  the  southern  hemisphere.  We 
appear  to  have  such  an  eddy  around  Station  19,  for  example. 
Around  Station  2  an  eddy  appears  to  be  going  the  other  way; 
that  is,  the  same  way  as  the  hands  of  a  clock.  On  the  chart 
of  currents  we  have  indicated  some  of  these  eddies  from  the  obser- 
vations of  the  distribution  of  salinity  and  temperature  made  by  the 
Fram  Expedition. 

While  this,  then,  is  the  probable  explanation  of  the  irregularities 
shown  by  the  lines  of  the  sections,  it  is  not  impossible  that  they 
may  be  due  to  other  conditions,  such  as,  for  instance,  the  submarine 
waves  alluded  to  above.  Another  possibility  is  that  they  may  be  a 
consequence  of  variations  in  the  rapidity  of  the  current,  produced, 
for  instance,  by  wind.  The  periodical  variations  caused  by  the 
tides  will  hardly  be  an  adequate  explanation  of  what  happens 
here,  although  during  Murray  and  Hjort's  Atlantic  Expedition  in 
the  Michael  Sars  (in  1910),  and  recently  during  Nansen's  voyage 
to  the  Arctic  Ocean  in  the  Veslemoy  (in  1912),  the  existence  of 
tidal  currents  in  the  open  ocean  was  proved.  It  may  be  hoped 
that  the  further  examination  of  the  Fram  material  will  make  these 
matters  clearer.  But  however  this  may  be,  it  is  interesting  to 
establish  the  fact  that  in  so  great  and  deep  an  ocean  as  the  South 
Atlantic  very  considerable  variations  of  this  kind  may  occur 
between  points  which  he  near  together  and  in  the  same  current. 

As  we  have  already  mentioned  in  passing,  the  observations  show 
that  the  same  temperatures  and  salinities  as  are  found  at  the 
surface  are  continued  downward  almost  unchanged  to  a  depth 
of   between    75    and    150    metres;     on    an    average   it   is  about 


OCEANOGRAPHY  431 

100  metres.  This  is  a  typical  winter  condition,  and  is  due 
to  the  vertical  circulation  already  mentioned,  which  is  caused  by 
the  surface  water  being  cooled  in  winter,  thus  becoming  heavier 
than  the  water  below,  so  that  it  must  sink  and  give  place  to  lighter 
water  which  rises.  In  this  way  the  upper  zones  of  water  become 
mixed,  and  acquire  almost  equal  temperatures  and  salinities.  It 
thus  appears  that  the  vertical  currents  reached  a  depth  of  about 
100  metres  in  July,  1911,  in  the  central  part  of  the  South  Atlantic. 
This  cooling  of  the  water  is  a  gain  to  the  air,  and  what  happens 
is  that  not  only  the  surface  gives  off  warmth  to  the  air,  but  also  the 
sub-surface  waters,  to  as  great  a  depth  as  is  reached  by  the  vertical 
circulation.     This  makes  it  a  question  of  enormous  values. 

This  state  of  things  is  clearly  apparent  in  the  sections,  where 
the  isotherms  and  isohalins  run  vertically  for  some  way  below  the 
surface.  It  is  also  clearly  seen  when  we  draw  the  curves  of  dis- 
tribution of  salinity  and  temperature  at  the  different  stations,  as 
we  have  done  in  the  two  diagrams  for  Stations  32  and  60  (Fig.  9). 
The  temperatures  had  fallen  several  degrees  at  the  surface  at  the 
time  the  FrarrCs  investigations  were  made.  And  if  we  are  to 
judge  from  the  general  appearance  of  the  station  curves,  and  from 
the  form  they  usually  assume  in  summer  in  these  regions,  we  shall 
arrive  at  the  conclusion  that  the  whole  volume  of  water  from  the 
surface  down  to  a  depth  of  100  metres  must  be  cooled  on  an 
average  about  2°  C. 

As  already  pointed  out,  a  simple  calculation  gives  the  following: 
if  a  cubic  metre  of  water  is  cooled  1  C,  and  the  whole  quantity 
of  warmth  thus  taken  from  the  water  is  given  to  the  air,  it  will 
be  sufl&cient  to  warm  more  than  3,000  cubic  metres  of  air  1°  C. 
A  few  figures  will  give  an  impression  of  what  this  means.  The 
region  lying  between  lats.  15°  and  35°  S.  and  between  South 
America  and  Africa — roughly  speaking,  the  region  investigated 
by  the  Fram  Expedition — has  an  area  of  13,000,000  square  kilo- 
metres. We  may  now  assume  that  this  part  of  the  ocean  gave  off 
so  much  warmth  to  the  air  that  a  zone  of  water  100  metres  in 


432  APPENDIX  V 

depth  was  thereby  cooled  on  an  average  2°  C.  This  zone  of 
water  weighs  about  1'5  trillion  kilogrammes,  and  the  quantity  of 
warmth  given  off  thus  corresponds  to  about  2 '5  trillion  great 
calories. 

It  has  been  calculated  that  the  whole  atmosphere  of  the  earth 
weighs  5*27  trillion  kilogrammes,  and  it  will  require  something 
over  1  trilhon  great  calories  to  warm  the  whole  of  this  mass  of 
air  1  C.  From  this  it  follows  that  the  quantity  of  warmth 
which,  according  to  our  calculation,  is  given  off  to  the  air  from 
that  part  of  the  South  Atlantic  lying  between  lats.  15°  and  35°  S., 
will  be  sufficient  to  warm  the  whole  atmosphere  of  the  earth 
about  2°  C,  and  this  is  only  a  comparatively  small  part  of  the 
ocean.  These  figures  give  one  a  powerful  impression  of  the 
important  part  played  by  the  sea  in  relation  to  the  air.  The  sea 
stores  up  warmth  when  it  absorbs  the  rays  of  the  sun;  it  gives  off 
warmth  again  when  the  cold  season  comes.  We  may  compare 
it  with  earthenware  stoves,  which  continue  to  warm  our  rooms  long 
after  the  fire  in  them  has  gone  out.  In  a  similar  way  the  sea 
keeps  the  earth  warm  long  after  summer  has  gone  and  the  sun's 
rays  have  lost  their  power. 

Now  it  is  a  familiar  fact  that  the  average  temperature  of  the  air 
for  the  whole  year  is  a  little  lower  than  that  of  the  sea;  in  winter 
it  is,  as  a  rule,  considerably  lower.  The  sea  endeavours  to  raise 
the  temperature  of  the  air;  therefore,  the  warmer  the  sea  is,  the 
higher  the  temperature  of  the  air  will  rise.  It  is  not  surprising, 
then,  that  after  several  years'  investigations  in  the  Norwegian  Sea 
we  have  found  that  the  winter  in  Northern  Europe  is  milder  than 
usual  when  the  water  of  the  Norwegian  Sea  contains  more  than 
the  average  amount  of  warmth.  This  is  perfectly  natural.  But 
we  ought  now  to  be  able  to  go  a  step  farther  and  say  beforehand 
whether  the  winter  air  will  be  warmer  or  colder  than  the  normal 
after  determining  the  amount  of  warmth  in  the  sea. 

It  has  thus  been  shown  that  the  amount  of  warmth  in  that  part 
of  the  ocean  which  we  call  the  Norwegian  Sea  varies  from  year  to 


OCEANOGRAPHY 


433 


year.  It  was  shown  by  the  Atlantic  Expedition  of  the  Michael 
Sars  in  1910  that  the  central  part  of  the  North  Atlantic  was  con- 
siderably colder  in  1910  than  in  1873,  when  the  Challenger  Expedi- 
tion made  investigations  there;    but  the  temperatures  in  1910 


9k 

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Fig.  13. — Temperatures  at  One  of  the  "Fram's"  and  One  op  the 
"Challenger's"  Stations,  to  the  South  of  the 
South  Equatorial  Current. 


were  about  the  same  as  those  of  1876,  when  the  Challenger  was  on 
her  way  back  to  England. 

We  can  now  make  similar  comparisons  as  regards  the  South 
Atlantic.  In  1876  the  Challenger  took  a  number  of  stations 
in  about  the  same  region  as  was  investigated  by  the  Fram.  The 
Challenger's  Station  339  at  the  end  of  March,  1876,  lies  near  the 


434  APPENDIX  V 

point  where  the  Frarris  Station  44  was  taken  at  the  beginning 
of  August,  1911.  Both  these  stations  lay  in  about  lat.  17'5°  S., 
approximately  half-way  between  Africa  and  South  America — that 
is,  in  the  region  where  a  relatively  slack  current  runs  westward, 
to  the  south  of  the  South  Equatorial  Current.  We  can  note  the 
difference  in  Fig.  13,  which  shows  the  distribution  of  temperature 
at  the  two  stations.  The  Challenger'' s  station  was  taken  during 
the  autumn  and  the  Frarris  during  the  winter.  It  was  therefore 
over  3°  C.  warmer  at  the  surface  in  March,  1876,  than  in  August, 
1911.  The  curve  for  the  Challenger  station  shows  the  usual  dis- 
tribution of  temperature  immediately  below  the  surface  in  summer; 
the  temperature  falls  constantly  from  the  surface  downward.  At 
the  Frarris  station  we  see  the  typical  winter  conditions;  we 
there  find  the  same  temperature  from  the  surface  to  a  depth  of 
100  metres,  on  account  of  cooling  and  vertical  circulation.  In 
summer,  at  the  beginning  of  the  year  1911,  the  temperature  curve 
for  the  Frames  station  would  have  taken  about  the  same  form 
as  the  other  curve;  but  it  would  have  shown  higher  temperatures, 
as  it  does  in  the  deeper  zones,  from  100  metres  down  to  about 
500  metres.  For  we  see  that  in  these  zones  it  was  throughout 
1°  C.  or  so  warmer  in  1911  than  in  1876;  that  is  to  say,  there 
was  a  much  greater  store  of  warmth  in  this  part  of  the  ocean 
in  1911  than  in  1876.  May  not  the  result  of  this  have  been  that 
the  air  in  this  region,  and  also  in  the  east  of  South  America  and 
the  west  of  Africa,  was  warmer  during  the  winter  of  1911  than 
during  that  of  1876?  We  have  not  sufficient  data  to  be  able 
to  say  with  certainty  whether  this  difference  in  the  amount  of 
warmth  in  the  two  years  applied  generally  to  the  whole  ocean, 
or  only  to  that  part  which  surrounds  the  position  of  the  station; 
but  if  it  was  general,  we  ought  probably  to  be  able  to  find  a 
corresponding  difference  in  the  climate  of  the  neighbouring 
regions.  Between  500  and  800  metres  (272  and  436  fathoms) 
the  temperatures  were  exactly  the  same  in  both  years,  and  at 
900  and  1,000  metres  (490  and  545  fathoms)  there  was  only  a 


OCEANOGRAPHY 


435 


difference  of  two  or  three  tenths  of  a  degree.  In  these  deeper 
parts  of  the  ocean  the  conditions  are  probably  very  similar;  we 
have  there  no  variations  worth  mentioning,  because  the  warming 
of  the  surface  and  sub-surface  waters  by  the  sun  has  no  effect 
there,  unless,  indeed,  the  currents  at  these  depths  may  vary  so 


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Fig.  14. — Temperatubes  at  One  op  the  "Fham's"  and  One  op  the 
"Valdivia's"  Stations,  in  the  Benguela  Current. 


much  that  there  may  be  a  warm  current  one  year  and  a  cold  one 
another  year.  But  this  is  improbable  out  in  the  middle  of  the 
ocean. 

In  the  neighbourhood  of  the  African  coast,  on  the  other  hand,  it 
looks  as  if  there  may  be  considerable  variations  even  in  the  deeper 
zones  below  500  metres   (272  fathoms).      During  the   Valdivia 


436  APPENDIX  V 

Expedition  in  1898  a  station  (No.  82)  was  taken  in  the  Benguela 
Current  in  the  middle  oi  October,  not  far  from  the  point  at  which 
the  Pram's  Station  31  lay.  The  temperature  curves  from  here 
show  that  it  was  much  warmer  (over  1*5°  C.)  in  1898  than  in  1911 
in  the  zones  between  500  and  800  metres  (272  and  436  fathoms). 
Probably  the  currents  may  vary  considerably  here.  But  in  the 
upper  waters  of  the  Benguela  Current  itself,  from  the  surface  down 
to  150  metres,  it  was  considerably  warmer  in  1911  than  in  1898; 
this  difiference  corresponds  to  that  which  we  found  in  the  previous 
comparison  of  the  Challenger^ s  and  Frames  stations  of  1876  and 
1911.  Between  200  and  400  metres  (109  and  218  fathoms)  there 
was  no  difference  between  1898  and  1911;  nor  was  there  at  1,000 
metres  (545  fathoms). 

In  1906  some  investigations  of  the  eastern  part  of  the  South 
Atlantic  were  conducted  by  the  Planet.  In  the  middle  of  March  a 
station  was  taken  (No.  25)  not  far  from  St.  Helena  and  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  Pram's  Station  39,  at  the  end  of  July,  1911. 
Here,  also,  we  find  great  variations;  it  was  much  warmer  in  1911 
than  in  1906,  apart  from  the  winter  cooling  by  vertical  circulation 
of  the  sub-surface  waters.  At  a  depth  of  only  100  metres  (54 '5 
fathoms)  it  was  2°  C.  warmer  in  1911  than  in  1906;  at  400  metres 
(218  fathoms)  the  difference  was  over  1°,  and  even  at  800  metres 
(436  fathoms)  it  was  about  0'75°  C.  warmer  in  1911  than  in  1906. 
At  1,000  metres  (545  fathoms)  the  difference  was  only  0'3°. 

From  the  Planet's  station  we  also  have  problems  of  salinity, 
determined  by  modern  methods.  It  appears  that  the  salinities  at 
the  Planet  station,  in  any  case  to  a  depth  of  400  metres,  were 
lower,  and  in  part  much  lower,  than  those  of  the  Pram  Expedition. 
At  100  metres  the  difference  was  even  greater  than  0  5  per  mille; 
this  is  a  great  deal  in  the  same  region  of  open  sea.  Now,  it  must 
be  remembered  that  the  current  in  the  neighbourhood  of  St.  Helena 
may  be  regarded  as  a  continuation  of  the  Benguela  Current,  which 
comes  from  the  south  and  has  relatively  low  salinities.  It  looks, 
therefore,  as  if  there  were  yearly  variations  of  salinity  in  these 


OCEANOGRAPHY 


437 


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^ 

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ac 

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9K 

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FRAMStano. 

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lO'Xs .  fSSH'.  ggwmt 

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Fig.  15— Temperatures  at  the  "Planet's"  Station  25,  and  the 
"Fram's"  Station  39 — both  in  the  Neighbourhood  op 

St.  Helena. 


Fig.  16.— Salinities  at  the  "Planet's"  Station  25  (Mabch  19,  1906), 
AND  the  "Fram's"  Station  39  (July  29,  1911). 


438  APPENDIX  V 

regions.  This  may  either  be  due  to  corresponding  variations  in  the 
Benguela  Current — partly  because  the  relation  between  precipita- 
tion and  evaporation  may  vary  in  different  years,  and  partly 
because  there  may  be  variations  in  the  acquisition  of  less  saline 
water  from  the  Antarctic  Ocean.  Or  it  may  be  due  to  the 
Benguela  Current  in  the  neighbourhood  of  St.  Helena  having 
a  larger  admixture  of  the  warm  and  salt  water  to  the  west  of  it  in 
one  year  than  in  another.  In  either  case  we  may  expect  a  rela- 
tively low  salinity  (as  in  1906  as  compared  with  1911)  to  be 
accompanied  by  a  relatively  low  temperature,  such  as  we  have 
found  by  a  comparison  of  the  Planet's  observations  with  those  of 
the  Fram. 

We  require  a  larger  and  more  complete  material  for  comparison; 
but  even  that  which  is  here  referred  to  shows  that  there  may  be 
considerable  yearly  variations  both  in  the  important,  relatively 
cold  Benguela  Current,  and  in  the  currents  in  other  parts  of  the 
South  Atlantic.  It  is  a  substantial  result  of  the  observations 
made  on  the  Fram's  voyage  that  they  give  us  an  idea  of  great 
annual  variations  in  so  important  a  region  as  the  South  Atlantic 
Ocean.  When  the  whole  material  has  been  further  examined 
it  will  be  seen  whether  it  may  also  contribute  to  an  understanding 
of  the  climatic  conditions  of  the  nearest  countries,  where  there 
is  a  large  population,  and  where,  in  consequence,  a  more  accurate 
knowledge  of  the  variations  of  climate  will  have  more  than  a  mere 
scientific  interest. 


CopiTiiiht  JSIZ  RotUil  Amundset 


INDEX 


Adams,    companion    of    Shackleton 

(October,  1908),  i.  39 
Adare,  Cape,  ii.  190 
Adelaide  Island,  discovered  in  1830, 

i.  8 
Adelie  Land,  discovered  in  1840,  i.  9 
Adelie  penguins,  i.  176 
Adie   standard    barometers,    ii.    376 

(Appendix) 
Air:  temperatm'e  and  thermometers, 

ii.  377   (Appendix);    humidity  of 

the,  ii.  378 
Albatross,  ii.  302,  333,  338 
Alcohol,  use  of,  i.  69 
Alexandra  Mountains,  ii.  240,  246 
Andersson,     Dr.     Gunnar,     of     the 

Swedish  expedition,  i.  33;  ii.  249 
Antarctic  Circle,  i.  164;  ii.  302 
Antarctic  discovery,  historical  outhne 

of,  i.  3  et  seq. 
Antarctic,   expedition  of  the,   under 

Nordenskjold  (1901),  i.  32  et  seq. 
"Antarctica,"  discovered  by  Captain 

Kristensen  (1895),  i.  18 
Apparatus  for  taking  water  tempera- 
tures, ii.  318  et  seq.,  407 
Archer,  Colin,  builder  of  the  Fram, 

ii.  356  (Appendix) 
Argtoweki,  Henryk,  geologist  of  the 

Belgian  expedition,  i.  19 
Armitage,    Lieutenant,    of   the    Dis- 
covery expedition,  i.  26 
Arrival  at  the  South  Pole,   ii.   121 

et  seq. 
Astronomical  observations,  report  on, 

ii.  399  et  seq.  (Appendix) 
Aurora  (Dr.  Mawson's  ship),  i.  202; 

ii.  352 
Aurora   austrahs,    i.   254,    283,    347; 

ii.  339,  353,  383  (Appendix) 


Avalanches,  ii.  58,  157 
Axel  Heiberg  Glacier,  ii.  47,  53,  156, 
157 

Balleny  Islands,  discovered  by  John 
BaUeny  (1830),  i.  8;  ii.  191 

Balloon  Bight,  ii.  287 

Barne,  Mr.,  of  the  Discovery  expedi- 
tion, i.  26 

Barometers:  lowest  reading  recorded, 
ii.  313;  outfit  of,  ii.  373  et  seq. 
(Appendix) 

Barrier:  the  great  Antarctic  or  Ross, 
i.  14,  25,  48,  49,  259,  ii.  287;  the 
Fram  reaches  (January  13,  1911), 
i.  167,  ii.  287;  landing  at,  i.  171; 
ascent  of,  i.  208,  214;  the  house 
on  the,  i.  287;  weather  conditions 
on,  i.  346;  its  soUd  foundation, 
i.  347;  return  to,  ii.  159;  the 
Eastern  expedition  crosses  the, 
ii.  217;  sea  edge  of  the,  ii.  232,  265; 
Prestrud's  description  of,  ii.  298 

Bay  of  Biscay,  i.  114 

Bay  of  Whales.     See  Whales 

Beacons:  erection  of,  ii.  22,  25,  75; 
value  of,  ii.  85,  134,  137 

Beard-cUpping,  ii.  101 

Beardmore  Glacier,  i.  39;  ii.  29 

Beck:  one  of  the  sea  party,  i.  179; 
on  the  Buenos  Aires  trip,  ii. 
293 

Belgian  expedition,  the,  i.  18  et 
seq. 

Belgica :  leaves  Antwerp  (1897), 
i.  18;  results  of  her  voyage,  i.  20; 
is  caught  in  the  ice,  i.  21;  suffer- 
ings of  the  crew,  i.  23;  reaches 
Straits  of  Magellan  (March,  1899), 
i.  25 


439 


440 


INDEX 


von  Bellingshausen  (explorer)  dis- 
covers land  south  of  Antarctic 
Circle,  i.  8 

Benguela  Current,  investigations  of 
the,  ii.  417  et  seq.  (Appendix) 

Bemacchi,  physicist  of  the  Discovery 
expedition,  i.  26 

Betty,  Mount.    See  Mount 

Binoculars,  i.  87,  246 

Biscoe,  John,  discovers  Enderby 
Land  and  Graham  Land,  i.  8 

Biscoe  Bay,  ii.  247 

Biscoe  Island  discovered  (1830),  i.  8 

Biscuits,  i.  88;  ii.  36 

Bjaaland,  Olav:  ski-maker,  i.  137, 
138;  one  of  the  land  party,  i.  179; 
left  at  Framheim,  i.  206;  his 
underground  workshop,  i.  312; 
constructs  a  vapour  -  bath,  i.  330 
et  seq.;  builds  four  new  sledges, 
i.  349;  one  of  the  Pole  party,  ii.  20; 
the  excellence  of  his  sledges,  ii.  92; 
his  reliability  as  "forerunner," 
ii.  166 

Blankets,  i.  63,  67 

Bhgh's  Cap  (Kerguelen),  i.  156 

Blizzard:  of  November  26,  1911, 
ii.  69  et  seq.;  of  December  2,  ii.  97 

Blom,  Captain  Christian,  i.  95;  his 
account  of  the  construction  of  the 
Fram,  ii.  356  et  seq.  (Appendix) 

Boots,  i.  65,  351,  369,  429;  for  ski- 
ing, i.  83,  84,  170,  225 

Borchgrevink,  Carstens,  leader  of  the 
Southern  Cross  expedition  (1899), 
i.  25 

Bouvet  (explorer),  i.  5 

Bouvet  Island,  i.  26 

Brakes  for  sledges,  ii.  45 

Brazil  Current,  investigations  of  the, 
ii.  417  et  seq.  (Appendix) 

Breakfast  at  lYamheim,  i.  290 
et  seq. 

Bruce,  Dr.  William:  his  first  ex- 
ploration to  the  South  Shctlands 
in  the  Balcena  (1892),  i.  17;  with 
Mr.  Andrew  Coats  in  Spitzbergen, 
i.  35;  sails  in  the  Scotia  to  the 
South  Orkneys,  i.  35;  discovers 
Coats  Land,  i.  35 


Buenos  Aires:  arrival  of  the  Fram 
at,  ii.  315;  street  accident  in, 
ii.  322;  departure  from  (June  8, 
1911),  ii.  316;  return  to  (Septem- 
ber 1, 1911),  ii.  328;  want  of  money 
at,  ii.  329;  second  departure  from 
(October  5,  1911),  ii.  331;  last 
arrival  at  (May,  1912),  ii.  354 

Buntline,  use  of  (on  a  sail),  ii.  309 
(note) 

Burberry  windproof  clothing,  i.  81; 
ii.  220 

"Butcher's  Shop,"  the,  ii.  63,  150 
et  seq. 

Cabins,  fitting  of,  i.  66 

Cabral  (explorer),  i.  4 

Cameras,  i.  88 

Campbell,  Lieutenant,  of  the  Terra 

Nova,  i.  204;  ii.  294 
Canary,  "Fridtjof,"  the,  i.  61;  ii.  312 
Cape  Adare,  ii.  190 
Cape  Colbect,  ii.  239 
Cape  Horn:  in  calm  weather,  ii.  315; 

snowstorm  off,  ii.  354 
Cape  Hudson,  i.  29 
Cape  Man's  Head,  ii.  183,  289 
Carmen  Land,  ii.  171 
Carpenter's  shop,  i.  272 
Cases  of  provisions,  landing  the  (at 

Framheim),  ii.  291 
Challenger  expedition,  the,  i.  16;  ii.  433 
Charcot,    Dr.    Jean,    discovers    the 

Loubet,     FaUieres,    and    Charcot 

Lands,  i.  35 
Chocolate,  i.  89;  ii.  36 
Christmas  Day  in  the  Fram  (1910), 

i.  159  et  seq.;  at  88°  S.,  i.  533;  at 

Framheim,  ii.  264;    (1911)  at  sea, 

ii.  339 
Christophersen,   Moimt  Don  Pedro. 

See  under  Don 
Christophersen,  Don  Pedro,  ii.  329, 

330,  354 
Chun,  Professor  (of  Leipzig),  and  the 

Valdivia  expedition,  i.  26 
Cigars,  i.  70,  98;  at  the  Pole,  ii.  132 
Cinematograph,  ii.  2 
Clothing:    Polar,  i.  61,  365,  ii.  220; 

boots,  i.  65,  83;    sealskin,  i.  66; 


INDEX 


441 


reindeer-skin,  i.  78,  79,  209,  365; 

Burberry  windproof,  i.  81,  ii.  220; 

mits  and  gloves,  i.  82;  on  the  first 

trip,    i.    217;     stockings,    i.    357; 

carried  in  sledges,  ii.  19 
Clothing  store   constructed,   i.   277, 

350;  ii.  37,  102,  220,  265 
Colbeck,  Cape,  ii.  239 
Compasses,  i.  86,  87,  245 
Cook,    Captain   James,    crosses   the 

Antarctic  Circle  (1773),  i.  7 
Cook,    Frederick    A.,    of    Brooklyn: 

surgeon  of  the  Belgian  expedition, 

i.  19;  his  good  work,  i.  23,  24 
Cooking  apparatus,  i.  85,  191 
"Crab-eater"  seals,  ii.  276 
Crevasses.     See  Fissures 
Crozet  Islands,  ii.  336 
Cyclones,  ii.  313 

Dallmann,  Captain  Eduard,  and  the 

Gronland,  i.  16 
Danco,    Lieutenant    Emile,    of    the 

Belgian  expedition,  i.  19,  22 
David,  Professor,  reaches  the  South 
Magnetic  Pole  in  Shackleton's  ex- 
pedition, i.  40 

Depots:  erection  of  the  first,  i.  219; 
fixing  its  position  80°  S.,  i.  230,  231, 
ii.  173;  the  second  (in  81°  S.), 
i.  233,  ii.  172;  the  third  (in  82°  S.), 
i.  239;  last  depot  journey  starts 
(March  31),  i.  254;  list  of  pro- 
visions in  the  three  depots,  i.  258; 
state  of  the  depot  82°  S.  m  October, 
ii.  127,  169;  the  fourth  (83°  S.) 
constructed,  ii.  129,  167;  the  fifth 
(84°  S.),  ii.  131;  the  sixth  (85°  S.), 
ii.  33,  162;  the  seventh  (86°  21'  S.), 
u.  79,  81;  the  last  (88°  25'  S.), 
u.  115 

Detdschland,    the    (German    expedi- 
tion), ii.  353 

Devil's  BaUroom,  the,  ii.  103,  145 

Devil's  Glacier,  the,  ii.  84,  94,  145 

Diaz,  Bartholomew,  i.  4 

Diesel  engine  of  the  Fram,  ii.  370 
(Appendix) 

Discovery:      expedition     sails     from 
Cowes  imder  Captain  Robert  Scott, 

VOL.   II. 


August,  1901,  i.  26;  discovers  King 
Edward  VII.  Land  and  winters  in 
McMurdo  Bay,  i.  27;  results  of 
sledge  expeditions,  i.  28;  the  relief 
ship  Morning  brings  orders,  i.  29; 
return  home  of  the  Discovery 
(September,  1904),  i.  29 
Dobrowolski,  Antoine,  meteorologist 

of  the  Belgian  expedition,  i.  19 
Dog  cutlets,  ii.  57,  64,  65,  69 
Dog-drivers,    advantage    of    experi- 
enced, i.  50 
Dog-harness.    See  Harness 
Dogs:  food  for,  i.  56;  obtained  from 
Greenland,    i.    56;     preferable    to 
Manchurian  ponies,  i.  57  et  seq.; 
harness  for,  i.  86;  taken  on  board 
the   Fram,   i.    106;     arrangements 
for  their  comfort,   i.   108  et  seq.; 
their   food    on   board    the   Fram, 
i.   119,   120;    howling  concerts,  i, 
120,   195;    a  fitter  of  puppies,  i. 
121, 142;  in  the  heat  of  the  tropics, 
i.  142;  let  loose  on  deck,  i.  145; 
two  lost  overboard,  i.   153;    first 
start  in  harness,  i.  181,  182;  love 
their  work,  i.  187  et  seq.;   respect 
their    master,    i.    196;     Lassesen 
frost-bitten,  i.  201 ;  their  perform- 
ance on  the  first  depot  journeys, 
i.  220,  221;   sore  feet,  i.  231;   faUs 
into  fissures,  i.  235;  end  of  second 
journey,    i.   240;    death   of   Thor 
and  Lurven,  i.  242;    and  of  Ras- 
mus, i.  243;  the  "Three  Muske- 
teers," i.  244;  more  losses,  i.  248; 
Fix    and    Lassesen,    i.    252;     the 
puppies  fie  outside,  i.  254;  losses 
on  the  third  journey,  i.  257;  more 
fitters,  i.  260;    Camilla's    nursery, 
i.  262;   the  kennels  at  Framheim, 
i.  303  et  seq.;  fate  of  Else's  pup- 
pies,   i.    346;     losses    during    the 
winter,  i.  372;  their  behaviour  on 
being  put  again  to  work,   i.  374 
et  seq.;    stragglers  fetched   home, 
i.  391;   losses  on  the  start  for  the 
Pole,  u.  4,  14;  Uranus,  Jaala,  and 
Lucy  shot,  ii.  28;    a  record  run, 
u.  62;    twenty-four  dogs  shot,  ii. 

54 


442 


INDEX 


62;  the  "Butcher's  Shop,"  ii.  63; 
theu*  omnivorous  behaviour,  ii.  110; 
splendid  condition  of  Hanssen's 
team,  ii.  115;  deaths  of  Helge 
and  the  Major,  ii.  123;  of  Lasse, 
ii.  137;  of  Per,  ii.  139;  of  Svart- 
fiekken,  ii.  140;  health  of,  on  the 
return  journey,  ii.  143;  Frith j of 
has  to  be  killed,  ii.  160;  the  re- 
mains of  Jaala  and  her  puppies, 
ii.  169;  on  board  the  Fram  once 
more,  ii.  182;  seal-hunting  by,  ii. 
213,  214;  on  the  eastern  sledge 
jovu^ey,  ii.  215;  Peary  turns  up 
again,  ii.  224;  twenty-two  dogs 
given  to  Dr.  Mawson's  expedition, 
ii.  352 

Dog-tents,  i.  223,  261 

Don  Pedro  Christophersen,  Mount, 
ii.  30,  44,  48,  52,  149,  154, 156 

Dougherty  Island,  ii.  302 

Drake,  Sir  Francis,  i.  5 

Drygalski,  Professor,  of  the  German 
Gauss  expedition,  i.  29 

Dumont  d'Urville,  Admiral,  dis- 
covers Louis  Philippe  Land  and 
JoinviUe  Island  (1838),  AdeUe 
Land  (1840),  i.  9 

Eastern  sledge  journey:  Prestrud's 
account  of  the,  ii.  204;  objects  of 
the,  ii.  206;  on  the  Barrier,  ii.  217, 
230;  its  sea  edge,  ii.  232;  arrival 
at  Depot  No.  1,  ii.  225;  outfit  and 
equipment,  ii.  226;  presence  of 
petrels  and  skua  gulls,  ii.  231; 
sounding  the  bay,  ii.  234;  Queen 
Maud's  birthday  (November  26), 
ii.  236;  Alexandra  Mountains,  ii. 
246;  geological  discoveries,  ii.  249; 
a  three  days'  snowstorm,  ii.  252 
et  seq. 

Emerald  Island  wrongly  chartered, 
ii.  196 

Emperor  penguin,  the,  i.  185,  201 

"Encirchng"  the  Pole,  ii.  125  et  seq. 

Eriderby  Brothers  send  John  Biscoe 
to  the  Antarctic  Ocean  (1830),  i.  8 

Engine,  Diesel  motor,  of  the  Fram, 
i.  98;  ii.  281,  302,  370 


Equipment:  medical,  i.  71;  ammu- 
nition, i.  72;  petroleum,  i.  72; 
scientific,  i.  73;  hut  (wooden),  i. 
73;  tents,  i.  75,  77;  sledges,  i.  76; 
skis,  i.  76;  importance  of  fore- 
sight in  providing,  i.  370;  amounts 
carried  in  the  sledges,  i.  410,  411; 
of  the  eastern  sledge  party,  ii.  225, 
226 

Evensen,  Captain,  approaches  near 
Alexander  I.  Land,  i.  17 

Eyes,  soreness  of,  i.  215;  ii.  242,  261 

Farthest  South  hitherto  reached 
(88°  23')  is  passed,  ii.  114 

Feet:  effect  of  soft  and  hard  boots 
on,  i.  83;  frozen  heels,  i.  387 

Ferrar,  geologist  of  the  Discovery 
expedition,  i.  26 

Fissures:  on  the  Barrier,  i.  235,  256, 
ii.  3,  7;  on  the  dangerous  zone, 
ii.  11,  12,  23,  24,  25,  98;  the  DevU's 
BaUroom,  ii.  103,  104,  161  ;  the 
eastern  sledge  party's  experiences 
of,  ii.  210,  238 

Flag  of  Norway  unfurled  at  88°  23', 
ii.  114;  and  at  the  Pole,  ii.  122 

Flying-fish,  ii.  283 

"Foggj'  Fifties,"  the,  ii.  337 

Forerunner,  ii.  221,  227 

Fossils,  ii.  249 

Fram,  the  :  course  of  her  second 
voyage,  i.  39  ;  Lieutenant  Nilsen 
her  commander,  i.  45,  207  ;  plan 
of  campaign  for  third  voyage,  i.  46; 
cabin  fiu-niture,  i.  66  ;  hbrary  and 
games,  i.  68  ;  loading  the  cargo, 
i.  90  ;  leaves  Christiania  for  Bimde- 
fjord  (June  3,  1910),  i.  92  ;  takes 
in  ammunition  at  Horten  (June  7), 
i.  94  ;  her  sailing  quahties,  i.  96 
et  seq.,  ii.  335  ;  return  to  Bergen 
to  repair  the  motor,  i.  98,  ii.  281  ; 
takes  in  the  Eskimo  dogs,  i.  100, 
106,  ii.  281  ;  final  departure  from 
Christiansand  (August  9,  1910), 
ii.  281  ;  anchors  in  the  Do^^'n9  off 
Deal,  i.  112  ;  in  the  Bay  of  Biscay, 
i.  114  ;  washing  decks,  i.  116  ; 
arrival  at  Madeira  (September  5, 


INDEX 


443 


1910),  i.  125,  ii.  282  ;  state  of  her 
hull,  i.  139  ;  her  rigging,  i.  140  ; 
crossing  the  Une,  i.  148,  ii.  284  ;  in 
a  gale  off  the  Cape,  i.  152  ;  meals 
on  board,  i.  157  ;  Christmas  Day 
(1910),  i.  159  ;  in  the  Antarctic 
Circle,  i.  164  ;  enters  the  Ross  Sea, 
i.  166  ;  reaches  the  Great  Ice 
Barrier  (January  13,  1911),  i.  167, 
ii.  287  ;  enters  the  Bay  of  Whales, 
i.  169  ;  farewell  to,  i.  207  ;  her 
departure,  i.  220,  ii.  207;  her  return 
from  Buenos  Aires  (January  8), 
ii.  174,  267  et  seq.;  arrival  at 
Hobart,  ii.  202  et  seq.;  account  of 
her  voyage  from  Norway  to  the 
Barrier  by  Lieutenant  Nilsen,  ii.  280 
et  seq.,  and  from  the  Barrier  to 
Buenos  Aires,  ii.  294  et  seq.; 
Lieutenant  Nilsen  •  receives  his 
orders  for  her  voyage  to  Buenos 
Aires,  ii.  296  ;  her  rolling  capabili- 
ties, ii.  304  ;  her  behaviour  in  a 
hurricane,  ii.  309  et  seq.;  even 
temperature  maintained  in  her 
hold,  ii.  315  ;  repainting  of,  ii.  323  ; 
visit  to  Buenos  Aires  (June,  1911), 
ii.  315,  316,  322  ;  wear  and  tear  of 
sails,  ii.  324  ;  plague  of  rats,  ii.  326; 
return  to  Buenos  Aires  (September, 
1911),  ii.  328;  second  departure  from 
(October,  1911),  ii.  331  ;  arrival  off 
the  Barrier  (January,  1912),  ii.  344, 
346,  349  ;  final  departure  (January 
30,  1912),  ii.  350  ;  slow  progress  to 
Hobart,  ii.  352  ;  arrival  at  Buenos 
Aires  (May  23,  1912),  ii.  354 ; 
Commodore  Blom's  account  of  her 
construction,  ii.  356  et  seq.  (Ap- 
pendix) ;  Captain  Otto  Sverdrop's 
alterations  for  his  expeditions, 
ii.  362 
"Framheim,"  i.  194,  202  ;  big  addi- 
tions to,  i.  222  ;  seen  in  mirage, 
i.  247  ;  return  to  (after  second 
journey),  i.  248  ;  hfe  at,  i.  253,  283 
et  seq.;  the  workshops,  i.  309  et  seq.; 
the  library,  i.  314  ;  a  vapour-bath, 
i.  330  et  seq.;  a  feast  underground, 
i.  338  ;  dart-throwing  competition. 


i.  340;  "lights  out,"  i.  343;  arrival 

at,  on  return  journey,  ii.  173 
"Fridtjof,"  the  canary,  i.  61  ;  ii.  312 
Fridtjof  Nansen,  Mount.     See  under 

Mount 
Fridtjof  Nansen,  Professor.  See  under 

Nansen 
Frost-bite,  i.  83  ;  ii.  99 
Frost-sores,  ii.  116 

Gauss  expedition  :  leaves  Kiel 
(August,  1901),  i.  30  ;  discovers 
Kaiser  Wilhehn  II.  Land  and  the 
Gaussberg,  i.  31  ;  returns  home 
with  good  scientific  results  (1903), 
i.  31 

Geology,  ii.  249, 395  et  seq.  (Appendix) 

Gerlache,  Commander  Adrien  de, 
leads  the  Belgian  expedition  (1897), 
i.  18 

Gerritsz,  Dirk  (explorer),  i.  5 

Gjertsen,  Lieutenant,  i.  72,  103  ;  one 
of  the  sea  party,  i.  179  ;  his  return 
to  Framheim,  ii.  269,  346  ;  on  the 
Buenos  Aires  trip,  ii.  294,  315 

Glaciers,  ii.  41  et  seq.,  47  ;  the  Axel 
Heiberg,  ii.  47,  53,  56,  57,  58  ;  the 
Devil's,  ii.  84,  94,  103 

Gloves,  i.  82 

Goggles,  snow,  i.  87,  215,  362,  367  ; 
ii.  243 

de  Gonneville  (explorer),  i.  4 

Gramophone,  ii.  191 

Gulf  Stream,  investigations  of  the, 
ii.  408  et  seq.  (Appendix) 

Haakon  VII.,  King  of  Norway,  i.  2, 

66  ;  visits  the  Fram,  i.  92 
HaUey,  Astronomer  Royal,  i.  5 
Halvorsen  joins  the  Fram  at  Buenos 

Aires,  ii.  188 
Hansen,    Ludwig  :    one   of   the   sea 

party,  i.  179  ;  on  the  Buenos  Aires 

trip,  ii.  294 
Hanssen,  Helmer  :  of  the  land  party, 

i.  179,  211,  212.;    his  good  sight, 

i.  246  ;    his  work  at  Framheim,  i. 

318  ;     makes   the   whips,    i.    359  ; 

one  of  the  party  for  the  Pole,  ii.  20  ; 

over  a  crevasse,  ii.  24 


4<44 


INDEX 


Harness  for  dogs  (Alaska  v.  Green- 
land), i.  86,  185,  369 

Hassel  :  takes  charge  of  the  dogs, 
i.  101  ;  one  of  the  land  party,  i. 
179  ;  left  at  Framheim,  i.  206  ;  hia 
carpenter's  shop,  i.  310  ;  makes 
the  whip-lashes,  i.  359  ;  one  of  the 
Pole  party,  ii.  20 

Heels,  frost-bitten,  i.  387  et  seq. 

Heiberg  Glacier,  ii.  42,  48,  56,  157, 
158 

HeUand  Hansen,  Mount,  ii.  77,  142 

HeU's  Gate,  ii.  84,  86 

Helmer  Hanssen's  Mountain,  ii.  80, 
85,  87,  90,  142,  145 

Henry,  Prince  [of  Portugal],  i.  4 

"His  Majesty's  BaUroom,"  ii.  104 

Hobart  Town,  ii.  203,  352 

Hodgson,  biologist  of  the  Discovery 
expedition,  i.  26 

Holth,  Dr.,  i.  71 

Humidity  of  the  air,  ii.  378  (Appendix) 

Hunger,  accessions  of,  ii.  138 

Hurricane,  the  Fram's  behaviour 
in  a,  ii.  309  et  seq. 

Hut  (wooden),  i.  73,  74,  75,  92  ; 
foundation  for,  i.  184  ;  erection  of 
the,  i.  186,  191,  193  ;  ventilation 
of,  i.  198 

Hygrometers,  ii.  378  (Appendix) 

Icebergs":  Lieutenant  Prestrud's  ex- 
periences of,  ii.  305,  306  et  seq.; 
temperature  of  water  near,  ii.  307, 
308;  total  number  met  with,  ii.  313 

Ice-bhnk,  the,  ii.  287,  306 

Ice-pack,  the,  in  Ross  Sea,  ii.  341,  342 

Ice-tools,  i.  72 

Japanese  expedition,  i.  45  ;  ii.  184, 
271,  272,  347 

Johansen  :  one  of  the  land  party, 
i.  179,  211  ;  how  he  packs  the 
sledge  provision  cases,  i.  322  ;  on 
the  Eastern  expedition,  ii.  215 

Kainan  Maru  [Japanese]  expedition, 
i.  45  ;  ii.  184,  272,  347,  353 

Kaiser  Wilhelm  II.  Land  discovered, 
i.  31 


Kemp  (discoverer),  i.  9 

Kerguelen  Island,  ii.  337 

de  Kerguelen  -  Tremaree,  reaches 
Kerguelen  (1772),  i.  6 

King  Edward  VII.  Land  :  and  the 
Japanese  expedition,  i.  45  ;  Prest- 
rud's expedition  to,  ii.  206  et  seq., 
228,  245  ;  geology  of,  ii.  249  ; 
originally  discovered  by  Sir  James 
Ross  (1842),  ii.  297 

King  Haakon  VII. 's  Plateau  at  the 
Pole,  ii.  122 

KoettUtz,  Surgeon,  of  the  Discovery 
expedition,  i.  26 

Kristensen,  Captain  Leonard,  dis- 
covers "Antarctica"  (1895),  i.  18 

Kristensen,  H. :  appointed  reserve 
engineer  to  the  Fram,  i.  117  ;  one 
of  the  sea  party,  i.  179  ;  on  the 
Buenos  Aires  trip,  ii.  294,  305 

Kutschin:  one  of  the  sea  party,  i.  179, 
ii.  294,  315  ;  leaves  the  Fram  at 
Buenos  Aires,  ii.  188 

La  Plata  River,  ii.  315,  421 

Larsen,  Captain  C.  A. :  brings  fossils 

from  the  Antarctic  region  (1892), 

i.  17  ;  commands  the  Antarctic  in 

Nordenskj old's  expedition   (1901), 

i.  32 
Lashings  for  sledges,  i.  317,  318,  322, 

350 
Lecointe,   Lieutenant    G.,   and    the 

Belgian  expedition,  i.  18 
Library  :    on  board  the  Fram,  i.  68, 

139  ;  at  Framheim,  i.  314 
Lindstrom  :    in  charge  of  the  dogs, 

i.  102  ;  in  charge  of  cooking,  i.  153, 

197  ;  one  of  the  land  party,  i.  179, 

198  ;  improves  Framheim,  i.  248  ; 
tries  to  repair  the  thermograph, 
i.  275  ;  prepares  breakfast,  i.  290  ; 
in  charge  of  hbrary,  i.  315  ;  plays 
patience,  i.  328  ;  remains  at  Fram- 
heim, ii.  216 ;  attack  of  snow- 
bUndness,  ii.  261 

Live  stock  (pigs  and  sheep)  from 
Buenos  Aires,  ii.  332 

Longitude,  effect  on  the  date  of  pass- 
ing from  east  to  west,  ii.  298  (note) 


INDEX 


445 


Louis  Philippe  Land  discovered  (1838), 
i.  9 

Maxil  dialect,  i.  302  (and  note) 

Mackay  accompanies  Professor  David 
(Shackleton  expedition),  i.  40 

Macquarie  Islands,  wireless  installa- 
tion on,  ii.  197 

Madeira,  arrival  of  the  Fram  at, 
i.  125 

Magellan,  Ferdinand   (explorer),  i.  4 

Manhue,  Cape  (Ross  Barrier),  i.  174 

Man's  Head,  Cape,  ii.  183,  289 

Marion-Dufresne  discovers  the  Crozet 
Islands  (1772),  i.  6 

Marshall,  companion  of  Shackleton 
(October,  1908),  i.  39 

Martin  Vaz  Islands,  ii.  325 

Matches,  safety,  i.  72 

Maud,  Queen  (of  Norway),  i.  66  ; 
visits  the  Fram,  i.  92  ;  birthday 
celebration,  ii.  236 

Mawson  :  companion  of  Professor 
David  (Shackleton  expedition), 
i.  40  ;  his  observations  in  AdeUe 
Land  and  on  the  Barrier,  i.  233  ; 
wishes  to  get  dogs  for  his  Antarctic 
expedition,  ii.  181,  352  ;  installs  a 
wireless  station  on  the  Macquarie 
Islands,  ii.  197 

Medical  stores,  i.  88  ;  ii.  226 

Medicine,  i.  71;  in  sledge  cases,  ii.  19 

Meteorological  outfit  on  the  Fram, 
ii.  373  et  seq.  (Appendix) 

Meteorological  station,  i.  200 ;  its 
equipment,  i.  255,  ii.  375';  observa- 
tions, i.  266,  ii.  372  et  seq.;  tempera- 
ture records,  i.  280  ;  instruments 
in  sledges,  ii.  19,  226 

Milk-powder,  i.  89  ;  ii.  36 

Mills,  Dr.  H.  R.,  i.  1 

Mirage,  i.  247 

Mits,  i.  82 

Money,  Fram's  shortage  of,  at  Buenos 
Aires,  ii.  328,  329 

Montevideo,  ii.  317,  354 

Moore,  Lieutenant,  liis  voyage  in  the 
Pagoda  (1845),  i.  15 

Morning,  relief  ship  to  the  Discovery, 
i.  29 


Motor  of  the  Fram,  behaviour  of  the, 

i.  99,  ii.  281,  302  ;    built  by  the 

Diesel  Motor  Company,  ii.  370 
Mount  Alice  Gade,  ii.  30 
Mount  Alice  Weld  Jarlsberg,  ii.  30 
Mount  Betty,  ii.  37  ;  its  composition, 

ii.  39,  395,  396;  return  to,  ii.  159,161 
Mount  Crown  Prince  Olav,  ii.  31 
Moimt    Don    Pedro   Chi-istophersen, 

ii.  30,  44,  149,  1561 
Mount  Fridtjof  Nansen.  ii.  30,  44,  48, 

52,  149,  154,  156 
Mount  Helland  Hansen,  ii.  77,  147 
Mount  Helmer  Hanssen,  ii.  77,  80, 

85,  87,  90,  142,  145 
Moimts  Nelson  and  Ronniken,  i.  172, 

179 
Mount  Olav  Bjaaland,  ii.  80,  85,  145, 

146 
Mount  Ole  Engelstad,  ii.  54,  58,  59, 

155,  156 
Mount  Oscar  Wisting,  ii.  80,  85,  145 
Mount  Ruth  Gade,  ii.  30 
Mount  Sverre  Hassel,  ii.  80,  85,  145 
Mount  Thorvald  Nilsen,  ii.  80,  85,  87, 

90,  142 
Moimt  Wilhelm  Christophersen,  ii.  54 

Nansen,  Moimt  Fridtjof.    See  imder 

Mount 
Nansen,    Professor   Fridtjof,    i.    95  ; 
tribute  to,  ii.  175  ;  his  employment 
of  the  Fram  in  his  Arctic  expedi- 
tion (1893-1896),  ii.  356  (Appendix) 
von  Neumayer,  Professor  Georg,  i.  16 
Nilsen,  Captain  Thorvald:  first  officer 
of  the  Fram,  i.  45  ;    his  accurate 
calculations,  i.  53;  stows  away  the 
provision  cases,  i.  90  ;  one  of  the 
sea  party,  i.  179,  207  ;  his  method 
of   getting  through   the   pack-ice, 
ii.   187  ;    takes  the  Fram  to  and 
from   Buenos  Aires,   ii.  271  ;    his 
instructions,  ii.  304 
Nilsen,  Mount.     See  Thorvald  Nilsen 
Nimrod  Group  (of  Islands),  ii.  302 
Nodtvedt,  one  of  the  engineers  of  the 
Fram,  i.  117,  138  ;  one  of  the  sea 
party,  i.  179  ;  leaves  the  Fram  at 
Buenos  Aires,  ii.  188,  294 


446 


INDEX 


Nordenskjold,  Dr.  Otto,  and  the 
Swedish  Antarctic  expedition,  i.  32; 
is  landed  at  Snow  Hill  Island 
(January,  1902),  and  in  October, 
1903,  meets  Dr.  Andersson  and 
Lieutenant  Duse  from  the  Ant- 
arctic, i.  33  ;  they  are  joined  by 
Captain  Irizar  of  the  Uruguay, 
i.  34  ;  and  by  Captain  Larsen  after 
the  sinking  of  the  Antarctic,  i.  34  ; 
importance  of  the  results  of  the 
expedition,  i.  34  ;  his  geological 
discoveries,  ii.  249 

Norway,  King  and  Queen  of.  See 
Haakon  and  Maud 

Norwegian  flag  unfurled  at  farthest 
south  point  (88°  23'),  ii.  114 

Norwegian  whaling  fleet's  explora- 
tions, i.  17 

Nose-protectors,  i.  366 

Observations,  meteorological,  at  Fram- 
heim,  ii.  372  et  seq.  (Appendix)  ; 
astronomical,  399  et  seg.  (Appendix) 

Oceanography,  ii.  404  et  seq.  (Ap- 
pendix) 

Olav  Bjaaland,  Mount,  ii.  80,  85, 
145,  146 

Ole  Engelstad,  Mount,  ii.  54,  58,  59, 
155,  156 

Olsen  :  in  charge  of  kitchen  in  the 
Fram,  i.  153,  198  ;  one  of  the  sea 
party,  i.  179  ;  joins  the  Fra7n  at 
Buenos  Aires,  ii.  188 

Oscar  Wisting,  Mount,  ii.  80 

Pagoda,  voyage  of  the,  i.  15 

Pedersen,  Captain,  i.  62 

Pemmican  :  preparation  of,  i.  55,  56, 

88,   322  ;    packing  of,  ii.   18,  36; 

ration  of,  ii.  143 
Penguin  Island,  ii.  336 
Penguins,    ii.    276,    278,    336;     the 

Adelie,  i.   176,   ii.   277,   286;    the 

Emperor,  i.  185,  ii.  277,  293  ;  their 

cry,  ii.  302 
Pennal,   Lieutenant,   Commander  of 

the  TerraWova,  i.  204  ;  ii.  294 
Petrels  :      Antarctic,    harbingers    of 

spring,  i.  392  ;  sea,  ii.  231  ;   snow, 

ii.  286 


Petroleum,  i.  72 

Photographic  cameras,  i.  88  ;  taking 
Hell's  Gate,  ii.  86 

Pigeons:  carrier,  i.  114;  Cape,  ii.  333 

Pitt  Island  discovered  (1830),  i.  8 

Plankton  specimens,  ii.  323 

Plateau  south  of  Mount  Engelstad, 
arrival  at,  ii.  60 

Pole  :  arrival  at  the  South,  ii.  121  ; 
"encircling"  the,  ii.  125  et  seq.; 
appearance  of  the  sun's  motion  at, 
ii.  131  ;  festival  dinner  at  the, 
ii.  132  ;  cigars  at,  ii.  132  ;  farewell 
to"Polheim,"ii.  134 

Prestrud,  Lieutenant :  informed  of 
the  destination  of  the  expedition, 
i.  103  ;  one  of  the  land  party, 
i.  179  ;  ascends  the  Barrier;  i,  207, 
211  ;  rejoins  the  Fram  as  first 
officer,  ii.  189  ;  his  account  of  the 
eastern  sledge  party,  ii.  204  et  seq. 

Prince  Edward  Islands,  ii.  336 

Prince  Henry  of  Portugal  (the  "Navi- 
gator"), i.  4 

Propeller,  renewal  of  brasses  of  the, 
ii.  298 

Provisions  :  seal  meat,  i.  51  ;  pemmi- 
can, i.  55,  56,  88  ;  alcohol,  i.  69  ; 
tobacco,  i.  70 ;  tea,  coffee,  and 
sugar,  i.  71  ;  medicines,  i.  71  ; 
biscuits,  i.  88  ;  milk-powder,  i.  89  ; 
chocolate,  i.  89  ;  packing  of  the 
sledge  cases,  i.  78,  362,  370,  ii.  18  ; 
rearranging  the  loads,  ii.  67  ;  land- 
ing the  cases  at  Framheim,  ii.  291 

Queen  Maud  of  Norway.    See  Maud 

Racovitza,    Emile,    biologist    of    the 

Belgian  expedition,  i.  19 
Rats  on  board  the  Fram,  ii.  326 
Reindeer-skin  :    clothing,   i.   78,   79, 

209,  365,  ii.  37,  102  ;  sleeping-bags, 

i.  80,  81 
Return  journey,  the,  ii.  135  et  seq. 
"Roariing  Forties,"  the,  ii.  284,  337 
Robertson,     Captain     Thomas     (of 

Dundee),  commands  the  Scotia  in 

Brucc's  expedition  (1902),  i.  35 
Roll,  Dr.  Jacob,  i.  71 


INDEX 


447 


Ronne,  M.  :  sailmaker  of  the  Fram, 
i.  134  ;  his  sewing-machine,  i.  135  ; 
one  of  the  sea  party,  i.  179  ;  har- 
ness-maker, i.  185  ;  on  the  Buenos 
Aires  trip,  ii.  294 

Ropes,  Alpine,  i.  170 

Ross  Barrier,  the.     See  Barrier 

Ross  Sea,  the,  i.  166,  ii.  186  ;  calm- 
ness of,  ii.  301  ;  the  ice-pack  in, 
ii.  341 

Ross,  Sir  James  Clark  :  his  expedi- 
tion sails  in  1839,  i.  10  ;  changes 
his  plans  at  Hobart,  i.  11  ;  crosses 
the  Antarctic  Circle,  i.  12  ;  his  dis- 
coveries, i.  13,  ii.  297  ;  Mount 
Erebus  and  Mount  Terror,  i.  13  ; 
the  Ross  Barrier,  i.  14,  ii.  287  ; 
returns  to  Hobart  (April,  1841), 
i.  14  ;  starts  again  from  Hobart 
(February,  1842),  i.  14  ;  his  third 
voyage  (December,  1842),  i.  15  ; 
result  of  his  work,  i.  15,  ii.  297  ; 
liis  probable  course  through  the 
Ross  Sea,  ii.  340 

Royds,  Mr.,  of  the  Discovery  expe- 
dition, i.  26 

Ruser,  Captain  Hans,  of  the  Gauss 
expedition,  i.  30 

Sails,  wear  and  tear  of,  ii.  324 

St.  Helena,  ii.  325 

Sastrugi  (wind-waves),  ii.  107,  108, 
144,  229 

Schanz,  Dr.,  his  excellent  snow- 
goggles,  i.  368 

Schroer,  Mrs.,  i.  160 

Scientific  instruments,  i.  72,  73,  86, 
87  ;  ii.  19,  407 

Scott,  Captain  Robert  :  leads  the 
Discovery  expedition,  i.  26  ;  sub- 
sequent expedition,  i.  44,  47  ;  his 
route,  i.  52,  ii.  240;  names  "King 
Edward  VII.  Land,"  ii.  297  ;  ob- 
tains geological  information  about 
South  Victoria  Land,  ii.  396,  398 
(Appendix) 

Scottish  (Dundee)  whaling  fleet,  ex- 
plorations by,  i.  16,  17 

Scurvy,  i.  51,  54 

Sea-bed,  sample-taking,  ii.  321 


Sea-leopards,  ii.  214,  275 

Seal-hunting,  ii.  211  et  seq.,  289 

Seal  meat  preferred  to  tinned  food, 
i.  51  ;  ii.  285 

Seals,  i.  176,  178,  208  ;  ii.  212,  274 

Sealskin  suits,  i.  66 

Seal  steak  and  soup,  i.  165  ;  ii.  276, 
285,  301 

Sewing-machine,  i.  134 

Sextants,  i.  73,  86 

Shackleton,  Sir  Ernest,  i.  1  ;  falls  ill 
in  the  Discovery  expedition  (1901- 
1904),  i.  26  ;  his  expedition  in  the 
Nimrod  (August,  1907)  starts 
almost  unnoticed,  i.  37  ;  his  great 
achievement  (March,  1909),  i.  37, 
40  ;  his  plan  of  campaign,  equip- 
ment, and  transport,  i.  38  ;  details 
of  his  advance,  i.  39  ;  he  reaches 
88°  23'  S.,  i.  40  ;  Professor  David 
reaches  the  South  Magnetic  Pole, 
i.  40  ;  discovery  of  the  Bay  of 
Whales,  ii.  288 

Shirase,  Lieutenant,  and  the  Kainan 
Maru  expedition,  i.  45 

Shovels,  i.  269 

Singlet  Hill,  i.  217 

Skelton,  Lieutenant,  chief  engineer 
of  the  Discovery,  i.  26 

Ski-running  difficulties,  ii.  143 

Skis,  i.  76,  83,  137,  170,  208,  363, 
ii.  21  ;  their  great  value,  ii.  89  ; 
ii.  222 

Skua  gulls,  ii.  164,  231 

Sledge  brakes,  ii.  45 

Sledge  lashings,  i.  317,  318,  322 

Sledges,  i.  76  ;  cases  for  provisions 
in,  i.  78,  362,  ii.  18  ;  shoeing  of, 
i.  138  ;  first  start,  i.  181,  211  et 
seq.;  four  new  ones  built,  i.  349, 
351,  ii.  92  ;  packing  of,  i.  370  ;  in 
a  crevasse,  ii.  7  ;  steep  cUmbing, 
ii.  46  ;  reduction  of  stores  on,  ii. 
67  ;  one  left  near  the  Pole,  ii.  129 

Sleeping-bags,  i.  79,  80,  251,  258, 
366  ;  ii.  19,  221 

Smith,  Captain  WilMam,  reaches  the 
South  Shetlands  (1819),  i.  7 

Snow-blindness,  i.  215  ;  ii.  243,  261 

Snow-goggles,  i.  87,  215  ;  ii.  243,  261 


448 


INDEX 


Snowy  petrels,  ii.  286 

Snow  "settling,"  noise  of,  i.  385 

Snow,  varying  nature  of  the,  ii.  117 

Sounding  for  sea-bed  specimens,  ii. 
321 

Southern  Cross  expedition,  the  (1899), 
i.  25 

South  Pole  :  arrival  at,  ii.  121  ;  "en- 
circUng"  the  Pole,  ii.  125  et  seq.; 
the  sun's  position  and  motion,  ii. 
131.     See  also  Pole 

South  Trinidad,  ii.  325 

Spades,  i.  269 

Spectacles,  i.  87.     See  also  Goggles 

Spring,  arrival  of,  i.  377,  379,  391, 
392 

Start  for  the  Pole,  the  (October  20, 
1911),  ii.  1  ;  loss  of  dogs,  ii.  4  ; 
accident  at  a  crevasse,  ii.  7  ;  de- 
parture from  80°  S.,  ii.  30  ;  arrival 
at  farthest  south  yet  reached  by 
man  (88°  23'),  ii.  114 

Stationery  supphes,  i.  67 

Steller  joins  the  Fram  at  Buenos 
Aires,  ii.  188 

Stockings,  i.  357,  365 

Storm  Bay  (Tasmania),  ii.  198 

Stubberud,  Jorgen,  carpenter  of  the 
Fram,  i.  92;  one  of  the  land  party, 
i.  179  ;  builds  the  hut,  i.  186,  198  ; 
left  at  Framheim,  i.  206  ;  makes 
the  whip-handles,  i.  359,  360  ;  on 
the  Eastern  expedition,  ii.  205, 
215  ;  a  dangerous  shp,  ii.  233 

Sundbeck,  Knut,  appointed  engineer 
to  the  Fram,  i.  104,  117  ;  one  of 
the  sea  party,  i.  179;  on  the 
Buenos  Aires  trip,  ii.  294 

Sun's  appearance,  position,  and 
motion  at  the  Pole,  ii.  131 

Sverdrop,  Captain  Otto,  uses  the 
Fram  in  his  expeditions,  ii.  362 
(Appendix) 

Sverre  Hassel,  Mount,  ii.  80 

Tasman  (explorer),  i.  5 
Tawman  Head  and  Island,  ii.  198 
Tasmania,  its  coast-line,  ii.  198 
"Teleraark  swing,"  the,  ii.  38 
"Temperature  guessing,"  i.  281 


Temperature  [of  atmosphere]  re- 
cords, i.  347 

Temperature  [of  ocean],  apparatus 
for  taking,  ii.  318  et  seq.,  407 

Tent-pegs,  i.  364 

Tents,  i.  75,  77  ;  first  pitched,  i.  181  ; 
at  Framheim,  i.  202  ;  on  first  trip, 
i.  215  ;  second  trip,  i.  228  ;  two 
joined  together,  i.  236,  258,  352  ; 
double  or  single,  i.  352  ;  the  ques- 
tion of  colour,  i.  354 

Terra  Nova :  seahng  vessel  from 
Newfoundland,  accompanies  the 
Morning  in  the  Discovery  expe- 
dition, i.  29  ;  puts  into  Bay  of 
Whales,  i.  203,  ii.  293  ;  to  explore 
King  Edward  VII.  Land,  ii.  297 

Thermograph,  i.  273 

Thermometers,  i.  280  ;  ii.  373  et  seq. 
(Appendix) 

Thermos  flasks,  i.  218 

Thorvald  Nilsen,  Mount,  ii.  80,  85, 
87  ;  its  height,  ii.  90  ;  its  different 
appearance  on  the  return,  ii.  142 

Tierra  del  Fuego,  i.  5 

Tinned  provisions,  i.  54 

Tobacco,  i.  70  ;  at  the  Pole,  ii.  124  ; 
Wisting's  gift,  ii.  124 

Torup,  Professor  Sophus,  i.  54 

Transport  :  dogs  versus  ponies,  i.  56 
et  seq.;  sledges,  i.  76,  78  ;  skis, 
i.  76,  83;  dog-harness,  Alaska  versus 
Greenland,  i.  86 

Valdivia  expedition  (under  Professor 

Chun),  i.  26 
Vapour-bath    at    Framheim,    i.    330 

et  seq. 
Vasco  da  Gama,  i.  4 
Vespucci  (explorer),  i.  4 

Water   temperatures,    apparatus   for 

taking,  ii.  318  et  seq.,  407 
Weather  conditions  on  the  Barrier, 

i.  346 
Weddell,    James,    discovers   Weddell 

Sea  (1823),  i.  8 
WeddeU  seal,  the,  ii.  275,  276 
West  Cape,  ii.  287 


INDEX 


449 


Whalers'  explorations  round  South 
Shetlands,  i.  16,  17,  18 

Whales,  Bay  of,  i.  46,  47,  49,  167, 
175,  ii.  288  ;  inner  part  frozen 
over,  i.  251;  departure  from  [north- 
ward bound],  ii.  182  ;  survey  of 
the  south-western  corner,  ii.  265  ; 
whahng  prospects,  ii.  273 

Whales  :  near  the  Barrier,  ii.  273, 
293;  the  finner  and  the  blue  whale, 
ii.  274  ;  dead  whale  mistaken  for 
land,  ii.  299 

Whips  and  lashes,  i.  359  ;  a  whip- 
handle  duel,  i.  361 

Wild,  companion  of  Shackleton 
(October,  1908),  i.  39 

Wilkes,  Lieutenant  Charles  (American 
explorer),  i.  9 


Wilson,  Dr.,  surgeon  and  artist  of 
the  Discovery  expedition,  i.  26 

Wind  :  prevaihng  from  the  south, 
ii.  136  ;  measurements  of  the,  ii. 
381  (Appendix) 

Wind-waves  {sastrugi),  ii.  107,  108 

Winter  duties,  i.  279 

Winter,  end  of  the,  i.  346  et  seq. 

Wisting  :    his   way   with   the   dogs, 
i.    102  ;    in   charge  at  Framheim 
i.  210  ;    his  sewing-room,  i.  319 
one    of    the    Pole   party,    ii.    20 
cooks  the  dog  cutlets,  ii.  65,  69 
makes    a    chocolate    pudding,    ii. 
170 

Zappfe,  Mr.,  his  assistance  in  fitting 
out  the  expedition,  i.  79 


THE   END